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^BERKELEY 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY C : 
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edited by 
F. J. Furnivall 



.EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY^ Jub.l'C^SCyL S, 
Extra Series', 10 
1870 



KRAUS REPRINT 

Millwood, New York 
1981 



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Second reprint 1981 



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1870. 



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EDITED, WITH A LIFE OP ANDREW BOORDE, AND LARQH EXTRACTS FROM HIS 
BREVYARY, BY 

F. J. FURNIVALL, M.A., Trin. Hall, Camb., 

EDITOR OF THE BABEES BOOK. Ac. 



LONDON : 

PUBTJSHED FOR TSE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY 

By KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRU13NER & CO., LIMITED, 

DRYDEN HOUSE, 43, GERRAKD STREET, SOHO, W. 

1870. 

[lieprinted ISOS, 19G6.} 



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Rii.hu.rd Ciag dc &ona. Limited, London and hungay. 



PR 

A2 
€alaml |aims f slhett, SeV".7 

BARON HALKETT) Ht), » L/ 

OP GiJ£^r FOSTERS, NEAR EGHAM, ' ' ' * 

LATE OF THE COLDSTREAM GUARDS, ETC. ETC. 



My dear Colonel, 

You are our most widely-travelled friend 

here. Your steps have wandered far beyond Boorde's range. Asia, 

North and South, Africa, North and South too, the Indies, and 

America, have seen you ; the Crimea has been stained by your blood ; 

and there are few Courts and cities in Europe where you have not 

been. I may therefore well dedicate to you Boorde's records of his 

travels, more than 300 years ago, in his Introduction of Knowledge. 

On the Elizabethan porch of your fine old Tudor house is the date 
of 1578, while Anne Boleyn's badge is the centre ornament of your 
dining-room ceiling, and Tudor badges are about it. I may therefore 
well dedicate to you Boorde's Dijetary of 1542, which starts with 
directions that may have been studied by the builder of youx own 
house, or the early dwellers in it. As it was once my Father's too, 
and has been the scene of many a happy visit at different times of my 
life, I like to mix the thought of the old house with my old autho: . 
Andrew Boorde, and to fancy that he'd have enjoyed ordering where 
the moat was to be, the stables, and all the belongings, and lecturing 
the owner as to how to manage house and servants, wife and child, 
pocket and body. 

That health and happiness may long be the lot of you and the 
charming sharer of your name, whose taste has beautified the old 
house that you have together so admirably restored, is the hope of 

Yours very sincerely, 

F. J. FURNIVALL. 

Walnut Tree Cottage, Egham, 
August 3, 1870. 



CONTENTS. 



FOREWORDS : tAGii 

Part I. Andrew Boorde's Works and the Editions of them 1 1 

A. Genuine Works ... ... ... ... ... 11 

K Doubtful Works 26 

0. Works probably spurious .. . ... ... ... 27 

Part 11. Andrew Boorde's Life and Opinions, with Extracts 

irom. his Breuycu-y of Health {p. 7 i-\0(j) ... ... 36 

The present Edition ... ... ... ... ... 106 

THE PYRST BOKE OF THE INTRODUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE (being 

A Handbook of JEiirope, Barbary, Egyjdy and Judoia, in 

39 chapters, with * Contents,* p. 1 1 2-1 1 5) Ill 

A COMPENDYOU8 REOYMENT OR A DYETARY OF HELTH ... 223 

(The Table of the Chapytres, p. 229-231.) 

THE TREATYSB AN8WERYNGB THE BOKE OF BERDE8, COmpylcd by 

Collyn Clowte, dedycatyd to Barnarde Barber, dwellyng in 
Banbery; A Treatise othencise called, barnes in the de- 
fence OF the berde ... ... ... ... ... 30.5 

HiNDWORDS (including accounts of Boorde's Introduction and 

Dyetary ; to be read after p. 104 of the Forewords) ... 317 

NOTES 325 

index 352 

fuller's account of .\ndrew boorde ... ... ... 384 

bUlTLEMCNT 385 



X. ANDEEW BOORDE'S INTRODUCTION", &c. 

p. 18, note 7, after day^ insert [of August] 

p. 44, 1. 4. The * old writer ' referred to was Roy, in his Rede me and he 
not mrotli, p. 104-5 of Pickering's Reprint. The passage is quoted in my 
" Ballads from MSS," illustrating the Condition of Tudor-England, p. 82. 

p. 57, note 3. * my lord of Chester ' means ' the Abbot of St. Werburgh's.' 
E. A. Freeman in the Saturday Review, 10 Feb. 1872, p. 189, col. 1 . 

p. 116-17. On English changes of fashion, see the Society's Four Suppli- 
cations, 1871, p. 51. 

p. 156, 1. 18. "Argentyne, we suppose, is Argentoratum or Strassburg." 
E. A. Freeman. 

p. 165, note 1. "Andrew Borde does not at all speak as a Saxon heretic, 
but as a dutiful subject of King Henry the Eighth, who dedicates his book to 
that King's daughter. In the eyes of such a one the Saxons were praise- 
^vorthy in so far as they had cast off the usurped authority of the Bishop of 
Rome, blameworthy in so far as they had fallen into the heretical innovations 
Of Martin Luther." E. A. Freeman, Saturday Review, 10 Feb. 1872, p. 189, 
col. 2. 

p. 194, last side-note ; p. 362, col. 1, Emperor ; for Austria read Germany 
(Charles V.). 

p. 287, 1. 6-7. The Hebrecyon, and-Cynomome. This saying is quoted in 
Cbgan's Haven of Health, 1596, p. 109 (iV. ^^ Q.), and is not in the Regimen 
Sanitatis Salerni (as saith Riley's Diet, of Latin Quotations), in which how- 
ever is a similar and well-known line, " Cur moriatur homo cui salvia cressit 
in horto? " Villanova, c. 60. Crokes, Sir Alex. 1830.— C. Innes Pocock. 

p. 308, note 1, line 1, for Oviuvi read jEdium. 

The short review of Boordc in the North British Review, No. 106, p. 559- 
61, notes that " his letters of the alphabet representing Hebrew numerals are 
given instead of the numerals themselves. . . . His Italian geography is full 
of confusion. He intimates that Jerusalem is out of Asia, and places Salerno 
[in Italy] in the neighbourhood of Constantinople. Writing in 1542, he 
describes the mosque of St. Sophia as a Christian Church. Then again, his 
statements, pp. 77, 178, respecting St. Peter's at Rome, will not bear com- 
parison with the graphic account left by his contemporary, Thomas, of the 
basilica, as it stood in the 16th century, grand and magnificent, though un- 
completed. {Historie of Italie, ed. 1549, fol. 40.) Every detail supplied by 
Thomas, from the *30 steppes of square stone, the solemnest that I have 
scene,' to ' the newe buildyng [which] if it were finished, wolde be the goodliest 
thyng of this worlde,' stamps his description as authentic." 



FOREWORDS. 



PAUT I. ANDREW BOORDE'S WORKS, AND THE 
EDITIONS OF THEM. 



A. GENUINE WORKS. 

§ 1. The Dyetary 0/1542 (p. 11) 

§ 2. Zs PoioelVs edition 1547 or 
15671 Wyer's undated edition ; 
ColweVs of 15Q2 (p. 13) 

§ 3. The Fyrst Boke of the In- 
troduction of Knowledge, writ- 
ten by 1542, not published till 
1547 or after; meant mainly 
to be a book of Medicine, though 
Book I. is one of Travels. Two 
editions of it (p. 14), Is men- 
tioned in the Dyetary, Pryn- 
cyples of Astronamye, and the 
Brevyary (p. 15), and Barnes 
in the Defence of the Berde. 
The Lothbury edition is of 
1562 or -3 a.d. (p. 18). 

§ 4. Barnes in the Defence of 
the Berde must be dated 1542 
or -3 (p. 19) 

§ 6. The Breuyary of Health,. 
written also by 1542, though 
no edition is known till 1547. 
Boorde's account of its name (p. 
21). His motives in writing it 
(p. 21). Ifs a companion to 
the Dyetary (P- 20) 

\ 6. The Pryncyples of Astrona- 
mye. Its contents, p. 22 {an 
extract from it at p. 16) 



§ 7. The Peregrination, or Itin- 
erary of England, with its no- 
tice of " Boord's Hill, the au- 
thour's birth place " (p. 23) 

§ 8. The lost Itinerary of Eur- 
ope, which Boorde lent to 
Thomas Cromwell (p. 24) 

§ 9. A Boke of Sermons lost by 
old noodle Time ... (p. 24) 

§ 10. The Pronostycacyon for 
1545 (p. 25) 

§ 11. The lost Treatyse vpon 
Berdes (p. 26) 

B. DOUBTFUL WORKS. 

§12. Almanac & Prognostica- 
tion (p. 26) 

C. WORKS PROBABLY SPURIOUS. 

§ 13. Merie Tales of the Mad 
Men of Gotam ... (p. 27) 

§ 14. Scogin's Jests(p. 31). The 
Prologue and First Jest use 
Boorde^ s phrases (p. 32). 

§ 15. The Mylner of Abyngton 
(p. 32) 

§ 16. The Promptuarium Phy- 
sices and De iudiciis Urina- 
Tum, of Bale's list ... (p. 33) 

§ 17. "Nos Vagabunduli" aiid 
the Friar "Hindrance'' (p. 34) 



10 



FOREWORDS, CONTENTS. 



PART II. ANDREW BOORDE'S LIFE. 



18. Table of the knmon events 
of Boorde's Life ... (p. 36) 

19. His Birth at Board's Hill 

(p. 38; 

20. His Bnmjing-upj prohahly 
at Oxford (p. 40) 

21. Mr Lower's identification 
of our Andrew with Lord Ber- 
gevennifs nativus or bondman 
in 1510, not to be trusted (p. 
41), as Boorde was a Car- 
thusian Monk before this date 

(p. 43) 

22. Boorde accused of being 
" C07iversantwithwmne7i" (p. 44) 

23. Boorde appointed " Suffry- 
gan off Chych ester " (p. 44) 

24. Boorde' s First Letter, to 
Prior Hinton (p. 45-7) ; and, 
here anent, of the Carthusians 

(p. 46) 

25. Boorde has " lycence to de- 
parte from the Belygyon," goes 
abroad, and studies medicine 

(p. 47) 

26. He returns to England, 
and attends the Duke of Nor- 
folk (p. 48) 

27. Boorde' s second visit to the 
Continent to study Medicine, 
with notice of his later Travels, 
especially to Comjoostella (p. 49) 

28. Boorde again in the Lon- 
don Charter-house. He takes 
the oath to Henry VIII's Su- 
premacy (p. 51) 

29. Boorde is in thraldom in 
the Charterhouse. He 'writes to 
Prior Howghton in the Totver 

(p. 52) 

30. Boorde is freed by Crom- 
well, whom he visits (p. 52) 

31. Boorde' s third visit to the 
Continent, and Second Letter, 

from Bourdeaux, 20 June, 



1535, to Cromwell (p. 53) 

32. Boorde in Spain, ^c, sick. 
His Third Letter, to Crom- 
well (p. 54) 

33. Boorde at the Grande 
Chartreux. His Fourth Let 
ter, to his Order in England 

(p. 56) 

34. Booi'de in London again. 
His Fifth Letter, to Cromicell 

(p. 58) 

35. Boorde studies and prac- 
tises medicine in Scotland. His 
Sixth Letter, to Cromwell (p. 
59). « Trust yow no Skott " 
(p. 59, last line but one). 

36. Boorde in Cainf /ridge. His 
Seventh Letter, to Cromwell, 
17 Aug., 1537 (?) (p. 61) 

37. Boorde' s fourth visit to the 
Continent. The range of his 
Travels. He settles at Mont- 
pelier, and by 1542 has written 
the Introduction, Dyetary, 
Breuyary, and (?) Treatyse 
vpon Berdes (p. 63) 

38. Boorde at Winchester be- 
fore or by 1547, and probably 
in London in 1547/0 bring out 
his Dyetary II, Introduction, 
Breuyary, and Astronamye 

(p. 64) 

39. Bp Ponet's charge against 
Boorde of keeping three lohores 
for hirmelf and other Papist 
pjriests (P- 65) 

40. Guilty or not guilty? (p. 67) 

41. Boorde in the Fleet Prison 
(Mr J. Payne Collier, p. 71-2). 
Boorde's Will (p. 73) and the 
Proving of it (p. 70) 

42. Portraits of Andrew Boorde 

(P- 74) 

43. Characteristic Extractsfrom 
Boorde's Breuyary : 



j 1-] 



FOREWORDS. BOORDE a DYETARY. 



11 



a WJiere he speaka of liimsclf 
or his tastes, ^c. (p. 74) 

/3 His remarlcs on England^ 
his CoJitemporarieSy and the 
Poor (p. 82) 

y Some of Boorde's opinions 
(on Mirth, p. 88) (p. 87) 

I Boorde^s Treatment of c^- 
tain Diseases (p. 96), and 
herein of Chaucer^s Somon- 



our's Saucefleem Face (p. 1 1 ) 

e Boorde serious ... (p. 102) 

[See the Hindwords, p. 317.] 

§ 44. Boorde' s character (p. 105) 

§ 45. Esteem in which he and 

his books were held (p. 105) 

§ 46. The present Beprints ; some 

Cuts used indiscriminately 

(p. 106) 
§ 47. The Editor's task (p. 109) 



§ 1. Among the many quaint books from which I quoted in my 
notes to Russell's Book of Nurture in the Bahees Book (E. E. T. Soc. 
1868), one of the quaintest was Andrew Boorde's Dijetary, as readers, 
no doubt, convinced themselves by the long extract on pages 244-8, 
and the shorter ones on p. 205, 207, &c. Since then I have always 
wished to reprint the book, and the securing, for 32«. at Mr Corser's 
sale last February, of a copy of the 1562 edition not in the British 
Museum,^ made me resolve to bring out the book this year. Wish- 
ing, of course, to print from the first known edition, I turned to Mr 
W. C. Hazlitt's Handbook to find what that was, and where a copy 
of it could be got at, and saw, after the title of the Zh/etary, the fol- 
lowing statement ; 

" Wyer printed at least 3 editions without date, but in or about 
1542. Two editions, both differing, are in the British Museum ; a 
third is before me ; and a fourth is in the public library at Cam- 
bridge. ^ All these vary typographically and literally." 

' It is in the Cambridge University Library, perfect. Mr Bradshaw's 
description of it is as follows : 

" BooKDE (Andr.) 

A compendious regiment or dietary of health. 

London, Tho. Colwel, 12. Jan. 1562. 8". 

(b) Title (rvithifi a single line) : Here Folo-/weth a Compendyous Re-/ 
gimente or Dyetary of health, / made in Mount pyllor : Com-/pyled by Andrewe 
Boorde, of Phy-/sycke Doctor / Anno Domini. M. D. LXII. / XII. Die Mensis / 
Januarij./ [ivoodcut of an astronomer.'} Imprint: Imprinted by /me Thomas 
Colwel. Dwel-/lynge in the house of Robert Wyer, / at the Signe of S. Johii 
EuanWgelyst besyde Charynge / Crosse./ ,^ / 

Collation: ABCDEFGH*; 04 leaves (1—64). Leaf 1' title (as above); 
1"— 4' Table of chapters ; 4"— 64" Text ; 64" Imprint (as above)." 

' This is the same book as the one undated Wyer edition in the Museum. 
Mr Bradshaw's description of it is : 



12 THE 1ST EDITION OF THE DYETARY IN 1542. [§ 1. 

A visit to the British Museum soon showed that one of these 
* editions ' ^ in the British Museum was only a title-page stuck before 
a titleless copy of Moulton's Glasse of Health, on to which had beeii 
stuck a colophon from some other book of Wyer's printing. The 
other Museum edition, in big black-letter, had not, on the front and 
back of its title, the dedication to the Duke of Norfolk that the other 
title-page had, and I therefore wrote to Mr Hazlitt to know where 
was the " third " copy that was " before " him when he wrote his 
Boorde entries. He answered that he had sold it to Mr F. S. Ellis of 
King St., Covent Garden, in one of whose Catalogues he had after- 
wards seen it on sale for four guineas. I then applied to Mr Ellis 
for this copy, and he very kindly had search made for it through his 
daybooks of several years, and found that it had been sold to our 
friend and member, Mr Henry Hucks Gibbs. Mr Gibbs at once 
lent me his copy, and it proved to be a complete one of the edition 
of which the Museum had only a title-page. It had a dedication to 
the Duke of Norfolk, — whom Boorde had attended in 1530, — dated 
5 May, 1542, which was not in the undated edition in the Museum, 
and Mr J. Brenchley Rye of the Printed-Book Department was 
clearly of opinion that the type of the 1542 copy was earlier than 
that of the bigger black-letter of the undated one, though it too was 
printed by Robert Wyer, or said so to be. 

Further, Mr Gibbs's copy was printed by Robert Wyer for Johfl 
Gowghe ; and the latest date in Herbert's Ames for Robert Wyer is 
1542, while the latest for John Gough is 1543. One felt, therefore, 
tolerably safe in concluding that the 1542 copy was the first edition 

" BOOKDE (Andr.) 

A compendious regiment or dietary of health. 

London, Robert Wyer, no date. 8°. 

(a) Title {within a border of ornaments) : ^ Here Folo-/weth a Com- 
pendyous Re-/gymeut or a Dyetary of / helth, made in Mouwt-/pyllor : Com- 
pyled / by Andrewe / Boorde, of / Physicke / Doctor,/ [rvoudcut of an 
astrononur.'] Imprint : ^ Impiynted by me Robert / Wyer : Dwellynge at 
the / sygne of seynt lohn E-/uangelyst, in S. Mar-/tyns Parysshe, besy-/de 
Charynge / Crosse./ ^ Cum priuilegio ad imprimen-/dum solum. 

Collation : ABCDEFGHIKLMNOPQ* ; 64 leaves (1—64) in octavo. Leaf 
1' title (as above) ; T— 4* Table of chapters ; 4'— 64" Text ; 64" imprint (as 
above). 

The copy in the Cambridge University Library is perfect." 

' Some bibliographers (if not most) arc sadly careless dogs. 



§ 2.] FOREWORDS. WYER's UNDATED EDITION OF THE DYETARY. 13 

of The Dyetary, and that it was publisht in 1542, the year in which 
its Dedication hears date. 

§ 2. But, this granted, came the question, When was the undated 
edition, printed by Robert Wyer, publisht 1 Before trying to answer 
this question, I must say that the Museum possesses a copy of 
another edition of the Dyetary, with a Dedication to the Duke of 
Norfolk, dated 5 May, 1547 (MDXLVII), altered from the Dedica- 
tion of 5 May, 1542, while, as I have said before, the undated edition 
has no Dedication. But the colophon of this 1547 edition says that 
it was printed by WyUyam PoweU in 1567 (MDLXVII), the X and 
L having changed places in the two dates. Was then 1547 or 1567 
the real date of this edition by William PoweU 1 1547, 1 think ; for, 
1. Boorde died in 1549, and the Dedication is altered in a way that 
no one but an author could have altered it ; 2. the dates we have for 
William Powell's books are 1547-1566,^ so that he could have printed 
the Dyetary in 1547 j though we can't say he couldn't have printed 
it in 1567 too, as all his books are not dated. 

If then we settle on 1547 for the date of Powell's double-dated 
edition, the question is. What is the date of Robert Wyer's undated 
one] Are we to put Wyer's date down from 1542 to 1549 or later, 
and explain the absence of the Dedication by the fact of Andrew 
Boorde's death in 1549 ?2 or are we to explain it by the Duke of 
Norfolk's arrest on Dec. 12, 1546, and suppose Wyer to have issued 
his edition before Henry VIII's death on the night of Jan. 27, 
1546-7, saved the Duke from following his accomplished son, Surrey, 
to the scaffold,^ while Powell, who issued his edition in the summer 
of the same year, could safely restore Boorde's Dedication, since Nor- 
folk, though excepted from the general pardon proclaimed on Edward 
VI's accession, was looked on as safe^ The latter alternative is 
countenanced by Wyer's undated edition being printed from his first 
of 1542, rather than Powell's of 1547, as the collation shows ; but I 
cannot decide whether the second Wyer, or Powell, was issued first. 

' The last license to him in Collier's Extracts, i. 137, is about midway be- 
tween July 1565 and July 1566. 

^ The Duke of Norfolk did not die till 1554. 
' Surrey was beheaded on Jan. 19, 1546-7. 



14 DYETARY OP 1562. INTRODUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE. [§ 2, 3. 

The possibility that the undated dedicationless Wyer was issued before 
1542, and that the 1542 edition was the second, is negatived by Mr 
Rye's opinion on the types of the two editions, and perhaps by the 
omission of two of the woodcuts, the change of the third, and the re- 
sults of the coUation. Of later editions I know only that of 1562, 
* imprinted by me Thomas Colwel in the house of Robert Wyer ' : 
see page 11. By that fatality which usually attends the most unsatis- 
factory plan of " Extracts," Mr Collier has in his " Extracts " missed 
the only two entries in the Stationers' Registers relating to Boorde's 
books that I wanted, namely, that of this 1562 edition of the Di/etary, 
and the Lothbury edition of the Introduction. The entry as to 
Colwel's print of the Dyetary is : 

T. colwell l^ecevyd of Thomas Colwell,^ for his fyne, for that 1 

he prented the Deatory of heltlie / the Assyce of > xijd 
breade And Ale, with arra pater,^ without lycense. ) 

Company of Stationers^ First Register^ leaf 77, in the 
list of Fines, 22 July 1561, to' 22 July 1562. 

Lowndes enters other editions of " 1564 (White Knights 507, 
mor. 9s. 1567 Perry pt. i, 468, 9s. Bindley pt. i. 460, lis.) 1576." 

As the date of the Dedication to the Dijetary is 5 May, 1542, 
while that of the Introduction is 3 May, 1542, 1 have put the former 
after the latter, though it (the Dyetary) was published five years be- 
fore the Introduction. Still, the Introduction, the Dyetary, and the 
Breuyary (examined 1546, published 1547) were all written by 
Boorde by the year 1542. 

§ 3. The fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge. This 
book was dedicated to the Princess Mary, afterwards Queen, daughter 
of Henry VIII, on May 3, 1542. It was intended to have a second 
book, in which the vices of Rome were mentioned,^ and which second 
book may therefore "* have been the Breuyary, as the vices of Rome 
are mentioned in its 2nd part, the Extravagant es, fol. v, back. It 

' Colwell was admitted a freeman of tlie Stationers' Company on the 30th 
of August, 1560. 

' An Almanack. See entries in Stat. Reg., and Ha/Jitt's ITaiulhook. 

' In the Introdnction, chap, xxiii (repr. sign. 11), Boorde .says "Who so wyl 
see more of Rome & Italy, let him loke in the second boke, the .Ixvii. chap- 
ter " (p. 178 below). 

* I don't think it was so. 



§ 3.] FOREWORDS. THE INTRODUCTION WAS PRINTING IN 1542 A.D. 15 

was also intended to have been mainly a book on physic, for, besides 
the four quotations given under (a) below, Boorde says in his 
Breuyaryy " no man shulde enterpryse to medle with Phisicke but 
they which be learned and admytted, as it doth appeare more large- 
Iyer in the Introduction of hnoweledge " (Fol. iii, at foot) ; and again, 
Fol. V, and Ixxvi back : 

" I had rather not to meddle with Physicions and Chyerurgions 
then to haue them, yf I shulde dysplease them : for yf they be dys- 
pleased, there is neither Lorde nor Lady nor no other person can haue 
any seruyce or pleasure of theym, for this matter loke forther in the 
Introduction of knotoledge, and there shall you see what is good both 
for the soule and body in god. Amen." 

The Introduction was also intended to have a book on Anatomy 
in it, — see the next quotation ; — but it appeared as a book of Travels, 
with only a "fyrst Boke" in or after 1547, after both the Dyetary 
and Breuyaryy and the Astronamye also, had been published. In 
each of these books the Introduction is mentioned as in the press. 
Take (a) the Breuyary : 

"Euery man the which hath all his whole lymmes, hath ii.c. 
xlviii. bones, as it doth more playnely appeare in my Anothomy in the 
Introduction of knowledge, whiche hath bene longe a j/i-yntynge, for 
lacke of money and paper ; and it is in pryntynge, with pyctures, at 
Roherte Coplande, prynter'' (Breuyary, Pt I. fol. Ixxxviii.) 

** For kynges, and kynges sones, and other noble men, hath ben 
eximious Phisicions, as it appereth more largely in the Introduction 
of knowJege, a boke of my makynge, beynge a pryntyng loith Bo. 
Coplande {lb. Fol. Ixx, back). See p. 93 below. 

" wherfore this science of medecines is a science for whole men, 
for sick men, and for neuters, which be neyther whole men nor 
sycke men ; wherfore I do aduertyse euery man not to set lytle by 
this excellent science of medecines, consyderynge the vtilitie of it, 
as it appereth more largelier in the introdiiction of knowlege.^' Fol. 
Ixxvi, back. 

" the kynges actes and lawes . . wylleth and commaundeth, with 
greate penalytie, that no man shulde enterpryse to medle witli 
Phisicke, but they which be learned and admytted, as it doth 
appeare more largelyer in the Introduction of knoweledge." Breuyary, 
Fol. iii, at foot. 

(/3) The Dyetai-y. Boorde says in his Dedication to the Duke of 

Norfolk : 

** But yf it shall please your grace to loke on a boke the whicli I 



16 THE INTRODUCTION NOTICED IN THE ASTRONAMYE. [§ 3. 

dyd make in Mountpyller, named the Introductory of knowlege, there 
shall you se many new matters / the whiche I have no doubte but 
that your grace wyl accept and lyke the boke, the whiche is a prynt- 
ynge hesyde saynt Dunstons churche ivithin Temple barre, ouer 
agaynst th« Temple" (p. 227, col. 1, below.) 

(y) The Astronamye. The full title of this book, the only known 
copy of which is in the Cambridge University Library, is : 

" The pryncyples / of Astronamye / the whiche / diligently per- 
scrutyd is in maner a / pronosticacyon to the worldes / end compylyd 
by ^drew / Boord of phisick / Doctor /," 

and the last words of the Preface are : 

" And wher I haue ometted & lefft out mani matters apertayn- 
[yn]g to this boke, latt them loke in a book namyd the Introduction 
of knowleg, a hoke of my makyng, the which ys aprintyng at old' 
Robert Coplands, the eldist printer of Ingland, the which doth print 
thes yere ' mi pronosticacions." 

Accordingly, the colophon is, " Enprynted at London in y^ Flete- 
strete / at the sygne of the Rose garland by / Robert Coplande." 

The other references in this volume to Boorde's other works are 
on B vii (not signed) : " for this matter, looke in the Breuyary ofhelth 
and in the Introduccyon of knowlegy 

C. ii. (not signed) " And he that wyll haue the knowleg of all 

maner of sicknesses & dysesys, let them looke in the breuyary of 
helth, whiche is pryntyd at Wyllyam Mydyltons in flet stret." 

The last paragraph of the Astronamye is : 

" IT Now to conclud, I desier euere ma?i to tak this lytil wark for 
a pasttime.2 for I dyd wrett & make this bok in .iiii. dayes, and 
wretten with one old pene with out mendyng. and wher I do wi-et 
y^ sygnes in Aries, in Taurous, & in Leo, is, for my purpose it stond- 
yth best for our maternal tonge." 

A further and earlier^ notice of the Introduction is found in the 
chaffy answer to Boorde's lost attack on beards,'* which answer is 

' A friend reads thes yere as 'these here; ' but the words no doubt mean 
* this )'ear,' and the pronosticacions may be one of those of which a title of 
one, and a fragment of another — or a supposed other — are in the British 
Museum. See below, p. 25, 26-27, 

* past time, orig. ' I take Barnes's book to be of the year 1542 or 1543. 

* As a substitute, take parson Harrison's : " Neither will I meddle with our 
varietie of beards, of which some are shauen from the chin like those of Turks, 



§ 3.] FOREWORDS. BARNES ON THE INTRODUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE. 17 

called at the end ' Barnes in the defence of the Berde,' and is, on 
account of its connection with Boorde, reprinted at the end of this 
volume. The hook opens thus : 

" It was so, worshypful syr, that at my last beynge in Mount- 
pyllour, I chaunsed to he assocyat with a doctor of Physyke / which 
at his retorne had set forth .lij. Bakes to be prynted in Fleet stretCj 
within Temple Barre, the whiche hakes were campyled tagyther in one 
volume named the Introductorie of Knowledge / whervpon there 
dyd not resort only vnto hym, marchauntes, gentylmen, and wym- 
men / but also knyghtes, and other great men, whiche were desyrouse 
to knowe the effycacyte and the etfecte of his aforesayd bokes." 

Now this looks certainly as if the Introduction was at first 
believed by Boorde's acquaintances to have been intended to contain 
his other two books written in or before 1542, namely, the Dyetanj 
and Breuyary ; but as Boorde himself says he meant to have an 
Anatomy in his Introduction, and evidently much other matter on 
physic (p. 14-15 above), we need not speculate further on Barnes's 
words. What we know is, that the Introduction must have been 
published after the Breuyary of 1547, and the Astronamye doubtless 
of the same year. I say the same year, for the Preface of the 
Breuyary shows that a treatise on Astronomy was wanted to ac- 

not a few cut short like to the beard of raarques Otto, some made round like a 
rubbing brush, other with a pique de vant (0 line fashion 1) or now and then 
suffered to grow long, the barbers being growen to be so cunning in this be- 
halfe as the tailors. And therfore if a man haue a leane and streight face, a 
marquesse Ottons cut will make it broad and large ; if it be platter like, a 
long slender beard will make it seeme the narrower ; if he be wesell-becked, 
then much heare left on the cheekes will make the owner looke big like a 
bowdled hen, and so giim as a goose ; if Comelis of Chelmeresford saie true, 
munie old men doo weare no beards at all." — Harrison^s Description of Eng- 
land, ed. 1586, p. 172, col. 2. 

See on this Beard question the curious and rare poem, — by Wey ? see the 
Roxb. Club print of it — " The Pilgrymage and the wayes of Jerusalem," in .•»• 
paper MS of Mr Heniy Huth's, about 1500 A.D., quoted below, p. 182. 
Prestes of the New la we : 

The thyrd Seyte beyn prestis of cure lawe, 

That synge masse at )?e Sepulcore ; 

At ]pe same graue there oure lorde laye, 

They synge j^e leteny euery daye. 

In oure maner is her songe, 

Saffe, here berdys he ryght longe ; 

That is \q geyse of fjat centre, 

The lengev \)C herde, the hcttyr is he ; 

The ordere of hem be barfote freeres ... 
BOORDE. 2 



18 THE TWO EDITIONS OP THE INTRODUCTION^ 1547-8, 1562-3. [§ 3. 

company it * ; Boorde tells us that he wrote his Astronamye in four 
days with one old pen without mending ^ j and this Astronamye was 
printed by Kobert Coplandc, who, so far as we know, printed no 
book after 1547. The cutting of the * pyctures' must have taken so 
much time^, and the ' lacke of money and paper '^ continued so long, 
that old Eobert Coplande did not finish the book, but left his suc- 
cessor, William Ck)plande, to bring it out in Eobert's old house,^ in 
Flete strete, at the sygne of the Rose Garland,^ no doubt l^te in 
1547, or in 1548. This delay in the appearance of the Introduction 
accounts for a few words in it relating to Boulogne, which could not 
have been wiitten till 1544, when Henry VIII took that city : "Bo- 
leyn is now ours by conquest of Eyall kyng HcTiry the eyght.*^ " 

Now, besides William Coplande's undated " Eose-Garland " 
edition of the Introduction, we know of another undated edition by 
him printed at Lothbury. In this " Lothbury " edition we do not 
find the above-quoted words of the " Eose-Garland " edition relating 
to Boulogne ; and as we know that Edward VI restored Boulogne to 
the French in 1550, the Lothbury edition must have been after that 
date. It must also have been after the deaths of Henry VIII and 
Edward VI, when there was no king in England, as the Lothbury 
edition leaves out the Eose-Garland's " But euer to be trew to God 
and my kynge" (p. 117, 1. 24). The Lothbury edition must also 

' " but aboue al thinges next to grammer a Physicion muste haue surely 
his Astronomye, to know how, whew, & at what time, euery medecine ought to 
be ministred." — Brenyary, The preface, A Prologe to Phisicions, Fol. ii, back. 
See also the * Proheme to Chierurgions,' Fol. iiii. 

^ See p. 16, above. 

' That is, if any but the Englishman and Frenchman were cut for it, which 
I doubt. But Boorde might have waited for money for more original cuts. 

* See p. 15, above. 

' Herbert remarks in his MS memoranda, * though the book was printed 
by R. Copland, it was licensed to W. Copland.'— ^wf-s (ed. Dibdin, 1816). 
I don't believe there is any authority for this " licensed." The Charter of the 
Stationers' Company was not granted till 1656. 

" If the reader will turn to the Eose-Garland device at the end of the In- 
trodiiction, he will see how William Coplande has used his predecessor's 
block : he has left R. C. in the middle, but has cut out the black-letter 
* Robert ' in the legend, and put his own ' William,' in thinner letters, in the 
stead of his predecessor's thicker * Robert,' which matcht the * Coplande.' 

' The .xviii. day, the kinges highnes, hauyng the sworde borne naked be- 
fore him by the Lorde Marques Dorset, like a noble and valyaunt conqueror 
rode into BuUeyn. — HalVs Chronicle, p. 862, ed. 1809. 



§ 3, 4.] THE INTRODUCTIONf 2ND ED. 1562-3. BARNES ON BOORDE, 1543. 19 

have been after 1558, for the change of Boorde*s description of the 
Icelander, " Lytle I do care for matyns or masse " (chap. vi. line 9, p. 
141) into "Lytle do I care for anye of gods serudsse^' shows that 
Mary's reign was over ; besides being a specimen of William Cop- 
lande's notion of rimes. As we know further that William Coplande 
printed one book at least at the Three Cranes in the Vintry in 1561 
— Tyndale's Parable of the Wicked Mammon — we may at once 
identify the Lothbury edition with that which was licensed to 
William Coplande in 1562-3,^ as appears by the following entry 
(omitted by Mr CoUier^) on leaf 90 of the first Register of the 
Stationers' Company : 

W. Coplande Recevyd of William Coplande, for his lycense ) 

for pryntinge of [a] boke intituled " the intro- [• iiij^ 
duction to knowlege " ) 

Of Coplande's first, or Rose-Garland, edition, a unique copy was 
known in Mr Heber's library ; but I could not hear of it, when first 
preparing the present volume, and was obliged to apply to the Com- 
mittee of the Chetham Library for the loan of their copy of the 2nd, 
or Lothbury, edition. This they most kindly granted me ; and Mr 
W. H. Hooper had copied and cut all the * pyctures ' in it, and the 
reprint was partly set-up, when a letter to that great possessor of old- 
book treasures, Mr S. Christie-Miller of Britwell House, brought me 
a courteous answer that he had the first edition, that I might correct 
the reprint of the second by it, and that Mr Hooper might copy the 
cuts — nine in number — that differed from those in the 2nd edition. 
I'hcse things have accordingly been done, and the varying cuts of the 
2nd edition put into, or referred to in, the notes. The differences in 
the texts of the two editions are very slight, barring the Boulogne, 
King, and Mass passages noticed on this page and the foregoing one. 

§ 4. The Dedications to the Introduction and the Dyetary, and the 
publication of the latter in 1542 (or 1543), coupled with the opening 
words of Barnes in Defence of the Berde which we quoted above, p. 
17, leave no doubt in my mind that this last tract was written and 

' This enables us too to settle that the other Lothbury books were printed 
after the Three-Cranes books. (One Lothbury book is dated 1566.) 
• See p. 14, above. 



20 boorde's breuyary of health. [f 5. 

published in 1543, and that Boorde returned to England from 
!Montpelier to see his Dyetary through the press. 

§ 5. The Breuyary of Health. Having thus discussed the dates of 
the three little books in the present volume, we have next to notice 
shortly Boorde's other books. The principal of these is the Breuyary. 
There is no copy of the first edition of it (a.d. 1547 1) in the British 
Museum, Bodleian, or Cambridge University Library. LoAvndes says 
that it was reprinted in 1548, 1552, &c., and I have seen a statement 
that the edition of 1552 is an exact reprint of that in 1547. A colo- 
phon at the end of the first book of the 1552 edition says, "Here 
cndeth the first boke examined in Oxford, in June, the yere of our 
lord .M. CCCCC. xlvi. And in the reigne of our souerayne Lorde 
kynge Henry the .viii. kynge of Englande, Fraunce, and Irelande the 
.xxxviii. yere . • . And newly Imprinted and corrected, the yere of 
our Lorde God .M. CCCCC. L. II." As I mean to give several ex- 
tracts from the Breuyary further on, page 74 e^ seq., in Boorde's Life, 
I shall only quote here his " Preface to the Readers of this Boke," 
of which the end will commend itself to my fellow-workers in the 
Society, who, too, " wryte for a common welth^," and " neuer loke for 
no reward, neyther of Lorde, nor of Prynter, nor of no man lyuing." 

" Gentyll readers, I haue taken some peyne in makyng this boke, 
to do sycke men pleasure, and whole men profyte, that sycke men 
may recuperate theyr health, and whole men may preserue theym 
selfe frome syckenes (with goddes helpe) as well in Phisicke as in 
Chierurgy. But for as much as olde, auncyent, and autentyke 
auctours or doctours of Physicke, in theyr bokes doth wryte many 
obscure termes, geuyng also to many and dyuerse infirmyties, darke 
and harde names, dyfi'ycyle to vnderstande, — some and moostc of all 
beynge Greeke wordes, some and fewe beynge Araby wordes, some 
beynge Latyn wordes, and some beynge Barbarus wordes, — Therefore 
I haue translated all suche obscure wordes and names into Englyshe, 
that euery man openly e and apartly maye vnderstande them. Fur- 
thermore all the aforesayde names of the sayde infirmites be set 
togyther in order, accordynge to the letters of the Alphabete, or the 
.A. B. C. So that as many names as doth begyn with A. be set to- 
gether, and so forth aU other letters as they be in order. Also there 
is no sickenes in man or woman, the whiche maye be frome the 
crowne of the head to the sole of the fote, but you shaU fynde it in 
this booke, — as well the syckenesses the which doth parteyne to 

' profit, good. 



§ 6.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE's BREUYARY OF HEALTH. 21 

Chierurgy as to phisicke, — and what the sickenes is, and howe it doth 
come, and medecynes for the selfe same. And for as much as eiiery 
man now a dayes is desyrous to rede briefe and compendious matters, 
I, therefore, in this matter pretende to satisfye mens myndes as much 
as I can, namynge this booke accordyng to the matter, which is, 
* The Breuiary of health : * and w'here that I am very briefe in shew- 
ynge briefe medecines for one sicknes, I do it for two causes : The 
fyrst cause is, that the Archane science of physycke shulde not be to 
manifest and open, for then the Eximyous science shulde fal into 
greate detrimente, and doctours the whiche hath studied the facultie 
shulde not be regarded so well as they are. Secondaryly, if I shulde 
wryte all my mynde, euery bongler wolde practyse phisycke vpon 
my booke ; wherfore I do omyt and leue out many thynges, re- 
lynquyshynge that I haue omytted, to doctours of hygh iudgement, 
of whom I shalbe shent for parte of these thynges that I haue 
wrytten in this booke : howe be it, in this matter I do sette God be- 
fore mine eyes, and charitie, consyderynge that I do ^vryte this boke 
for a common welth, as god knoweth my pretence, not onely in 
making this boke, but al other bokes that I haue made, that I dyd 
neuer loke for no reward neyther of Lorde, nor of Prynter, nor of no 
man lyuing, nor I had neuer no reward, nor I wyl neuer haue none 
as longe as I do lyue, God helpynge me, whose perpetuall and 
fatherly blessynge lyght on vs all. Amen." 

In his Preface to " The Seeonde Boke of ^he Breuyary of Health, 
named the Extrauagantes," as in its colophon,^ Boorde re-states his 
chief motive for writing the book : 

" I do nat wryte these bokes for lerned men, but for symple and 
vnlemed men, that they may have some knowledge to ease them 
selfe in their dyseyses and infirmities. And bycause that I dyd omyt 
and leaue out many thynges in the fyrste boke named the Breuiary 
of Health, — In this boke named ' the Extrauagantes ' I haue supplied 
those matters the whiche shulde be rehersed in the fyrst boke." 

The Breuyary was intended by Boorde as a kind of companion to 
his Dyetary ; for when treating * of the inilacion of the eyes ' and his 
remedies for it, he says : 

" Aboue all other thynges, lette euery man beware of the premisses 
rehersed, in the tyme Avhan the pestilence, or the sweatyng syckenes, 
or feuers, or agues, doth reigne in a cou/itre. For these syckenesses 
be infectiouse, and one man may infecte an other, as it dothe appere 
in the Chapiters named Scabies, morbus Ballicus. And specially in 
the dyatary of health, wherfore I wolde that euery man hauynge 

* Thus endeth these bokes, to the honour of the father, and the sonne, and 
the holy ghost, to the profyte of all poore men and women, ka. Amen. 



22 boorde's breuyary. his pryncyples of ASTRONAMYE. [§ 5, 6. 

this boke, sliulde haiie the sayd dyetarrj of health with this boke, 
consideryng that the one booke is concurrant with the other." ' 

Again, in his Dyetary, Boorde refers also frequently to the 
Breuyary,^ and says, in his Dedication to the Duke of Norfolk : 

"And where that I do speake in this boke but of dietes, and 
other thynges concernyng the same, If any man therfore wolde haue 
remedy for any syckenes or diseases, let hym loke in a boke of my 
makynge named the Breuyare ofhelth" 

The two books were, as Boorde says, concurrent in subject (1. 2, 
above), and probably also in date of writing, if not publication. 

The Breuyary is an alphabetical list of diseases, by their Latin 
names, with their remedies, and the way of treating them. Other 
subjects are introduced, as MuUer, a woman — for which, see the ex- 
tract p. 68, below, — Nares, nosethrilles, (fee. Except for the many 
interesting passages and touches showing Boorde's character and 
opinions, the Breuyary is a book for a Medical Antiquarian Society, 
rather than ourselves, to reprint. 

6. The Pryncyples of Astronamye. The second companion to 
the Breuyary — the Dyetary being the first — is the Astronamye, of 
which the title and an extract are printed above, p. 16. It is too 
astrological for us to reprint, though one or two chapters are generally 
interesting. 

The following is its Table of contents : 

IT The Capytles of contentes^ 
of thys boock folowth. 

rphe fyrst Capytle doth shew the names of the .xii. synes and 

X of the .vii. planetes. And what the zodiack, and how many 
minutes a degre doth coTztaine. 

IT The seconde Capytle doth shew what sygnes be mouable, and 
what sygnes be not mouable, and which be commone, and which be 
masculyn signes, and which be femynyne, and of the tryplycyte of 
them. 

IT The .iii. capytle dothe shewe in what members or places in 
maw y* sygnes hath theyr domynion, and how no man owt to be let 

* "The Breviarie of health" was licensed to Tho. Easte on March 12, 
1581-2. {Collier's Extracts from tlui Registers of the Stationers' Company^ 
ii. ICl.) ^ orig. contences. 



§ 6, 7.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE's ASTRONAMYE. HIS PEREGRINATION. 23 

blod whan the moone is in y'^ sygne wher the sygne hath domynyon ; 
and also what operacion the sygnes be of whan y^ moone is in ther 

H The .iii[i]. capytle doth shew of the fortitudes of the planetes, 
and what influens they doth geue to vs. 

If The .V. Capitle doth shew the natural dyspocycyon of the 
mone whan she is in any of the .xii. sygnes. 

IF The .vi. capytle doth shew of y® nature of al y* .xii. sygnes, 
And what influence thei hath in ^la?^, And what fortitudes y^ planetes 
hath in y® signes, wM the names of the Aspects. 

IT The .vii. capytle doth shew y^ natural dyspo[s]ycions of the 
planetes, And what operacyon they hath in mans body. 

H The .viii. Capitle doth shew of the .v Aspectus, and of theyr 
operacyon 

IT The ix capitle doth shew of y^ mutaciow of y® Ayer whan any 
rayne, wind, wedder, froste, and cold, shold be by the course of y® 
sygnes and planetes. 

If The .X. capytle doth shew y^ pedyciall of the aspectus of the 
mone and other planets, and what dayes^ be good, and what dayes 
be not. &c. 

IT The .xi capytle doth shew of fleubothomy^ or lettyng of blod^ 

IT The xii capitle doth shew how, whan, & what tyme, a phi- 
sicion sholde minister medycynes 

II The .xiii. Capitle doth shew of sowing of seedes, & plantynge 
of trees, and setyng of herbe. 

Thus endyth the table. 

As I have said before (p. 15, 17), I believe the Astronamyc to 
have been published with the Breuyary in 1547. 

§ 7. The Peregrination. Tlie Itinerary of England, or ' The 
Peregrination of Doctor Boarde,' which is the title in Hearne, may 
perhaps be taken as part of his lost Itinerary of Euroj^e, and was 
printed by Hearne in 1735, in his Benedictus Ahhas Petrohurgensis, 
de Vita et Gestis Henrici III et Ricardi I, &c., vol. ii. p. 764 — 804. 
It is a list of 

"Market townes in England, p. 764-771. 

Castelles in England [& Wales], p. 771-775 (168 of them; where- 
of 7 were new, and 5 newly repaired). 

In England be 24 suffragane bishops, p. 775. 

lies adjacent to England, p. 775-6. 

The havens of England, p. 776-7. 

Downes, mountaynes, hilles (including 'Eoord's Hill, the authours 
birthplace'), dayles, playnes, & valleycs of England, p. 777-782. 

' ong. dayer. '^ orig. flenbotlioniy. ^ ong. bold. 



24 boorde's itinerary of Europe, his sermons. [§ 8, 9. 

Fayre stone bridges in England, p. 782-3. 

Rivers and pooles, p, 783-9. 

Forestes and parkes in England, p. 789-797. 

The high wayes of England, from London to Colchester, & Or- 
ford, p. 797-9. 

The compasse of England round about by the townes on the sea 
coste, p. 800-4." 

§ 8. The Itinerary of Europe. This, though lost to us now, may 
yet, I hope, turn up some day among some hidden collection of 
Secretary Cromwell's papei-s. Boorde gives the following account 
of it in the Seventh chapter of his Introduction, p. 145, below : 

" for my trauellyng in, thorow, and round about Europ, whiche 
is all chrystendom, I dyd wryte a booke of euery region, countre, 
and prouynce, shewynge the myles, the leeges, and the dystaunce 
from citye to cytie, and from towne to towne ; And the cyties & 
townes names, wyth notable thynges within the precyncte [of], or 
about, the sayd cytyes or townes, wyth many other thynges longe to 
reherse at this tyme, the whiche boke at Byshops-Waltam — .viii. 
myle from Wynchester in Hampshyre, — one Thomas Cromwell had 
it of me. And bycause he had many matters of [state] to dyspache 
for al England, my boke was loste, /7/e which myglit at this presente 
tyme liaue holpen me, and set me forward in this matter." (See p. 33.) 

§ 9. ^ Boke of Sermons. This is not known to us, except by 
Boorde's own mention of it in The Extrauag antes, Fol. vi. (See p. 78.) 

" shortly to co72clude, I dyd neuer se no vertue nor goodnes in 
Rome but in Byshop Adrians days, which wold haue reformed 
dyuers enormities, & for his good wyl & prete?«ce he was poysoned 
within .iii. quarters of a yere after he did come to Rome, as this 
mater, with many other matters mo, be expressed in a holce of my 
sermons." 

This book one would at first assume to have been written before 
1529-30, when Boorde was first 'dispensed of religion' in Prior Bat- 
manson's days — as he says in his 5 th Letter, p. 58 below, — especially 
as Pope Adrian VI died Sept. 24, 1523 ; but as we have no evidence 
that Boorde went abroad before 1529-30, and then to school to study 
medicine, we shall be safer in putting the probable date of the Ser- 
mons at between 1530 and 1534, when Boorde finally gave up his 
* religion * or monkery; though it may have been later, as he was both 
monk and priest, and signed himself * prest ' in 1537. The loss of 
the book is assuredly a great one to us — one of the many losses for 



§ 10.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE's PBONOSTYCACYON FOR 1545 A.D. 25 

which that blind old noodle Time is to blame, — as we may be sure 
that the Sermons of a man like Boorde would have pictured his 
time for us better than almost any book we have. 

§ 10. ^ Pronostycacyon for the yere 1545. Among Bagford's 
collection of Almanack-titles in the Harleian MS 5937, I have 
been lucky enough to notice the title-page of a hitherto uncatalogued 
work of Andrew Boorde's, which is, I suppose, unique : 

"A Pronosty-/cacyon or an Almanacke for / the yere of our 
lorde .M. CCCCC. / xlv. made by Andrewe Boorde / of Physycke 
doctor an En-/glyshe man of the vni-/versite of Ox-/forde," Over 
a rose-shaped cut with a castle in the centre, used in the titleless 
edition of the Shepherd's Calendar in the British Museum, formerly 
entered as (?) Pynson's, but which, I am persuaded, is W. Coplande's. 

On the back is " The Prologe to the reder. 

IWere nat wyse, but inscipient, if I shulde enterpryse to wryte 
or to make any boke of prophesye, or els to pronostycate any 
mater of the occulte iugement of god, or to defyne or determyne 
any supernatural mater aboue reson, or to presume to medle 
•with the bountyfuU goodnes of god, who doth dispose euery thing 
graciously. All such occulte and secrete maters, for any ma7i to 
medle with-all, it is prohibited both by goddes lawe & the lawe of 
kynge Henry the eyght^. But for as muche as the excellent scyence 
of Astronomy is amytted dayly to be studyed & exercysed in al 
vniuersities, & so approued to be y® chiefe science amonge all the 
other lyberal sciences, lyke to the son, the which is in the medle of 
the other planetes illumynatynge as wel the inferyal planetes as y^ 
superyal planetes, So in lyke maner Astronomy doth illucydat all 
the other lyberal sciences, indusing them to celestyall & terrestyall 
knowlege. D[o]the nat the planetes, sygnes, and other st[ers i]nduce 
vs to the knowlege of a c[reator of] the/n, doth nat y® Mone gyue 
moyster to the ^ " 

Coupling this with the fact already noticed, p. 1 6, 1. 1 6, above, that 
Boorde in his Astronamye refers to Robert Coplande who prints * thes 
yere my pronostycayons,' we must either conclude (as I do myself) 
that Boorde, like the Laets of Antwerp — grandfather, father, and 
son 3 — issued Prognostications yearly for some time, or that, if he 

• Stat. 33, Hen. VIII, cap. 8, A.D. 1541-2. See Queene Elizahethes AcTm- 
demy, notes. 

' * to the ' are the catchwords. 

'^ See my Captain Cox, or Laiieham''s Letter, for the Ballad Society, 1870. 



26 TREATYSE VPON BEBDES. FRAGMENTS OF ALMANACS. [§ 11, 12. 

only issued one, the date of his Astronamye is 1545, and not 1547, 
as I before supposed. 

§ 11. ^ Treaty se vpon Berdes. All that we know of this book 
is got from the third tract in the present volume, called on its title- 
page, " The treatyse answerynge the boke of Berdes," and on its last 
page " Barnes in the defence of the Berde." The writer first speaks 
of Boorde's spoken answer to those who "desyred to knowe his 
fansye concemjTige the werynge of Berdes " (p. 307), then says that 
Boorde " was anymatyd to toryte Ms boke to thende that great men 
may laugh thereat," as if he referred to the end of Boorde's Dedica- 
tion of his Dyetary to the Duke of Norfolk (p. 225 below), and lastly 
heads his answer to Boorde " Here foloweth a treatyse, made, an- 
swerynge the treatyse of doctor Borde vjoon Berdes " (p. 308). This 
makes it impossible to doubt the existence of such a book by 
Boorde ; and the different charges which the writer (Barnes, whoever 
he may be) in his subsequent verses quotes from Boorde against the 
wearing of beards ' are hardly consistent with a mere report of 
Boorde's sayings. Further, Wilson's allusion in 1553 to one who 
should ' dispraise beardes or commende shauen hiddes ' (p. 307, note), 
probably points to this lost tract of Boorde's on Beards, as another 
passage of Wilson's does to Boorde's Dyetary, and Introduciio7i, note 
on pages 116, 117, below. The reader can see for himself, in 
Barnes's lame verses, what arguments Boorde used against beards. 
Of Barnes's answers I can't always see the point ; but that Boorde 
was a noodle for condemning beards, and advocating shaving, I am 
sure. Shaving is one of the bits of foolery that this age is now 
getting out of; but any one who, as a young man, left off the ab- 
surdity some three years before his neighbours, as I did, will recollect 
the delightfully cool way in which he was set down as a coxcomb 
and a fool, for following his own sense instead of other persons' 
reasonless customs. 

§ 12. Almanac and Prognostication. In the British Museum 
(Case 18. e. ,2, leaves 51, 52) are two bits of two leaves, belonging to 

1 Yet contrast Boorde's saying in his Breuyary, "The face may hauo 
many impedimentes. The fyrst impedyment is to se a man liauyug no 
berde, and a woman to haue a bcrdc." p. 95, below. 



§ 12, 13.] FOREWORDS. ARE THE GOTAM MERIE TALES BY BOORDEI 27 

two separate Almanacs or Prognostications. The first bit is for the 
months of September, October, November, and December M. LLLLL. 

and xxxvii[. .],^ signed at the foot " e : Doctor of phisik." 

This e is supposed to be the last letter of Boorde. The second bit is 
of a Prognostication, with a date which is supposed to be 1540, 

"made by Maister" [no more in that line 2] "cian and 

Preste." Put "Andrew Boorde physi" in the bit torn off the 
left edge, and you have one of the Pronosticacions which Robert 
Coplande in his day may have printed for our author (p. 16, 
above). 

§ 13. Jest-hooks. I. Merie Tales. We come now to those books 
that tradition only assigns to Boorde : The MeHe Tales of the Mad 
Men of Gotam. and Scogin's Jests. Though the earliest authority 
known to us for the former is above 80 years after Boorde's death, 
namely, the earliest edition of the book now accessible, that of 1630 
in the Bodleian : " gathered together by A.B., of Physick, doctour : " 
yet Warton says : " There is an edition in duodecimo by Henry 
"Wikes, without date, but about 1568, entitled Merie Tales of the 
madmen of Gotam, gathered together by A.B. of physicke doctour," 
Hist. Engl. Poetry ^ iii. 74, note /. ed. 1840; however, Warton had 
never seen it. Mr Halliwell, in his Notices of Popular English His- 
tories^ 1848, quotes an earlier edition still, by Colwell, who printed 
the 1562 edition of Boorde's Dyetary^ "Merie Tales of the Mad 
Men of Gotam, gathered together by A.B. of Phisike Doctour. 
[Colophon] Imprinted at London in Flet-Stret, beneath the Conduit, 
at the signe of S. John Evangelist, by Thomas Colwell. n. d. 12° 
black letter." Mr Hazlitt puts Colwell's edition before Wikes's, and 
quotes another edition of 1613 from the Harleian Catalogue.^ 

In a book of 1572, "the fooles of Gotham" is mentioned as a 
book : see p. 30, below. Mr Horsfield, the historian of Lewes, 

* Boorde was in Scotland in 1536, in Cambridge in 1537 ; see p. 59-62 below. 

' The blank looks to me like an intentional one, so that a ditferent name 
might be inserted in each district the Prognostication was issued in. 

^ The chapbook copy in Mr Corser's 5th sale, of The Merry Tales of the 
Wise Men of Gotham (over a cut of the hedging-in of the cuckoo — a country- 
man crying * Coocou,' and a cuckoo crying ' Gotam,' both in a circular 
paling — ), Printed and Sold in Aldermary Church Yard, Bow Lane, London, 
contains 20 Tales, and six woodcuts. 



28 DID BOORDE WRITE THE GOTHAM TALES? [§ 13. 

affects to find the cause of these tales in a meeting of certain Com- 
missioners appointed by Henry YIII. 

"At a last^ holden at Westham, October 3rd, 24 Henry VIII, 
for the purpose of preventing unauthorized persons *from setting 
nettes, pottes, or innyances,' or any wise taking fish within the 
privileges of the marsh of Pevensey, the king's commission was 
directed to John, prior of Lewes ; Eichard. abbot of Begeham ; John, 
prior of Mychillym ; Thomas, Lord Dacre ; and others. 

" Dr Borde (the original Merry Andrew) founds his Tales of the 
Wise Men of Gotham upon the proceedings of this meeting — Gotham ^ 
being the property of Lord Dacre, and near his residence [at Herst- 
monceux Castle.] — Horsfield's History of Leives^ vol. i, p. 239, note ; 
no authority cited :" — quoted by M. A. Lower, in Sussex Arch. Coll. 
vi. 207. 

Anthony a Wood in his Athence Oxonienses, of which the first 
edition was published in 1691-2, over 140 years after Boorde's 
death, says at p. 172, vol. i., ed. Bliss, that Boorde wrote the Merie 
Tales : 

" The merry Tales of the mad Men of Gotham. Printed at Lon- 
don in the time of K. Hen. 8 ; in whose reign and after, it was 
accounted a book full of wit and mirth by scholars and gentlemen. 
Afterwards, being often printed, is now sold only on the stalls of 
ballad singers. (An edition printed in 12mo. Lond. 1630, in the 
Bodleian, 8vo. L. 79. Art. ' Gathered together by A. B. of physicke 
doctor.')" 

Those who contend for Boorde's authorship of this book are 
obliged to admit that the greater part of its allusions do not suit the 
Gotham in Sussex,^ but do suit the Gotham in Nottinghamshire, ex- 
cept in three cases, where a Mayor, nearness to the sea, and putting 

• " Last, in the marshes of Kent [and Sussex] is a court held by the 
twenty-four jurats, and summoned by the bailiff ; wherein orders are made to 
lay and levy taxes, impose penalties, &c., for the preservation of the said 
marshes." Jacob's Law Did. — Lower, ib. 

' Gotham still possesses manorial rights. Gotham marsh is a well-known 
spot in the parish of Westham, adjacent to Pevensey ; but the Manor-house 
lies near Magham Down in the parish of Hailsham. — Lower, ih. 

^ The manor of Gotham is the property of Lord Dacre, and near his 
residence, Herstmonceux Castle. The manor-house lies near Magham Down, 
in the parish of Hailsham. — Sussex Arch. Coll. vi. 206-7. 

Lower. Sussex Arch. Coll. vi. 208. " In the edition of Mr Halliwell 
(which exhibits satisfactory evidence of some interpolating hand having intro- 
duced local names and circumstances, for the purpose of accommodating the 
anecdotes to the Nottinghamshire village) there are several jests which are still 
current as belonging to Sussex." 



§ 13.] FOREWORDS. DID BOORDE WRITE THE GOTHAM TALES? 29 

an eel in a pond to drown him, are alluded to ^ ; but they argue that 
all the Nottinghamshire allusions have been introduced into the book 
since JBoorde wrote it, and John Taylor the Water-Poet alluded to it. 
One may start with the intention to make the book Boorde's, and 
make it fit Sussex, by hook or by crook, or, from reading the book, 
turn cranky oneself, and write mad nonsense about it. There is no 
good external evidence that the book was written by Boorde, while 
the internal evidence is against his authorship. 

The earliest collection known to us, of stories ridiculing the 
stupidity of the natives of any English county, is in Latin, probably 
of the 12th century, and relates to Norfolk. It was printed by Mr 
Thomas Wright in his Early Mysteries and other Latin Poems of 
the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, 1838, p. 93-8, from 2 MSS of 
the 13th and 15th centuries in Trinity College Cambridge. In his 
Preface, Mr T. Wright says of this satire : 

" The Descriptio Norfolcieiisinm is said, in the answer by John 
of St Omer (p. 99-106), to have been -written by a monk of Peter- 
borough, and is, in all probability, a composition of the latter part 
of the twelfth century. It is exceedingly curious, as being the 
earliest known specimen of a collection of what we now call Men-of- 
Gotham stories ; in Germany attributed to the inhabitants of Schild- 
burg, but here, in the twelfth century, laid to the account of the 
people of Norfolk. The date of the German Schildburger stories is 
the sixteenth century ^ ; the wise men of Gotham are not, I think, 
alluded to before the same century. Why the people of Norfolk 
had at this early period obtained the character of simpletons, it is 
impossible to say ; but the stories which compose the poem were 
popular jests, that from time to time appearing under different forms, 
lived until many of them became established Joe Millers or Irish 
Bulls. The horseman (p. 95, 1. 122-4) who carries his sack of corn 
on his own shoulders to save the back of his horse, is but another 
version of the Irish exciseman, who, when carried over a bog on his 
companion's shoulders, hoisted his cask of brandy on his own 
shoulders, that his jDorter's burden might be lessened. The story of 
the honey which was carried to market after having been eaten by 
the dog (p. 99-7, 1. 147-172) re-appears in a jest-book of the seven- 
.teenth century."^ 

' Mr Lower thinks this clearly refers to the Pevensey practice of drowning 
criminals. — Svss. Arch. Coll. vi. 208 ; iv. 210. 

^ " For further information on this subject see an admirable paper on the 
Early German Comic Komances, by ray friend Mr Thorns, in the 40th number 
of the Foreign Quarterly Review."— T. Wright. 

^ Coffee House Jests, Fifth Edition, London, 1688.— T. Wright. 



30 DID BOORDE WRITE THE GOTHAM TALES? [§ 13. 

The story of the sack of corn and the horse which Mr T. Wright 
instances from the 13th century, is, in fact, the Second Tale in the 
Gotham collection attributed to Boorde : 

There was a man of Gottam did ride to the market with two 
bushells of wheate ; and because his horse should not beare heauy, 
he carried his come vpon his owne necke, & did ride vpon his horse, 
because his horse should not cary to heauy a burthen. Judge you 
which was the wisest, his horse or himselfe. 

The Gothamites too were known before The Merie Tales, and 
if we may trust Mr Collier, the subject was open to any one. Mr J. 
P. Collier says : 

" ' The foles of Gotham ' must have been celebrated long before 
Borde made them more ridiculous, for we find them laughed at in 
the Widkirk Miracle-plays, the only existing MS. of which was 
written about the reign of Henry YI. The mention of * the wise 
men of Gotum ' in the MS. play of * Misogonus ' was later than the 
time of the collector, or author, of the tales as they have come down 
to us, because that comedy must have been written about 1560 : tlie 
MS. copy of it, however, bears the date of 1577. In 'A Briefe and 
necessary Instruction,' &c. by E. D., 8vo. 1572, we find the 'fools of 
Gotham ' in the following curious and amusing company : — ' Bevis of 
Hampton, Guy of Warwicke, Arthur of the round table, Huon of 
Bourdeaux, Oliver of the castle, the foure Sonnes of Amond, the 
witles devices of Gargantua, Howleglas Esop, Eobyn Hoode, Adam 
Bell, Frier Eushe, the Fooles of Gotham, and a thousand such other.' 
Among the ' such other,' are mentioned ' tales of Eobyn Goodfellow,' 
' Songes and Sonets,' ' Pallaces of Pleasure,' ' imchast fables and 
Tragedies, and such like Sorceries,' ' The Courte of Venus,' ' The 
Castle of Love.' — This is nearly as singular and interesting an 
enumeration as that of Capt. Cox's library in Laneham's Letter from 
Kenilworth, printed three years later, although the former has never 
been noticed on account of the rarity of E. D.'s [possibly Sir Edward 
Dyer's] strange little volume. — William Kempe's ' applaud^nl merri- 
ments,' of the men of Gotham, in the remarkable old comedy 'A 
Knack to know a Knave,' 1594, consists only of one scene of vulgar 
blundering; but it was so popular as to be pointed out on the title- 
page in large type, as one of the great recommendations of the 
drama." — Collier's Bibliographical Account, vol. i. p. 327. 

I can see nothing in the Merie Tales that is like Boorde's hand ; 
and if Colwell printed the book after Boorde's death, why shoiddn't 
he have put Boorde's name on its title-page, as he did on the title- 
page of Boorde's Dyetary that he printed ? So too with Wikos. 



§ 14.] FOREWORDS. DID BOORDE WRITE SCOGIN'S JESTS 9 31 

§ 14. ^^ Scogin's Jests, an idle thing unjustly fathered upon Dr 
Boorde, have been often printed in Duck Lane," says Anthony a 
Wood, Ath. Oxon. i. 172, «d. Bliss. A copy of the first edition 
known to us is in the British Museum : " The first and best parts of 
Scoggins lests : full of witty Mirth and pleasant Shifts done by him 
in France and other Places ; being a Preseruatiue against Melancholy. 
Gathered by An. Boord, Dr of Physicke." London, F. Williams, 
1626. Lowndes names an earlier edition in 1613, and an earlier 
still in black letter, undated. The work was licensed to Colwell in 
1566. 

Colwell Recevyd of Thomas colwell, for his lycense for pryntinge of 
the geystes of skoggan, gathered together in this volume iiij*. 
MS Register A, leaf 134 ; {Collier's Stat. Reg. i. 120.) 

The * gathered together in this volume' looks as if this were the 
first collected edition of some old jests known in print or talk before. , 
Anthony a Wood did not believe that Andi-ew Boorde ever had 
anything to do with this book. A modern follower of his might 
argue : " The way in which these attributions are got up, is well 
illustrated by a passage in Mr W. C. Hazlitt's Early Popular Poetry, 
vol. iii^ p. 99 : 

* It is not unlikely that, besides the Merle Tales of the Mad 
Men of Gotam, and Scogin's Jests, Borde was the real compiler of 
the M&rie Tales of Skelton, of which there was surely an impression 
anterior to Colwell's in 1567.' 

" * Boorde recommends mirth in his books, says he has put jokes 
into one to amuse hia patron, therefore he wrote all the jest-books 
issued during liis life, and a fortiori those printed twenty years 
after his death.' Surely the more reasonable line to take is, 
* In all his authentic books, Andrew Boorde declares himself, and 
otherwise enables us to identify him. In all, he writes about himself 
and his own work. If in any other books nothing of this kind is 
present, the odds are that Boorde did not write them. Merie Tales 
were put down to Skelton that he never wrote ; may not those and 
the Jests put down to Boorde be in like case V" A supporter of the 
authenticity of Scogin's Jests might answer, " I grant all this, and 
yet contend, 1. that the Jests do show evidence of being written by 



32 PERHAPS BOORDE WROTE SCOGIN's JESTS. [§ 14, 16. 

a Doctor, and, 2. that that Doctor is Boorde. In proof of 1. note 
how many of the Jests turn on doctors and medicine ; in proof of 2. 
note how many are concerned with Oxford life, which we assume 
Boorde to have passed through. Also read \]ie Prologue to the 
Jests : 

* There is nothing beside the goodness of God, that preserves 
health so much as honest mirth used at dinner and supper, and 
mirth towards bed, as it doth plainly appear in the Directions for 
Health : therefore considering this matter, that mirth is so necessary 
for man, I published this Book, named TJie Jests of Scogin, to make 
men merry : for amongst divers other Books of grave matters I have 
made, my delight had been to recreate my mind in making some- 
thing merry, wherefore I do advertise every man in avoiding pensive- 
ness, or too much study or melancholy, to be merry with honesty in 
God, and for God, whom I humbly beseech to send us the mirth of 
Heaven, Amen.' 

and then compare it with the extracts from Boorde's Breuyary on 
Mirth and honest Company, p. 88-9, below ; lastly, compare the first 
Jest with Boorde's chapters on Urines in his Extrauagantes, and re- 
mark the striking coincidence between the JesVs physician saying, 
' Ah ... a water or urine is but a strumpet ; a man may be deceived 
in a water,' and Boorde's declaring that urine * is a strumpet or an 
harlot, for it wyl lye \ and the best doctour of Phisicke of them all 
maye be deceyued in an vryne ' {Extrav. fol. xxi. back : see extract, 
page 34). If Boorde did not write the book, the man who fathered 
it on him made at least one designed coincidence look like an unde- 
signed one." Still, I doubt the book being Boorde's. If it had 
been attributed to him in Laneham's time (1575), I should think 
that merry man would have told us that Captain Cox's " Skogan " 
was by ** doctor Boord" as well as the " breuiary of health." 
{Captain Cox, or Laneham^s Letter, p. 30, ed. F. J. F., 1870.) 

§ 15. Tlie Mylner of Ahyngton. "Here is a mery lest of the 
Mylner of Abyngton with his Wyfe and his Doughter, and the two 
poore scholers of Cambridge " [London, imprinted by Wynkyn de 
Worde] 4to, black letter.* Anthony a Wood says that a T. Newton 
of Chester wrote Boorde's name in a copy of this book as the author 
of it: 

' Hazlitt'8 Early Popular Poetry, iii. 98. 



§ 15, 16.] FOREWORDS. B00nT)E rnDS^T -WRITE THE MYLNER OF ABYNGTON. 33 

" A right pleasant and merry History of the Mylner of Ahington^ 
with his Wife, arid his fair Daughter, and of two poor Scholars of Cam- 
bridge. Pr. at Lond. by Rich. Jones in qu[arto]. And. Borde's name 
is not to it, but the copy of the book which I saw did belong to Tho. 
Newton of Cheshire, [Bodl. 4to. C. 39. Art. Seld.] whom I shaU 
hereafter mention, and by him 'tis written in the title that Dr. Borde 
was the author. He hath also written a Book of Prognosticks, 
another Of Urines, and a third Of every Region, Country and Pro- 
vince, which shews the Miles, Leeges, distance from City to City, and 
from Town to Toion, with the noted Things in the said Cities and 
Towns." ^—Wood's Athen. Oxon. i. 172. 

This tale of The Mylner of Ahyngton has been reprinted lately by 
Mr Thomas Wright in his Anecdota Literaria, -p. 105-116, and by 
Mr Hazlitt in his Early Popular Poetry, iii. 100-118. It is a story 
like Chaucer's Reeves Tale^, about the swiving of the Miller's wife and 
daughter by two Cambridge students, in revenge for his stealing their 
flour, and letting their horse loose. If any one will read Andrew 
Boorde's poetry, that is, doggrel, in his Introduction of Knowledge, 
and then turn to the Mylner, he will not need any further evidence to 
convince him that Boorde did not write the latter Tale. 

§ 16. Other Work^. The authority on which Wood assigns to 
Boorde his Books of Prognosticks and Urines, is doubtless that on 
which Warton (iii. 77, ed. 1840) also assigns to him the Promptuame 
of Medicine and the Doctrine of Urines, namely, Bishop Bale, who 
in the 2nd edition of his Scriptores says : 

" Andreas Boorde, ex Carthusianae superstitionis monacho, malus 
medicus factus, in monte Pessulano in Gallijs eius artis professionem 
ac doctoratum, spreto diuini uerbi ministerio, suscepit. Congessit 
moechus in sacerdotalis matrimonij contemptum. Prognostica quce- 
dam, Lib. 1. Promptuarium Phy sices, Lib. 1. De iudicijs urinarum, 
Lib. 1. Et alia." 

Neither of the other books do I know by Bale's titles, though I 
suppose the Promptu£Lrium to be Boorde's Breuyary. Of one of the 
Prognostica a leaf is printed above, § 10, p. 25. I should doubt 
Boorde's having written a separate treatise on Urine, as he has given 
more than six leaves to it in his Extrauagantes, Fol. xx-xxvi back, 
and had but a bad opinion of it : 

' See above, p. 23-24. ' Not Milleres Tale, Mr Hazlitt. 

BOORDE. 3 



34 



BOORDE DIDN'T WRITE NOS VAGABUNDULI. 



[k 17. 



" I do say that an vryne is a strumpet, or an harlot, for it wyl 
lye ; and the best doctour of Phisicke of them all maye be deceyued 
in an vryne, and his cunnyng and learning not a iote the worse. I 
had rather to se the egestyon of a sycke person, then the vryne : 
bothe be good to loke on, as it doth appere in the Chapitre named 
Egestio in the fyrst boke named the Breuiary of health, &c." 

§17.-4 Latin Poem: "Xos Yagabunduli." This was found in 
a book by Dr E. F. Eimbault, with Boorde's name to it, was printed 
by the Doctor in Notes and Queries, vol. v. p. 482-3, and reprinted 
by Mr M. A. Lower in his Worthies of Sussex, p. 34-5, with an 
English translation. Both Latin and English follow here, though it 
is clear to me that the poem is entirely alien to Boorde's knoAvn 
opinions on religion, and to his way of reproving vices in men pro- 
fessedly religious, even though he, as a monk and priest, may have 
hated friars as much as the rest of the regular clergy and monks did. 
The latter found the friars a * hindrance,' like Bp Wilberforce's 
high- church clergy find the modern Dissenters ; but I doubt Boorde's 
chaffing his * hindrance ' in this style : — 



Latin Poem attributed 
to Andrew Boorde. 

" Nos vagabunduli, 
Lseti, jucunduli, 

Tara, tantara teino 
Edimus libere, 
Canimus lepide, 

Tara, &c. 
Eisu dissolvimur, 
Pannis obvolvimur, 

Tara, &c. 
Multum in joculis, 
Crebro in poculis, 

Tara, &c. 
Dolo consuimus, 
Nihil metuimus, 

Tara, &c. 
Pennus non deficit, 
Praeda nos reficit, 

Tara, &c. 
Frater Catholice, 
Vir apostolice, 

Tara, &c. 



Mr M. A. Loicer's English 
parajjhrase. 

• We're of wandering friars a pair, 
And jolly ones we truly are, 

Down, derry down ! 
Freely we eat anything, 
And right merrily we sing, 

Down, &c. 
With laughter oft our sides do crack. 
And we've good cloth upon our back, 

Down, &c. 
Much we deal in merry quips. 
And full frequent are our sips, 

Down, &c. 
We are up to many a trick, 
And at nothing do we stick, 

Down, &c. 
Our pouch is all unfailing still. 
We pick up booty when we will, 

Down, &c. 
Now, most holy catholic brother, 
Man apostolic (I'm another), 

Down, &c. 



§17.1 



FOREWORDS. NOS VAGABUNDULI NOT BY BOORDE. 



35 



Die quae volueris, 
Fient quae jusseris, 

Tara, &c. 
Omnes metuite 
Partes gramaticae, 

Tara, &c. 
Quadruplex nebulo 
Adest, et spolio, 

Tara, &c. 
Data licencia, 
Crescit amentia, 

Tara, &c. 
Papa sic praecipit, 
Frater non decipit. 

Tara, &c. 
Chare fratercule, 
Vale et tempore, 

Tara, &c. 
Quando revititur, 
Congratulabimur, 

Tara, &c. 
Nosmet respicimus, 
Et vale dicimus, 

Tara, &c. 
Corporum noxibus, 
Cordium amplexibiis 

Tara tantara teino." 
■Notes ^ Queries, vol. 

V. pp. 482, 483. 



Call for anything that's nice, 
It shall be served you in a trice, 

Down, &c. 
But let me humbly you beseech, 
Be careful of your parts of speech, 

Down, &c. 
A fourfold rascal here have we, 
All intent on booty he, 

Down, &c. 
When there's too much license given, 
To what length is madness driven ! 

Down, &c. 
Thus commands our Holy Pope, 
A friar won't deceive his hope, 

Down, &c. 
Now farewell, my brother dear ! 
'Tis time that we were gone, I fear, 

Down, &c. 
When we meet again, my boy. 
We will wish each other joy, 

Down, &c. 
Now we look upon each other, 
And farewell, we say, dear brother, 

Down, &c. 
With right friendly hug we part. 
And embraces of the heart, 

Down, derry down ! " , 
-M. A. Lower's Worthies of Sussex^ pp. 
34, 39. 



Having thus run through the works written by Boorde, or at- 
tributed to him, I pass on to Part II, Boorde's Life, noting only, that 
of his Works I have here reprinted the two that seem to me the 
most likely to interest the general student of Tudor days — the Intro- 
duction and Dyetary ; that I have added Barnes in Defence of the 
Berde on account of its connection with Boorde, its giving the sub- 
stance of his lost Treatise on Beards, and its being unique, though 
it wants a leaf; and that I have extracted most of the chapters 
and bits of Boorde's Breuyary (and its second Part, the Extraua- 
gantes) that contain his opinions on the England and Rome of his 
day, and things in general, besides showing his medical practice. 
That they'll amuse and interest the reader with a turn for such 
things, I can promise. 

3* 



36 PART II. boorde's life. [§ 18. 

Of Boorde's Introduction^ Dibdin rightly says, " This is probahly 
the most curious and generally interesting volume ever put forth 
from the press of the Coplands." Dibdin^ s Ames, 1816, iii. 160. It is 
the original of Murray's and all other English Handbooks of Europe. 



PART II. LIFE OF ANDREW BOORDE. 

§ IS. For a sketch of Andrew Boorde's life and opinions we 
have little else than the materials he himself has left us in his Letters 
and Will, and in the pleasant little outbreaks he makes in unexpected 
places in his books. But as there has been a good deal of talk and 
gammon mixt up with the facts of his life, it may be as well at the 
outset to give a dry list of these facts, with the authority for each, 
and the page in which such authority will be found in the present 
volume. I must, however, warn the reader that I don't feel sure of 
my arrangement of Boorde's letters being the right one. It is only 
the best that I can make. 

FACTS OF ANDREW BOORDe's LIFE. 

Born at Boord's Hill, in Holms dayle (Authority, Peregrination, 

p. 23, above). 
Brought up at Oxford (Auth. p. 40, or Introduction, p. 210; 

Pronosticacion for 1545 a.d., p. 25). 
Under age, admitted a Carthusian monk (Letter IV, p. 57). 
1517 Accused of being conversant with women (Letter VII, p. 62). 
1521 Dispensed from Religion by the Pope's Bull, that he might 
be Suffragan Bp. of Chichester, though he never acted as 
such (Letter V, p. 58). 
1528? Letter I, to Prior of Hinton (p. 47). 

1529 Is dispensed of Religion in Batmanson's days, by the Grande 
Chartreux (Letter V, p. 58). 
Goes over sea to school (p, 58), that is, to study medicine 
{Dyetary, p. 226). 



§ 18.] FOREWORDS. THE FACTS OP BOORDe's LIFE. 37 

1530 Returns to England, and attends the Duke of Norfolk (Dye- 

tari/, p. 225). 
1532 ? Goes abroad again to study {Dyetary, p. 226) ; getting a fresh 
license from Prior Howghton, after 16 Nov., 1531 (p. 47-8) 
Returns to the London Charter-House. 
% Lost book of Sermons written {Breuyary, p. 24). 

1534 June 6. Takes the oaths to Henry VIII's supremacy (Rymer^ 

xiv. 492 ; Smythe's Hist Charter-House, p. 51-2). 

Is in prison, in thraldom, ghostly and bodily, in the Charter- 
House (p. 52). Writes from there to Prior Howghton, who 
is confined in the Tower of London (Letter VI, p. 59). 

Is set free by Cromwell (Letter VI, p. 59), whom he probably 
now visits at Bishop's Waltham in Hampshire (Letter VI, 
p. 59), and goes abroad a third time. 

1535 In Catalonia, when Charles V took shipping to Barbary (Let- 

ter III, p. 56). 

June 20. Letter II, from Bordeaux (p. 53). 

July 2. In Toulouse (Letter III, p. 55). 

After July 2. Boorde sick; can't get home (Letter III, 
p. 55). 

Aug. 2. Letter IV, from the Grande Chartreux. Boorde, hav- 
ing renewed his License, declares himself clearly discharged 
from Religion or Monkery (p. 57). 

Writes Cromwell a lost letter from London (p. 58). 

1536 Letter V to Cromwell, before 1 April (p. 58). 

„ April 1, Letter VI, at Leith. Is practising and studying at 
Glasgow (p. 59). 
Returns to London thro' Yorkshire (Breuymy, p. 61). Has 
2 horses stolen. Sees Cromwell (p. 62). 

1537 August 13, Letter VII, from Cambridge (p. 62). 
Goes abroad the 4th time. 

1542 In Montpelier. Gets drunk {Barnes, p. 309). Writes Dye- 
tary, Breuyary, and Introduction (p. 14). 
Returns to England, lives in London, denounces beards, and 
(1) writes a Treatyse vpon Berdes (Barnes, p. 307-8). Barnes 
answers him (p. 305-316). 



38 boorde's birthplace, a visit to board hill. [§ 19.. 

1647 Lives in Winchester, 1 acquires property there and elsewhere. 
„ "Was late a tenant of a house in St Giles's, London (p. 64). 
„ Breuyaryy Dyetary II, (?) Astronamye (written in 4 days), and 

Introductum, published (p. 13-24). 
„ Is accused of keeping 3 whores at Winchester {B]p. Ponety p. 
66). 
Is imprisoned in the Fleet (p. 70). 
1549 April 25, makes his Will in the Fleet, devising houses, &c., in 
Lynne, Pevensey, and in and about Winchester, besides 
chattels (p. 73). 
§ 19. Expanding our List, we note first that Boorde, in his 
Peregrination, — printed by Hearne in the 2nd vol. of Benedictus 
Abbas Petroburgensis de Vita et Gestis Hen. Ill et Ric. /, &c. (1735, 
8vo) — tells us in an entry under Sussex, at p. 777, where he was 
born : " Boords hill, the authours birth place, in Holms dayle." 

Now Board Hill in Sussex is, and has long been, a well-known 
place as the residence of the Boordes. It is a small Elizabethan 
mansion, lately enlarged by its present owners. Major Macadam and 
his wife (formerly Miss Preston) and her mother, Mrs Preston. It 
is very pleasantly situated on one of those charming hills in the 
Wealden formation, with the ground falling away on three sides of 
it into a basin-like valley, and bounded by rising land in the dis- 
tance. On my way back to town, the day after our most successful 
Volunteer Eeview last Easter Monday, I walked two miles north by 
west of Hayward's Heath Station, through lanes whose banks were 
all aglow with primroses, wood sorrel^, and mallows (as I suppose), 
and was shown quickly over the house by Mrs Macadam. The 
earliest date in the wainscoted rooms of the house itself is 1601, and 
that is twice repeated, with the initials S. B., which must stand for 
Stephen Boorde, who was knighted, the son of the Stephen Boorde 
who heads Mr Lower's pedigree of the family in vol. vi of the Sussex 
Archceological Collections.^ An earlier date, however, — namely, 1569, 

' " Kiss me quicks " we call 'em, once said a man to me in Combe Hurst 
near Croydon. 

^ " Stephen Boord or Borde, whose name stands at the head of the pedi- 
gree as of * the Hill ' in Cuckfield, is described in his will, dated 10th February, 
15C6, as 'of Lindfield.' He directs his body to be buried in the church of 



§ 19.] FOREWORDS. ANDREW BOORDE WAS BORN AT BOARD HILL. 39 

— is shown on an old black piece of oak taken off a barn pulled 
doAvn by Major Macadam ; and I have no doubt that in a house at 
this place, Andrew Boorde was born. For though the valley round 
it is not now called Helmsdale — so far as Mrs Macadam and the 
vicar of Cuckfield (pronounced Cookfield) know — yet it may have 
been so in former days, as two little streams run eastward, north and 
south of Board Hill, and the A. Sax. holm means 1. water, 2. a river 
island, a green plot of ground environed with water (Bosworth). It 
is clear too that the Hill, and not the Dale, is the feature on which 
Andrew Boorde dwells. He might have found some hundreds of 
hills in England with as much right to be included in his list as his 
*' Boord's hill ; " but he was bom there, and so he brings it in. I 
therefore reject Mr Lower's suggestion, 

" As Borde-Hill is certainly not in a dale, the probability is that 
the place indicated is a house not far distant, still called Holmesdale, 

Lindfield, and gives to the repairs of that church and of Cokefelde, ten shil- 
lings each. He was interred in the south transept at Lindfield, where, on a 
marble slab, were formerly to be seen brasses representing himself, his wife, 
and their four sons and three daughters, with the following inscription : — 

" * Stephen Boorde and Pernell his wyfe resteth here after the 

troubles of this world, in assured hope of the resurrection : which Stephen de- 
cessed xxij day of August, in y^ year of our Lord MCCCCC Ixvij, and the said 
Pernell decessed xviij day of June in the yeare above engraven : wliose souls 
we commende to Gods infinite mercy.' 

" Of the children of the pair thus commemorated, George .... and 
Thomas became the progenitors of the two branches settled respectively at 
Board Hill and at Paxfield Park, 

" At the time when the threatened Spanish invasion excited the patriotism 
and the liberality of our gentry, we find Thomas Boord of Paxhill and Stejjhen 
Boord of Boord Hill (afterwards knighted) contributing the sum of thirty 
pounds each towards the defences of the country." — M. A. Lower in Stass. 
Arch, Collections^ vol, vi, p, 33, 87. 

" From that period the two branches of the family seem to have pursued 
the steady and comparatively undiversified career of country gentlemen, form- 
ing respectable alliances, and continuing the name by a rather numerous 
progeny, as will be seen by the following pedigree. The Board Hill branch I 
have been unable to deduce below the year 1720 ; but the Lindfield branch I 
have traced down to its extinction in the male line on the death of William 
Board, Esq., in 1790. From that gentleman, through his youngest daughter 
and coheiress, the Lindfield estate passed to the Crawfurds. The late William - 
Board- Edw.- Gibbs Crawfurd, Esq., who died in 1840, left two daughters and 
coheiresses, the elder of whom is married to Arthur W. W. Smith, Escj., now 
of Paxhill, the old family seat of this branch. Both the lines produced 
several younger sons ; and the name is by no means extinct in other counties, 
though it seems totally so in this." — Sussex Arckceoloqical Collections^ pp. 
200, 201, vol, vi. See a later note in Lower's M'orthies of Sussex. 



40 ANDREW BOORDE AT OXFORD. [§ 19, 20. 

in later times a seat of the Michelbornes and Wilsons, and at present 
existing as a farm house." — Worthies of Sussex, p. 27, 

and hold that, as Johnson defined Dale to be ' a low place between 
hills, a vale, a valley,' Boorde Hill may be fairly said to be in a dale, 
that is, to rise out of the low ground between it and the range of 
hills seen at a distance round it. It is on the south of Ashdown 
Forest, the remains of what was formerly called the Forest of Peven- 
sel, which again was only part of the great forest of Anderida, that 
was * coextensive, or nearly so, with the wealds in Sussex, Kent, and 
Surrey,' and in Bede's days 120 miles from east to west, and 30 
miles from north to south. ^ 

Wlien Andrew Boorde was born at Boord's Hill (or Board Hill), 
we do not know ; but it must have been before 1490 a.d., as by 
1521 he was old enough to have been appointed Suffragan Bishop of 
Chichester, and to have got the Pope's Bull dispensing him from 
filling the office (p. 44, below). But I am anticipating. 

§ 20. Where Boorde was brought up, he probably tells us in 
The fyrst Bake of the Introduction of Knowledge, cap. 35, 

" What countrey man art thou ? " Cuius es. 

" I was borne in England, and brought up at Oxford." 
Natus erum in Amjlia, et educatus Oxoni[(e] . . . 

" What is thy name ? " Cuius nomlnis es. 

" My name is Andrew Borde." 
Andreas Parforatus^ est meum nomen. 

Now though this is part of an imaginary conversation, yet 
Boorde describes himself in his Pronosticacion for 1545 as 'of the 
Vniversity of Oxford' (p. 25, above), and his name is given in 
Wood's Athenoi, vol. i, p. 169, of Bliss's edition, as that of an 
Oxford man. Wood also — though he gives no authority for his 
statement, and I can find none in his i^«sifi 3— states positively 

' 'Ashdown Forest or Lancaster Great Park,' by the Eev. E. Turner, 
Sussex Arch. Collections, xiv. 35. 

' Borde is also an early word for ' table,' and Boorde one for joke, play, 
joet. — See Babees Book, Index, &c. 

^ Alexander Hay, in his History of Chichester, 1804, p. 506, says that 
Boorde " completed his education at New-College, in Oxford ; where for 
several years, he applied very closely and successfully to the study of physic. 
[No doubt, gammon.] Leaving Oxford he is said to have travelled into 
every kingdom in Europe, and to have visited several places in Africa. At 



§ 21.] FOREWORDS. WAS ANDREW BOORDE A VILLEIN? 41 

that Boorde took liis M.D. degree at Oxford. We may therefore 
fairly conclude, that he was brought up at Oxford, though we cannot 
be certain of the fact. 

§ 21. If we could trust Mr Lower's judgment, which I do not 
think we can,^ the next notice of Andrew Boorde — or perhaps a 
prior one- — shows him to have been in 1510 a.d. a nativus, or villein 
regardant'-^ — attached to the soil, and sellable with it, — of Lord 
Abergavenny's manor of Ditchling, in Suffolk, holding goods and 
chattels, therefore of age (I assume), though childless, and being the 
son of John Borde. This villein Andrew Borde, Lord Aber- 
gavenny manumits or frees, and quits claim of his goods, by the 
following charter, the last in Madox : 

O.A. An Enfranchisement of a Villain "Regardant. 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus ad quos preesens scriptum pervenerit, 
Georgius Nevile Dominus de Bergevenny,^ salutem in Domino. 
Noveritis me praefatum Georgium manumisisse Andream Borde filium 
Johannu Borde, nativum meum, Manerio sive Dominio meo de 
Dyclielyng^ in Comitatu Sussex spectantem ; & eundem Andream 
liberum fecisse, & ab omni servitutis jugo, villinagio, & condicione 
servili liberum fecisse ; Ita videlicet, qu6d nee Ego prsefatus Dominus 
de Bergevenny nee haeredes mei, nee aliquis alius pro nobis seu 
nomine nostro, aliquid Juris vel clamei in preedictum Andream, nee 
in bonis aut catallis suis, ad quascumque mundi partes divertent, 
exigere, clamare, vendicare, poterimus nee debemus in futuro ; sed ab 

Montpelier in France he took his degree of doctor of physic ; and returning 
to England, was admitted at Oxford to the same honour in 1521." [No 
doubt, gammon too.] 

* I speak with all respect for Mr Lower's great services to his county and 
to Literature ; but in many points I cannot follow him. 

^ " The villein," says Coke, on Littleton, fol. 120 b, " is called regarda7it 
to the manour, because he had to do all base or villenous services within the 
same, and to gard and keepe the same from all filthie or loathsome things 
that might annoy it : and his service is not certaine, but he must have regard 
to that which is commanded unto him. And therefore he is called regardant, 
a quo prcBstandum servitivm incertvm et indeterminatum, iihi scire non 
potxiit vesper e quale servitium fieri debet mane, viz. ubi quis facer e tenetur 
qvicquid ei prceceptum fuerit (Bract, li. 2, fo. 26, Mir. ca. 2, sect- 12) as be- 
fore hath beene observed (vid sect. 84)." See my essay on " Bondman, the 
Name «fe the Class," in the Percy Folio Ballads and Eomances, vol. ii. p. xxxiii 
— Ixii. 

^ He was the 5th Baron by writ ; succeeded to the title in 1492, on the 
death of his father ; and died in 15.35. — JVicolas's Peerage. 

* The manor of Ditchling extends over a considerable portion of the parish 
of Cuckfield. M. A. Lower, in Sussex Arch. Coll. vi. 199. 



42 LORD ABERGAVENNY FREES AN ANDREW BORDE. [§ 21. 

omni actione juris & clamei inde sinius cxclusi imperpetuuni, per 
prajsentes. In cujus rei testimonmm huic praesenti scripto sigillum 
meum apposui. Datum vicesimo septimo die Mensis Junii, Anno 
regni Regis Henrici octavi secundo.^ G, Bergevenny." — Madox's 
Formulare Anylicaimm, edit. 1702, page 420. 

This, being englished, is, 

" To all the faithful of Christ to whom this present writing shall 
come, George Nevile, Lord of Bergevenny, [wishes] salvation in the 
Lord. Know ye that I, the aforesaid George, have manumitted 
Andrew Borde (son of John Borde) my villein regardant to my 
Manor or Lordship of Dychelyng in the county of Sussex ; and have 
made free the same Andrew ; and have made him free from all yoke 
of serfdom, viUenage, and servile condition; in such wise, to wit, 
that neither I the foresaid Lord of Bergevenny, nor my heirs, nor 
any other person for us, or in our name, may or shall hereafter re- 
quire, claim, [or] challenge any right or claim to the foresaid Andrew 
nor to his goods or chattels, to whatsoever parts of the world they 
may turn ; but that we shall be by these presents shut out for ever 
from all action of right and claim. In witness of which thing I have 
set my seal to this present writing. Dated on the 27th day of the 
month of June, in the 2nd year of the reign of King Henry the 8th. 
G. Bergevenny." 

Now there is not an atom of evidence beyond the sameness of 
name and the nearness of place, to connect this manumitted villein 
Andrew Borde with our Andrew; and the reasons why I at first 
sight held, and still hold, that this villein is not our Andrew are, that 
our man himself tells us in his Letter II, p. 53 below, 'to Master 
Prior & the Couentt off the Charter-howse off London, & to all 
Priors & Couentes off the sayd Order in Ynglond ' that he was ^ re- 
ceuyd amonges ' them, — as a Carthusian monk, — under age, contrary 
to their Statutes. Lord Abergavenny's charter implies that his 
Andrew Borde was of age, and did hold, and could hold, property. 
Our Andrew, if an infant, couldn't have had such a charter made to 
him, — an infant couldn't (and can't) hold property ; — our Andrew, if 
of age, was a monk ; and, being so, couldn't have needed manumis- 
sion, for his admission as a monk must have freed his person. The 
only supposition, says Professor Stubbs, — who has kindly helpt me 
here, — on which the Charter could apply to our Andrew is, that he 
waa 21, that he was going to profess himself a monk, and that ho 

' The 2ud year of Heury VIH's reign was from 1510 to loll.— Nicolas. 



§ 21.] FOREWORDS. OUR ANDREW BOORDE NOT A VILLEIN. 43 

obtained the Charter for that purpose, as the Constitutions of Claren- 
don forbid any nativus or bondman being received as a monk * with- 
out his lord's leave. ^ 

But our Andrew was not 21 before he became a monk ; and he 
could not have taken in his lord about his age like he could the non- 
Sussex monks of the London Charter-house, — if indeed they wanted 
taking in. — Moreover, had he been a nativus in his youth, he would 
certainly have told the Prior and Convents this additional reason 
against his having been legally admitted into their order. We know 
that there were other Bordes in Sussex in our Andrew's time — as 
Dr Eichard, and Stephen of the Hill, Cuckfield;^ — and we may 
safely conclude that in 1510 there was another Andrew Borde than 
ours, namely, he whom Lord Bergevenny freed. Sir T. Duffus 
Hardy and Prof. Brewer both agree that that Lord's charter did not 
relate to any Carthusian monk, or any infant in law. 

We may notice in passing, that the Monks' habit of enticing lads 
under age to join their orders, is known from Richard de Bury's re- 
proof to them in 1344 : "You draw boys into your religion with 
hooks of apples, as the people commonly report, whom, having pro- 
fessed, you do not instruct in doctrines by compulsion and fear as 
their age requires, but maintain them to go upon beggarly excursions, 
and suffer them to consume the time in which they might learn, in 
catching at the favours of their friends, to the offence of their 
parents, the danger of the boys, and the detriment of the Order."* 
(Translation of 1832, p. 40.) 

' Compare the Friars, in Prof. Brewer's Momimenta Francigcana, p. 574, 
quoting the Cotton MS, Faustina D iv. * No man shalbe resceived to the 
Order [of St Francis] but he have thes thingis . . that he be not a honde man 
home . . yf he be clerke, at the leste that he be goynge of xvi yere of age.' 

^ And sith, hondemenne harnes ' han he made bisshopes, 
And barnes bastardes • han ben archidekenes. 
(ab. 1380. Vision of Piers Plowman. Whitaker's Text, Passus Sextus.) 

^ See pages 38-9 and 65. 

* The Friars were as bad. In or about 1358 A.D. the Universitj'' of Ox- 
ford also passed a Statute, reciting that the common voice and experience of 
the fact proved that * the nobles and people generally were afraid to send 
their sons to Oxford lest they should be induced by the Mendicant friars to 
join their order,' and therefore enacting 'that, if any Mendicant friar shall 
induce or cause to be induced, any member of the University under 18 years 
of age to join the said friars, or shall in any way assist in his abduction, no 



44 BOORDE ACCUSED ; DISPENSED FROM HIS VOWS. [§ 22, 23. 

§ 22. The next notice that Boorde gives us of himself points to 
one of the evils of this taking lads into religious orders before they 
have passed through their hot youth, and known what sexual desire 
is. An old writer, the extract from whom I have unluckily mislaid, 
dwells very strongly on the mischief arising from this practice ; and 
we must not therefore wonder to hear Boorde telling Lord Privy- 
Seal Cromwell, in a Letter to him (Letter VII, p. 62), dated 13 Au- 
gust, 1537 (as I judge), 

" ther be yn London certyn persons that owth me in mony & 
stuff liij" .... & doth slawnder me by-hynd my bak off thynges 
that I shold do ifa;" yers agone ; & trewly they can nott prove ytt, 
nor I neuer dyd ytt : the matter ys, that I shold he conversant with 
women; other matteres they lay nott to my charge." 

Young blood was even younger blood in those days than now ; but 
let us accept Andrew's denial of the truth of the slander. 

§ 23. Our next notice is from Boorde's Fifth Letter, to Cromwell, 
— then a knight, and Master of the Rolls, — which must bear date 
before the 1st of April, 1536 (p. 59, below). 

"I was also, xv yeres passyd, dispensyd with the relygyon by 
the Byshopp of Romes bulles, to be Suffrygan off Chychester, the 
whych I never dyd execute the auctore." 

Mr Durrant Cooper says that in 1521, Sherborne, Bishop of 
Chichester, was 80 years old, and it was for him that Boorde was 
appointed to act, but did not do so. His connection with Sussex 
no doubt led to his nomination for the office ' ; and we may suppose 
that his family was of some influence in the county. Professor 
Brewer tells me that no one could be made a Bishop — regular or 
suffragan — under 30 years of age ; and we must therefore put back 
the year of Boorde's birth to before 1 490. The phrase ' dispensyd 
with the relygyon' puzzles me. I don't know whether it means 
absolved wholly from the vows of the Carthusian Order, or only 
absolved for a time and a special purpose, like this acting as 
Suffragan, going abroad to study medicine, &c. (p. 47-8), the dis- 

graduate belonging to the cloister or society of which such friar is a mem- 
ber, shall be permitted to give or attend lectures in Oxford or elsewhere, for 
the year ensuing.' — Muiiimenta Academica, ed. Anstey, i. 204-5. 

' Prof. Stubbs does not believe that Boorde ever received episcopal orders. 



§ 24.] FOREWORDS. DATE OP BOORDe's FIRST LETTER. 45 

pensed person continuing otherwise liable to the bidding of the head 
of his House and Order. The latter interpretation is favoured by 
Boorde's talk of renewing his license (Letter V, p. 58), and his re- 
turning to the Charter-house by 1534 ; the former, of absolute free- 
dom, by his argument in the same Letter V, p. 58, that by the Pope's 
act, as well as the Carthusians', he was free of Religion. 

§ 24. About this time — as likely before as after — I suppose that 
the Letter of Boorde's which Mr W. D. Cooper and I put first (p. 
47, below), and Sir Hy. Ellis last, was written : that to Doctor Horde, 
Prior of the Charter-house at Hinton or Henton in Somersetshire. 
Why I put this Letter first (though it may be of 1535), is because of 
Boorde's saying in it, '' yfi" I wyst the master Prior off London wold 
be good to me, I wold see yow more soner than yow wold be ware off'." 
I take this to mean that Boorde was then in the London Charter-house, 
not yet * dispensed of religion,' but subject to its strict rules, so that 
he could not go out of the gates of the monastery without the Prior's 
leave. Were this letter the last of Boorde's, as Sir Hy. Ellis makes 
it, and therefore written after 1537, Boorde wouldn't have cared 
twopence for the * Master Prior off" London.' Indeed, there wasn't 
one then, for on May 18, 1537, Prior Traff'ord and his brethren sur- 
rendered the London Charter-house into Henry's hands. (By tho 
way, in connection with this first letter of Boorde's, I must mention 
Mr W. Durrant Cooper's unwitting practical joke with five of the 
set. Although they had been printed by no less a person than Sir 
Hy. Ellis, and in no less known a book than his Original Lett&t's, no 
less than 15 years before 1861, yet Mr Cooper printed the Letters as 
" unpublished correspondence " in the collections of the Sussex 
Archaeological Society for 1861 (vol. xiii, p. 262)— and I suppose 
read them as such to the Meeting at Pevensey, on Aug. 8, 1860 — thus 
unconsciously taking in the * young men from the country,' to say 
nothing of others for years, and for three weeks myself, who had read 
the letters in Ellis, made a note of their " trust yow no Skott," ii. 
303, and then forgotten all about them. Having sinned myself in 
this way, I can't resist the temptation of giving a fellow-sinner a 
good-natured poke in the ribs.) 

As in this First Letter, Boorde speaks of the 'rugorosite' of 



46 RIGOROUSNESS OF THE CARTHUSIAN RULE. [§ 24. 

the Carthusian ' relygyon,' we may as well give an extract about that 
Order and its Rule. 

The Carthusian Monks were a branch of the Benedictines, whose 
rule, with the addition of a great many austerities, they followed. . . 
Bruno, who was born at Cologne in Germany, first instituted the 
Order at Chartreux, in the diocese of Grenoble in France, about a.d. 
1080 ; whence the Monasteries of the Order, instead of Chartreux 
houses, were in England corruptly called Charter-houses. The rule 
of the Carthusians, which is said to have been confirmed by Pope 
Alexander III as early as 1174, was the most strict of any of the 
religious orders ; the monks never eating flesh, and being obliged to 
fast on bread, water, and salt one day in every week : nor were they 
^permitted to go out of the bounds of their Monasteries, except their 
priors and procurators, or proctors, and they only upon the necessary 
affairs of the respective house. 

The Carthusians were brought into England in 1180, or 1181, by 
King Henry II., almost as early as their establishment at Grenoble, 
and had their first house at Witham in Somersetshire. Their habit 
was all white, except an outward plaited cloak, which was black. 
Stevens, in his continuation of Dugdale's Monasticon, says there 
were but five nunneries of this austere order in the world, and but 
167 houses of these monks. In England there was no nunnery, and 
but nine houses of this order. These nine houses were at "Witham 
and Henton in Somersetshire, the Charter-house in London, Beauvale 
in Nottinghamshire, St Anne's near Coventry, Kingston-upon-Hull, 
and Mountgrace in Yorkshire, Eppworth in the Isle of Axholm, and 
Shene in Surrey. — Penny Cydopijedia, from Tanner, &c. 

The Latin Statutes of the Order are given in Dugdale's Monas- 
ticon, ed. 1830, p. v-xii, from Cotton MS. Nero A iii, fol. 139, and 
are of such extreme strictness and minuteness as to behaviour, dress, 
meals, furniture of cells, &c. — telling the monks how to walk, eat, 
drink, look, and hardly to talk — that they must have nearly worried 
the life out of a man like Boorde. An English summary of the 
Carthusian Rules is given in Fosbroke's British Monachism, p. 71-2, 
ed. 1843, where also is the following extract : 

" I know the Carthusians," says he (Guyot de Provins in the 
13th century), " and their life does not tempt me. They have each 
[his own] habitation ; every one is his own cook ; every one eats and 
sleeps alone. I do not know whether God is much delighted with 
all this. But this I well know, that if I was myself in Paradise, and 
alone there, I should not wish to remain in it. A solitary man is 
always subject to bad temper. Thus I call those fools who wislied 
me to immure myself in this way. But what I particularly dislike 



§ 24, 25.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE's FIRST LETTER, AND DISPENSATION. 47 

in the Carthusians is, that they are murderers of their sick. If these 
require any little extraordinary nourishment, it is peremptorily re- 
lused. I do not like religious persons who have no pity ; the very 
quality, which, I think, they especially ought to have." — Foshroke's 
British Monachism, p. 65, ed. 1843. 

[* Letter I. 'i Boorde in the Charter-house, London.] 

"Venerable fajjer, precordyally I commend me vnto yow vfiih 
thanks, &c. I desyre yow to pray for me, & to pray all yowr con- 
uentt to pray for me / for much confidence I haue in yowr prayers ; 
& yff I wyst^ Master p7-ior off london wold be good to me, I wold 
see yow more soner J^en yow be M^are off. I am nott able to byd j?® 
rugorosyte off yowr relygyon. yff I myth be suffreyd to do wAat I 
myth, w/tA outt interrupcyon, I can tell w/iat I had to do, for my 
hartt ys euer to yowr relygyon, & I loue ytt, & all y persons in 
them, as lesus knowth me, and kepp yow. ,, ^0^15 for euer, 
(on hack) *' To the ryght venerable fajjer A. Bord. 

prior off Hynton,3 be ])zs byll delyueryd." 

§ 25. Well, the 'rugorosyte* of the Carthusian rules — the no- 
meat, no-fun, and all-stay-at-home life — did not suit Andrew Boorde, 
the confinement injured his health, he wanted to be quit of the 
place, and let others see this. Accordingly Prior Batmanson — who 
was Prior, says Mr W. Durrant Cooper,* from 1529 to 16 Nov. 
1531, — got Boorde a Dispensation from the Grande Chartreux, the 
General Chapter, as he calls it in another place (p. 48). Boorde says 
in his Fifth Letter, p. 58, below, written to Cromwell when Master 
of the Rolls, late in 1535 or early in 1536 : — 

"now I dyd come home by the grawnte Charterhouse, wher® y 
was dyspensyd of the relygyon in the prior Batmansons days." 

In his Fourth Letter also (p. 57) — evidently written from the 
Grande Chartreux (Aug. 2, 1535 ?), and to the Prior of the London 

' In the Kecord Office. ' ' ^" follows, but is scratcht out. 

' " Master Doctor Horde." See the postscript to Lietter III. 

* Sussex Arch. Collections, xiii. But the last edition (1830) of Dugdale's 
Monasticon says, "William Tynbygh was made prior in 1499. He died in 
1529. John Houghton succeeded in 15.S0," vol. vi, Pt. I, p. 9, col. 2. Charter- 
house, London. Yet Bale in his Scr'qHores, ed. 1548, gives ' loannes Batmaw- 
son, prior Carthusianoruw Londini, scripsit Contra Erasmum, li. I.' Fol. 254, 
back. 

■^ This 7vher probably means whence, the dispensation having been sent, 
only, from the Grande Chartreux, and the place not visited by Andrew Boorde, 



48 BOORDE's dispensation, attends the duke of NORFOLK. [§ 25, 26. 

Charter-house and all other Priors of the Order in England, — Boorde 
dwells on the point of his dispensation from Eeligion, and the time 
of it, and says to his fellow-Carthusians : 

" yow know J)at I had lycence before record e to dep«rtt from 
yow / 3ett nott withstondyng my co?2scyence my3th not be so satysfyd, 
but I thowth to vysett ]>e sayd reuerend iaper [the Master of the 
Grande Chartreux], to know \)e trewth whett^r fajje?- lohan batma?^- 
son dyd impetratt for me of J)e gene?'all chapytter ])e lycence ))at 
dane george hath, jje trewth ys, ])at when dane george was dyspensyd 
vrith ]je relygyon, I & anojjer was dyspensyd with all / consydeiyng 
I can [not], nor neuer cowld, lyue solytary / & I amonges yow in- 
trusyd in a close ayre / my3th neuer haue my helth." 

This passage confirms the former one, and leaves no doubt that 
Boorde was abroad by 1529. There he studied medicine, " trauelled 
for to haue the notycyon & practes of Physycke in diners regyons 
and countres," ^ and 

§ 26. Having, from the Continent, " returned into England, and 
[being] requyred to tary, and to remayne, and to contynue with syr 
Robert Drewry, knyght, for many vrgent causes," ^ the Duke of Nor- 
folk sent for Boorde, still " a young doctor " » (though full 40 years 
old), to attend him, a.d. 1530, " the yeare in the whiche lorde Thomas 
[Wolsey], Cardynal bishop of York, was commaunded to go to his 
see of York,"* to which he had been restored by Henry VIII after 
his first disgrace. 

The head of all the Howards, the President of the Council, the 
uncle of Anne Boleyn, was an important patient, and Boorde hesi- 
tated at first to prescribe for the Duke without a consultation with 
his old physician, Dr Butte.^ But as the old Doctor did not come, 

' Preface to the Dyetary, ed. 1547 or -67, below, p. 225, col. 2. 

^ See note 3, p. 225, below. 

^ See the Preface to the Dyetary, p. 225, below. Boorde speaks again of 
when he was * young,' in the Brevyary, Fol. Ixxx, back : " In Englyshe, Mor- 
bus GaUicvs is named the Frenche pockes : when that I was yonge, they were 
named the Spanyshe pockes." " This disease . . dyd come but lately into 
Spayne and Fraunce, and so to vs about the yere of our lord .1470." ih. Fol. Ixxiv. 

* A.D. 1530. Wolsey . . was now permitted to come nearer to the court ; 
and he removed from Esher to Richmond. But Anne and her party took the 
alarm, and he was presently ordered to reside in the north of England, within 
his Archbishopric. — Macfarlane's Hist. vi. 182. 

* This is our old acquaintance of the Babccs BooTt Forewords, p. Ixxviii, 
whose allowances for dinner and supper on every day of the week are given 



§ 27.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE GOES ABROAD A SECOND TIME. 49 

Boorde, * thankes be to God,' set his ducal patient straight, and was 
by his means allowed to wait on ^ Henry VIII. 

§ 27. After this, urged by righteous zeal "to se & to know the 
trewth of many thynges,"^ "to haue a trewe cognyscyon of the 
practis of Physycke,"^ Boorde passed " ouer the sees agayne, and dyd 
go to all the vnyuersyties and scoles approbated, and beynge within 
the precinct of Chrystendome."^ But, could he go abroad without a 
fresh license from the Prior of his House 1 Had his former dispens- 
ations by the Pope and the General Chapter of the Grande Char- 
treux rendered him free of his Order 1 Seemingly not ; for, in his 
Fifth Letter to Cromwell, p. 58, below, written late in 1535, or early 
in 1536, Boorde says : — 

"I haue suffycyentt record that the prior off Charterhouse off 
London last beyng, off hys own meere mocyon, gaue me lycence to 
departe from the relygyon : whereuppon I went! ouer see to skole, 
and now I dyd come home by the grawnte Charterhouse, wher y 
was dyspensyd of the relygyon in the prior Batmansons days. 

" att the sayd howse, in )je renewyng Jjat lycence, I browth a 
letter, yow [Cromwell] to do with me and ytt what you wyll." 

This Prior " last beyng " must have been Howghton, who had been 
executed for denying the King's supremacy on April 27, 1535 — 
according to Mr W. D. Cooper ; on May 4, according to Stowe — and 
the first lines of the passage must refer to Boorde's 2nd journey 
abroad, and not his first, as they seem at first to do. 

As to ' the vnyuersyties and scoles approbated ' above, the only 
universities that Boorde mentions are, I think, Orleans, Poictiers, 

at p. Ixxix there, from HonseJcold Ordinances^ p. 178-9. In Nicolas's Privy 
Purse Expenses of Henry VIII we find a payment of £10 to Dr Butts for Dr 
Thirlby (afterwards the first and only Bishop of Westminster), on Oct. 5, 
1 532. In his Index and Notes, p. 305, Nicolas notes that Heniy * sent Doctor 
Buttes, his graces physician,' to see Wolsey (Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, i. p. 
220-2), and that * JDr Butts is honourably commemorated by Fox as the friend 
of Bp Latimer. See also Gilpin's Life of Latimer, p. 42-5.' 

' These words * wait on can hardly mean * attend professionally,' as there 
is no payment to Boorde in ihe Privy Purae Expenses of Henry VIII from 
Nov. 1529 to Dec. 1532, ed. Nicolas, 1827. Had Boorde attended Henry, we 
should no doubt have had an entry like that for Dr Nicholas, under Febr. 3, 
p. 192 : " Item the same day paied to my lorde of Wilshire for a phisician 
called Docto?^r Nicholas, xx Angellw, vij li. x s." 

^ Fyrst Boke, chap, xxxii, Upcott's reprint, sign. Y 2, p. 204, below. 

' Pref. p. 226, col. 1, below. 

BOORDE. 4 



50 boorde's universities and travels. [§ 27 

Toulouse, and Montpelier^ in France; Wittenburg in Saxony.^ 
The Italian ones he omits. At Orleans he dwelt for some time ^ ; 
of his stay at Poictiers and Wittenburg (if any), he has left no 
record; in Toulouse he evidently stopt for a while,' — "in Tolose 
regneth treue iustice & equite of al the places that euer I dyd com 
in;"^ — and "at the last I dyd staye my selfe at Mountpyllyowre, 
which is the hed vniuersite in al Europe for the practes of physycke,"^ 
or, as he says elsewhere, " Muwtpilior is the most nobilist vniuersite 
of tho, world for phisiciows & surgions. I can not geue to greate a 
prayse to Aquitane and Langwadock, to Tolose and Mountpiliour." 
And wherever he travelled, " in dyuers regyons & prouynces," he did 
" study & practyce physyk . . for the sustentacyon off [his] lyuyng."^ 
Accordingly, we get, in such of his works as are left to us, little 
touches like the following : " For this matter [Scrofula . . in Eng- 
lyshe . . named * knottes or burres which be in chyldrews neckes ' 7] 
in Rome and Mountpyller is vsed incisions " (instead of the pills and 
plaisters he has mentioned). " I, beinge long there [in Compostella 
in Navarre] . . was shreuen of an auncient doctor of diuinite, the 
which was blear [e]yed ; and whether it was to haue mi counsel in 
physicke or no^ I passe ouer, but I was shreuen of hym . ."^ We 
shall see soon his practice in Scotland and Yorkshire, p. 61. Thus 
learning to do good, and doing it, the helper and friend of all he 
came across, Boorde, either in 1530-4, 1534-6, or 1538-42, went 
through almost the whole of Europe, and perhaps part of Africa, and 
pilgrimed it to Jerusalem, which he did not consider to be in Asia, 
as he tells us " as for Asia, I was neuer in [it]," Fyrst Boke, chap, 
vii. sign. I 2, back, p. 145, below. 

The kindly nature of the man, — his willingness to help others at 
the cost of much hardship and danger to himself, — as well as his 
readiness to be off anywhere at any time, are well shown by his 
account of his sudden start from Orleans, and his journey to Com- 
postella with 9 English and Scotch men whom he met : 

' Fyrst Bolie, chap, xxvii, sign. T .i. back, p. 191, below. 
^ ih. chap, xvi, p. 165. His disgust at the vices in Kome seems to have kept 
him from the Italian Universities. ' ih. chap, xxxii, sign. Y 2, back, p. 205. 
* ib. chap, xxvii. sign. U back, p. 194. 

^ Dedication to ed. 1547, Pref . p. 226, col. 2, below, * Letter VI, p. 59, below. 
'' Breuiary, Fol. C .iii. ^ Fyrst Boke, chap, xxxii, sign. Y 2, p. 204. 



§ 27.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE's PILGRIMAGE TO COMPOSTELLA. 51 

" whan I dyd dwell in the vniuersite of Orlyawce, casually going 
ouer the bredge into the towne, I dyd mete with .ix. Englyshe and 
Skotyshe parsons goyng to saint Compostell, a pylgrymage to saynt 
lames. I, knowyng theyr pretence, aduertysed them to returne home 
to England, saying that ' I had rather to goe .v. tymes out of Eng- 
land to Rome, — and so I had in dede, — thaw ons to go from 
Orlyance to Compostel ; ' saying also that ' if I had byn worthy to 
be of the kyng of Englandes counsel, such parsons as wolde take such 
iornes on them wythout his lycences, I wold set them by the fete. 
And that I had rather they should dye in England thorowe my in- 
dustry, than they to kyll them selfe by the way : ' with other wordes 
I had to them of exasperacyon. They, not regardyng my wordes nor 
sayinges, sayd that they wolde go forth in theyr iourney, and wolde 
dye by the way rather than to returne home. I, hauynge pitie they 
should be cast a way, poynted them to my hostage, and went to dis- 
pache my busines in the vniuei'syte of Orliaunce. And after that, I 
went wyth them in theyr iurney thorow fraunce, and so to burdious 
and byon ; & than we entred into the baryn countrey of Byskay and 
Castyle, wher we coulde get no meate for money; yet wyth great 
honger we dyd come to Compostell, where we had plentye of meate 
and wyne ; but in the retornyng thorow spayn, for all the crafte of 
Physycke that I coulde dOj they dyed, all by eatynge of frutes and 
drynkynge of water, the whycb I dyd euer refrayne my selfe. And 
I assure all the world e, that I had rather goe .v. times to Eome oute 
of Englonde, than ons to Compostel : by water it is no pain, but by 
land it is the greatest iurney that an Englyshma/i may go. and 
whan I returnyd, and did come into Aquitany, I dyd kis the ground 
for ioy, surrendring thankes to God that I was deliuered out of greate 
daungers, as well from many theues, as frome honger and colde, & 
thai I was come into a plentiful country ; for Aquitany hath no felow 
for good wyne & bred." — Fyrst Bake, chap, xxxii., p. 205, below. 

That Boorde, though he hated water, and loved good ale and 

wine (p. 74), could live on little, we know from his description of 

Aquitaine (p. 194, below) : 

" a peny worth of whyte bread in Aquitany may serue an honest 
man a hoole Weke ; for he shall haue, whan I was ther, ix. kakys 
for a peny ; and a kake serued me a daye, & so it wyll any man, ex- 
cepte he be a rauenner." 

§ 28. The next notice that we have of Boorde is due to the Re- 
formation. He must have returned to the Charter-house in London 
by the summer of 1534, for in Rymer's Foedera, xiv. 491-2, we find 
that, on 29 May, 1534, Roland Lee, Bp of Coventry and Lichfield ' 

' See a good Memoir of him in Sir Henry Ellis's Original Letters, Third 
Series, 1846, vol. ii, p. 363-5. 



52 



BOORDE CONFORMS, AND GETS INTO THRALDOM. [§ 28-30. 



(who married Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn), and Thos Bedyll, 
clerk, took the oaths of Johannes Howg[h]ton, the Prior of the Char- 
ter-house, and 13 other dwellers and servants there; and on the 6th 
of Juno following, at the Charter-house, Bp Lee and Thomas Kytson, 
knight, took the oaths of 19 Priests, — 18th in the list of whom was 
Andreas Boorde — and 16 other persons. The names of all are given 
in Rymer, and reprinted in Smythe's History of the Gharter-liouse, 
Appendix XVIII, p. 49, and the regular oath to Henry's supremacy 
that Boorde and all other conformers swore, is given in Latin in 
Smythe's Appendix, p. 49, and in English at p. 50-1. 

§ 29. After thus conforming, Boorde seems to have remained 
at the Charter-house, and to have got into some trouble there, for 
which he was * kept in thraldom bodyly and goostly,' * kept in person * 
stray tly.' His Prior, Howghton, was convicted of high treason in 
April 1535 for speaking against the king's supremacy, and on the 
27th of April 2 was hanged, drawn, and quartered. While Howghton 
was in the Tower ("? in 1534), before his execution, Boorde tells Crom- 
well that he wrote to Howghton, at his fellow-Carthusians' request 
(p. 60). Boorde's letter to Cromwell is dated Leith, 1 April [1536] : — 

" when I was keppt in thrawldom in J)e charte?^howse, & knew 
no)?er ))e kynges noble actes, nor yow, then, stultycyusly thorow 
synystrall wordes, I dyd as many of jjat order doth ; butt after J?at 
I was att lyberte, manyfestly I aperseuyde ])e yngnorance & blyndnes 
jjttt they & I wer yn : for I could neuer know no thyng of no maner 
off matter, butt only by them, & they wolde cause me wrett full in- 
cypyently to Jje prior of london, when he was in ))e tower before he 
was putt to exicucyon ; for ]?e which I trust yowr mastershepp hath 
pardonyd me ; for god knowth I was keppt in person ^ stray tly, & 
glad I was to wrett att theyr request ; but I wrott nothyng Jjat I 
thowght shold be agenst my prince, nor yow, nor no o\er man." 

§ 30. From this 'thraldom' of body and soul, Andrew Boorde 
was delivered by Cromwell, as the Vicegerent of Pope Henry VIII, 
— if I read aright another passage in this same Leith letter (p. 60), 
— and he then (I suppose) visited Cromwell at his seat at Bishops- 
Waltham in Hampshire, where Cromwell received him kindly : 

" Yow haue my hartt, & shalbe sure of me to fe uttermust off 
my poer power, for I am neuer able to raak yow amende* ; for wher 

' ? prison. ^ p. 54. — Stowe says, convicted ou April 29, and hanged on May 4. 



§ 30, 31.] FOREWORDS. BOORDe's SECOND LETTER : TO CROMWELL. 53 

I was in greatt thraldom, both bodyly and goostly, yow off yowr gen- 
tylnes sett me att liberte & clemes off conscyence. Also I thank 
yowr mastershepp for jout grett kyndnes, pat yow shewde me att 
bysheppes waltam, & \>at yow gaue me lycence to come to yow ons 
in a qwartter." 

§ 31. After this, Boorde must have at once gone abroad on his 
third long tour, seemingly as an emissary of Cromwell's, to observe 
and report on the state of feeling about Henry VIII's doings, but no 
doubt studying and practising physic on his road. He also renewed 
his license at the Grande Chartreux, p. 58. 

[1 Letter II, from Bordeaux, 20 June, 1535.] 

" After humly salutacyon, Acordyng to my dewte coactyd, I am 
(causeys consideryd) to geue to yow notycyon of certyn synystraU 
matters contrary to owr realme of ynglond, specyally a-^enst out most 
armipotentt, perpondentt, circuwspecte, dyscrete, & gracyose soue- 
reyng lord the Kynge ; for, sens my departyng from yow, I haue per- 
lustratyd normandy, frawnce, gascony, & Byon ^ ; pe regyons also of 
castyle, byscay, spayne, paarte of portyngale, & returnyd thorow 
Arogon, Nauerne, & now am att burdyose. In the whych partyes, I 
hard of dyuerse credyble persons of pe sayd countryes, & also of 
rome, ytale, & almen, pat the pope, ])o emprowre, & all oper crystyn 
kynges, with pev peple {pe french kyng except) be sett a3enst owr 
souereyne lord pe kynge : apon the which, in all the nacyons pat I 
haue trauellyd, a greatt army & navey ys preparyd : and few frendys 
ynglond hath in theys partes of Europe, as lesus youi loner knowth, 
who euer haue jouv master & yow, with pe hole realme, vnder hys 
yynges of tuyssyon ^ ! from burdyose, the xx day of lune, by pe bond 
of yowr sa[r]uantt & bedman ., Andrew Boord. 

" I humyly & precordyally desyre yowr mastershepp to be good 
master (as yow cue?- haue byn) to youi faythfull bedmen, master 
p?7or of the cherter bowse of london, & to Master docter Horde, 
pr^or of Hynton. 

[directed on back] " To hys venerable master, 
Maste?' Thomas Cromwell, secretory to owr 
souereyngne lord the kyng, be j)is byll 
di/rectyd.*" 

* The originals of this and the following letters (except Letter IV) are 
preserved in the Record Office, vol. 4, 2nd Series, of Miscellaneous Letters, 
temp. Hen. VIII. 

^ It may be ' Lyon,' but is ' Byon,' I feel sure, for Bayonne. Cp. Boorde's 
Introduction, eh. xxxiii, p. 20G. 

^ wings of defence. 

^ The word is * dyrectyd ' in the next two letters. 



54 PRIOR HOWGHTON AND PRIOR HORDE. [§ 31, 32. 

The postscript to the last letter raises a difficulty as to its date ; 
for, says Mr Cooper, — using Smythe's History of the Charter- 
House, ^c. : — 

"In April, 1535, John Howghton the prior, with 2 other Car- 
thusian priors, a monk of Sion, and the Vicar of Isleworth, were 
convicted of high treason.^ On 27 April, Howghton, and on the 4th 
of May the others, were drawn, hanged, and quartered." 

Perhaps Boorde supposed that a new Prior had been appointed, 
and askt Cromwell's favour for him on spec. 

Prior Horde does not seem to have needed any intercession on 
his behalf, as he must have conformed willingly, and was used to 
bring other hesitaters round. Archbp Lee, writing to Cromwell on 
July 9, 1535 (III Ellis, ii. 344), about the Prior of the Charter-house 
of Mountgrace in Yorkshire, who was * verie conformable,' reports 
of him : 

" And forbicause ther bee in everie Howse, as he supposethe, 
some weake simple men, of small lernynge and litle discretion, he 
thinkethe it sholde doo mutche good if oure Doctor Hord, a Pryor of 
theyre religion, whom all the religion in this realme dothe esteme 
for lerning and vertue, were sent, not onlie to his Howse, but to all 
ordre Houses of the same religion; he saide (wiche I suppoase is 
true) they will give more credence, and woU rathre applie theire con- 
science to hym and his judgement, than to anie ordre, althowgh of 
greater lernynge, and the rathre if with hym be joyned also some 
ordre good fadre. This he desired me to move to you ; and verelie 
I thinke it sholde doo mutche good. For manye of them bee verie 
simple men.' 

And again in another letter of 8 Aug., 1535, after the Prior of 
Mountgrace has yielded and conformed, Archbp Lee repeats the 
Prior's request, ' that for the alureing of some his simple brodren, 
Doctor Hord, a priour of their religion, in whom they have greate 
confidence, maye come thidre. . . His co?7imeng shall more worke in 
them than anye learneng or autoritie, as the Priour thinkethe, and I 
can well thinke the same.' Ill Ellis, ii. 345. 

§ 32. During this tour in the summer of 1535, Boorde visited the 
Universities of Paris, Orleans, Poitou, Toulouse (where he was on 
July 2, 1535), and Montpelier, as well as Catalonia (he was there in 

' His crime was 'delivering too free an opinion of the King and his pro- 
ceedings, in regard to the supremacy, to speak against which was now made 
treason.' — Smythe's Hist. Charter- House, p. 73. 



§ 32.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE's THIRD LETTER, AUTUMN 1535. 55 

1535), noting the state of feeling towards Henry VIII. Then after 
liis labour he fell sick, and wrote the next letter to Cromwell, late in 
1535, or early in 1536. The phrase in the postscript " in thes partes " 
— cp. " in theys partes of Europe," p. 53 — shows that the letter was 
written from abroad, from Spain, I suppose. 

We get the approximate date for this letter from Boorde's men- 
tion of the Emperor Charles Vs expedition against Barbarossa. 
Though Sir Hy. Ellis says that this was in 1534, it was in 1535 : 

" In 1535, Europe being at peace, Charles [the Fifth] sailed 
with a large armament for Tunis, where Khari Eddin Barbarossa, the 
dread of the Christians in the Mediterranean, had fortified himself. 
Charles, supported by his admiral, Andrea Doria, stormed La 
Goletta, and defeated Barbarossa : the Christian slaves in Tunis 
meantime having revolted, the gates of the city were opened, and 
the Imperial soldiers entering in disorder began to plunder and kill 
the inhabitants, without any possibility of their officers restraining 
them. About 30,000 Mussulmans of all ages and both sexes 
perished on that occasion. When order was restored, Charles 
entered Tunis, where he re-established on the throne Muley Hassan, 
who had been dispossessed by Barbarossa, on condition of acknow- 
ledging himself his vassal, and retaining a Spanish garrison at La 
Goletta. Charles returned to Italy in triumph, having liberated 
20,000 Christian slaves, and given, for a time, an effectual blow to 
Barbarossa and his piracy. On his return to Europe, 1536, he found 
King Francis again prepared for war." — Penny Cydopoidla^ vi. 500, 
col. 2, from Robertson's Hldory of Charles V, <fec. 

" The emperor embarked at Barcelona for the general rendezvous 
of the rest of his forces. This was Cagliari, in Sardinia. The fleet 
sailed from this place on the 16th of July, 1535." — Robertson's 
History of Charles F, edit. 1857, vol. i. pp. 445, 446. 

Letter IIL [after 2 July, 1535.] 

" Hone?*able syr, after humily salutacyon, I cc^rtyffy yow ])ai 
sens 1 wrott to yo7/r mastershepp from burdyuse by )ie se?iiantt off 
sir lolian Arundell in cor[n]wall, I haue byn in dyuerce regyons & 
vnyue/'sytes for lerny?ig, and I assewre yow ])e vnyuersytcs off 
orlyance, pyctauensis,^ Tolosa, mowntpyller, & J)e reue-rend faj^er off 
J)e bed charterhowse, a famuse dark, & ^arii'^ off )je vnyue?'syte off 
parys, doth hold with out soveryne lord |)e kyng, in his actes, pat in 
so much att pe vysytacyon off our lady^ last past in tolosa, in pet 
cheff skole, callyd petragoryscnsis, pe Kyng of Nauerre & his qweno 

' The MS mark of contraction is that for ir, as in Sir. 
^ MS ptt. Prof. Brewer and Mr W. D. Cooper read it ' Presidentt,' Sir 
H. Ellis rightly 'partt.' ^ The VlsitatUm \a on Jiilv 2. 



56 BOORDE's third letter, autumn 1536. [§ 32, 33. 

beyng p?*esentt, po gretyst articles pat any cowld lay a-genst owr 
nobyll kyng wer disputyd & dyff'ynyd to pe hone?- of owr noble kyng, 
as I shall shew yow att my comyng to yow. 1 was in cathalonya 
when pG emprowe tok sheppyng in-to barbary, the which emprow, 
with all o])e?' kynges in pG courtes of whom I haue byn, be our re- 
doubtyd kynges frendes & loners ; incypyentt persons doth spek 
afte?* per lernywg & wytt. ce?'tyffyng yowr mastershepp after my 
laboure, I am syk, or els I wold haue come to yow <fe putt my seltf 
fully in-to your ordynance ; as sone as I am any thyng recoue?yd, I 
shall be att yo^^r commaundmeritt in all causis, god succ?tryng, who 
eue?" kepp yow in helth & hone?-, 

'' By joui bedmari Andrew bord, prest. 
** I haue sentt to 3''owr mastershepp the seeder off reuberbe, the 
which come owtt off barbary. in thes partes ytt ys had for a grett 
tresure. The seede*' be sowne in March, thyn ; Ss when they be 
rootyd, they must be takyn vpp, & sett eue?'y one off them a foote or 
more from a noper, & well watred, &c. 

[directed on har.Tc\ " To the ryght honerable Esquyre Master TTiomas 
CromeU, hygh secretory to o?^r souereyne lord Jje kyng & master 
of Rolls, be this lettres dyrectyd. 

[endorsed in a later hand.] " Androwe bord, prest. 
how king h. 8. is well esteemed 
in ffraunce & other natyons." 

On this Letter Sir Henry Ellis observes : 

"The Postscript is perhaps the most curious part. Boorde not 
only sends to Cromwell the Seeds of Rhubarb from Barbary, where 
he says the plant was treasured, but with directions for transplanting 
the roots when grown, and rearing the Plant, two hundred years at 
least before the later cultivation of the Plant was known in England. 

" Collinson, among the Memoranda in his * Hortus Collinsoni- 
anus,' 8vo. Swansea, 1843, p. 45, says: 'True Rhubarb I raised 
from seed sent me by Professor Segisbeck of Petersburgh, in 1742 :' 
by another memorandum it appears that the seeds really came from 
Tartary, and that four plants were transplanted next year." — Original 
Letters J Third Series, vol. ii, p. 300. 

§ 33. Boorde refers in his last letter to the opinion of * the 
reverend father of the head Charter-house, a famous clerk,* on Henry 
VIII's acts. I suppose that he ascertained it on his journey out 
from England. At any rate he tells us that he came home by the 
Grande Chartreux, " now I dyd come home by the grawnte charter- 
howse," Letter Y, p. 58. While there, he wrote, as I judge, the 
following letter, dated August 2 [1535], to the Priors and Convents 
of his Order in England, telling them that the Father of the Head 



§ 33.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE's FOURTH LETTER, 2 AUG., 1535. 57 

Charter-house exhorted them to obey the King, and showing that 
he (Boorde) was free (as I suppose) of the Carthusian Order. He 
was evidently afraid that on his return to England, the London 
Charter-house would claim him again. 

[Letter IV. 2 August, 1535.] 

' MS Cott. Cleop. E. iv. leaf 54, re-numhering 70. 

" After p?'ecordyall reco?nmendacyon. dere belouyd father in god, 
)}e reuerend fajjer off ))e hed cha[r]te?*howse, doth salute yow in |?e 
blessyng off lesu chrj'^st / adue?*tysyng yow \)ai yow loue god, & jjat 
in any vyse yow obay ouv souereyng lord ^e kyng, he beyng very 
sory to here tell any wylfull or sturdy opynyons to be amonge*' yow 
in tymes past to Jje contrary/, he desye[r]yth nothyng off yow but 
only as I haue rehersyd, that yow be obedyent to ouv kyng, & jjat 
yow maak labore to yowr frendes ]jat yff any off yowr frendes deye, or 
\iai any off tlier frendes dey, jjat J)e obytt off ))em may bytwyxt yow 
be sent / ]jat Jje order off charyte be not lost, pro defuTictis exorare. 
}je sayd reuer[en]d fajjer hath sentt to yow |)e obytt off hys p?'e- 
dycessor / o\er letters he wyll nott wrytt, nor he wold nott ]jat yow 
to hym shold Avrett / lest Jje kynges hyhnes shold be dysplesyd, as 
for me, yow know }pat I had lycence byfore recorde to depa7*tt from 
yow / ^ett nott w/'t/istondy/ig my cowscyence my^th not be so satysfyd, 
but i thowth to vysett ^e sayd reue?-end fajjer, to know Jje trewth 
whette?' fajjer lohan batmawson dyd impetratt for me of ])e generall 
chapytter jje lycence \ai dane^ george hath. Jje trewth ys, ]jat when 
dane george was dyspensyd vfiili Jje relygyon, I & anojjer was dys- 
pensyd w?t/i all / consyderyng I can [not], nor neuer cowld, lyue soly- 
tary / & I amonges yow intrusyd in a close ayre / my3th neue?- haue 
my helth. also I was receuyd amonges yow vnder age, contrary to 
yowr statute6* / wherfor now I am clerly dischargyd ; not hauywg ))e 
byshopp of liomes dispensacyon ; but yow pat receuyd me to fo 
relygyon, for lefuU & lawfull causes cowsyderyd / haue dyspensyd 
vfiih me. In wytnes pat I do not fable w^t7^ yow, specyally pat 
yow be in all causis obedyentt to yow?* kyng. pe afforesayd reuerend 
father hath maad pe ry3th honerable esquyre maste?* CromeH, & my 
lord^ of Chester, broper off all pe hole relygyon / p?*aying yow pat 
yow do no thyng with outt theyr counsell, as lesus yo?/r louer 
knowth, who euer keppe yow ! wretyn in hast in pe cell of pe 
reuerend faper callyd Johan, & wzt/i hys counsyll, pe ij day of 
August, by fe hand off youT bedman „ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^,^ ^^^^_ 

' Papers relating to the Reformation and Dissolution of the Monasteries. 
* Dominus. 

' ? A Prior. Henry VIII, when Prince of Wales, was Earl of Chester. The 
Bishopric of Chester was erected 4 Aug., 1542. 
■• Printed ' Bond ' in the Cotton Catalogue. 



58 boorde's fifth letter, 1535-6. [§ 34, 35. 

[on hack] "To master prior & the couentt ofif pe charte?'howse off 
london, & to all p/iors & couentes olf j)e sayd order in ynglond." 

On one corner of the back is written, "Androw Bord. to ])e 
prio^^r and Convent of Charterhouse in london &c' / " 

§ 34. Boorde then returned to England, wrote from London to 
Cromwell a letter that is not now extant (so far as we yet know), 
and then the following excusatory missive, which shows that he did 
not feel satisfied himself that he was free from his Carthusian vows, 
but feared that Cromwell, notwithstanding his former release (p. 52), 
might hold him bound to them still. 

[Letter V. 1 before 1 April, 1536.] 

"After humyle salutacyon \yith dew reuerence. Accordyng to 
my promyse, by my letters maade at burdyose, and also att london, 
J)is presentt month dyrectyd to jota: mastershepp, I, Andrew Boorde, 
somtyme monk of the charterhowse of london, am come to yoz^r 
mastershepp, commynttyng me fully in to goddis handes & jours, to 
do with me w/iatt yow wyll. As I wrott to joui mastershepp, I 
browth letters from by-3end see, but I haue nott, nor wyll nott, 
delyuer them, vnto the tyme yow haue seen them, & knowywg ]}e 
ouerplus of my mynd. I haue suffycyentt record pat J)e prior off 
chartterhowse off london last beyng, of hys owne meere mocyon, 
gaue me lycence to departe frome ]je relygyon : wheruppon I wentt 
ouer see to skole ; & now I dyd come home by the grawiite charter- 
howse, wher y was dyspensyd of J)e relygyon in the prior batman- 
sons days,^ att the sayd howse, in J)e renewyng pat lycence, I browth 
a letter, yow to do with me and ytt what yow wyll, for I wyll hyd 
no thyng from yow, be ytt with me or agenst me. I was also xv. 
^eres passyd dyspensyd with pe relygyon by the byshopp of Komes 
buUes, to be suffrygan off chycester, the wliych I neuer dyd execute 
Jje auctore^; ^ett all J}is nott-w?'t7istondyng, I submytt my-selft'to yow ; 
& yff yow wyll haue me to pat relygyon, I shall do as well as [I] 
can, god succz^ryng, who euer keppe joui mastershepp in prospcruse 
helth and honer ! 

" By jouT be[d]ma?2, pe sayd andrew prenomynatyd. 

[directed on back] " Suo Honorifico Magistro ThomsG CromeH, Armi- 
gero, su?7imo Secreta?io serenissimo nostio regi henrico octauo, 
Magistro que rotularMW dignissimo, hje litterulte sint tradende." 

[endorsed Andrew Boorde.] 

§ 35. Cromwell's decision must have been in favour of Boorde's 
freedom from his monkish vows, for soon after his letter to Crom- 
' BatmansoD was Prior from 1529 to IG Nov., 1531. — Cooper, ^ authority. 



§ 35.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE's SIXTH LETTER, 1 APRIL, 1536. 59 

well, Boorde went to practise and study medicine in Scotland, where 
we find him on April 1, 1536. The authority for the year 1536 is 
Mr W. Durrant Cooper, who says {Sussex Archceologiccd Society's 
Collections f vol. xiii, p. 266) of this next letter, that it " is not dated, 
but the allusion to the vacancy in the office of prior of the Charter- 
house enables me to fix 1st April, 1536, as the date of the letter." ^ 

[Letter VI. Leith, 1 April, 1536.] 

"After humly salutacyon, vrith dew reuerence, I cMyffy yowr 
mastershepp jjat I am now in skotlond, in a lytle vnyuersyte or study 
namyd Glasco, wher I study & practyce physyk, as I haue done in 
dyuerce regyons & prouynces, for ]je sustentacyon off my lyuyng ; 
assewryng yow ])at in the partes ])at I am yn, ^e kynges grace hath 
many, 3e, (& in maner) all maner of persons (exceppt some skolasty- 
call mew) Jjat be hys aduersarys, & spekyth pa?-lyus wordes. I 
resortt to ^e skotysh kynge^ howse, & to ]?e erle of Aryn, namyd 
Hamylton,2 & to j^e lord evyndale, namyd stuerd, & to many lordes 
& lardes, as well spyrytuall as temporall, & truly I know ])er mynde^, 
for Jjei takyth me for a skotysh ma/ies sone. for I name my selif 
Karre, & so |)e Karres kallyth me cosyn, thorow ))e which I am in 
the more fauer. shortly to conclude, trust yow no skott, for they 
wyll yowse flatteryng wordes, & all ys Jfal[s]holde.^ I suppose, veryly, 

' I can't find the date of Prior Trafford's appointment. . Howghton was 
executed April 27, 1535 (or May 4, Stone). Shortly after "And order for the 
charterhous of London " was made, — of which the first provision is 

" that there be v or vj goueniers of temp<>rtt men, lernyd, w}'sse, & trusty, 
appoyntyd, wherof iij or ij of them shalbe contynually there to geder enery 
meale, and loge there eu<?ry nyght." — (Cott. MS Cleop. E. iv. leaf 27. Strype's 
Memorials, vol. i. pt. i. p. 303, &c.) See also Smythe's Charter -house. This 
Scheme does not seem to have been carried out. 

^ " James, son of the second Lord Hamilton, and of Mary, daughter of 
James II of Scotland, was created Earl of Arran in August, 1503, and died 
without issue." — Cooper. 

^ See a virtuous Scotchman's opinion to the contrary in chapter 13 of 
The Covi2)laynt of Scotland, ab. 1548 A.D., p. 165, ed. 1801 : "there is nocht 
tua nations vndir the firmament that ar mair contrar and dijfferent fra vthirs, 
nor is inglis men and scottis men, quhoubeit that thai be vitht-in ane ile, and 
n5'^thbours, and of ane lawgage. for inglis men ar subtil, and scottis men ar 
facile, inglis men ar ambitius in prosperite, and scottis men ar humain in 
prosperite. inglis men ar humil quhen thai ar subiecldt be forse and violence, 
and scottis men ar furious quhen thai ar violently subiekit. inglis men ar 
cruel quhene thai get victorie, and scottis men ar merciful quhen thai get 
victorie. and, to conclude, it is onpossibil that scottis men and inglis men can 
remane in concord vndir ane monarche or ane prince, be-cause there naturis 
and conditions ar as indifferent as is the nature of scheip and voluis . . ." " i 
trou it is as onpossibil to gar inglis men and scottis men remane in gude 
accord vnder ane prince, as it is onpossibil that tua sonnis and tua sunnis can 



60 BOORDE's 6TH LETTER, PROM LEITH. 1 APRIL, 1536. [§ 35. 

pat yow haue in ynglond, by-3end x thowsand skottes, & innumerable 
oper alyons, which doth (specyally J)e skottes) much harme to po 
kynges leege me7i thorowh per ewyll wordes^. for as I wentt thorow 
ynglond, I mett, & was in company off, many rurall felows, englich 
men, pat loue nott owr gracyose kyng. wold to lesn, pat some wer 
ponyshyd, to geue oper example ! wolde to lesu, also, pat yow hade 
neuer an alyon in yowr realme, specyally skottes, for I neuer knew 
alyon goode to ynglonde, exceppt ])ei knew profytt & lucre shold 
00771 to them, &c. In all pe pa7-tes off crystyndom pat I haue 
trawyllyd in, I know nott v. englysh men inhabytow7's, exceppt only 
skolers for lernyTig.^ I p7'ay to lesu pat alyons in ynglond do no 
more harme to ynglonde ! yff I myght do ynglond any se7-uyce, specy- 
ally to my soueryn lorde Jje kyng, & to yow, I wold do ytt, to spend 
& putt my lyff in danger & luberdy as far as any man, god be my 
luge. Yow haue my hartt, & shalbe sure of me to pe vttermust off 
my poer power, for I am neue?' able to mak yow amendes ; for wher 
I was in greatt thraldom, both bodyly and goostly, yow of yowr gen- 
tylnes sett me att liberte & clernes off conscyence. Also I thank 
yoi^r maste7'shepp for youT grett kyndnes, pat yow sheude me att 
bysheppes waltam,^ & pat yow gaue me lycence to come to yow ons 
in a qwartter. as sone as I come home, I p7-etende to come to yow, 
to submytt my seltf to yow, to do with me what yow wyll. for, for 
lak of wytt, pa7-aduewtter I may in ])is wrettyng say pat shall nott 
contentt yow ; but, gode be my Judge, I mene trewly, both to my 
souerrynge lord pe kyng & to yow. when I was keppt in thrawldom 
in pe charterhowse, & knew * noper pe kynges noble actes, nor yow ; 
then, stultycyusly thorow synystrall wordes, I dyd as many of pat 
order doth ; butt after pat I was att lyberte, manyfestly I aperseuyde 
Jje yngnorance & blyndnes pat they & I war yn : for I could neue?" 
know no thyng of no maner off matter, butt only by them, & they 
wolde cause me wrett full incypyently to pe -prior of london, when 
he was in pe tower, before he was putt to exicucyon ^ ; for pe which 
I trust jour mastershepp hath pa7-donyd me ; for god knowth I was 

be at one tyme to-giddir in the lyft, be raison of the grit differens that is be- 
tuix there naturis & conditions." 

' The dislike of Englishmen to aliens in Henry VIII's reign is testified by 
'evil Mayday' in 1517, and numerous petitions and enactments. See my 
Ballads from Manuscripts, vol. i. p. 56-9, 104-7. 

^ In the 7th chapter of his Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge he says, 
" I have travelled round about Christendom, and out of Christendom, and I 
did never see nor know 7 Englishmen dwelling in any town or city in any 
region beyond the see, except merchants, students, and brokers, not there being 
permanent nor abiding, but resorting thither for a space.' ' — Cooper. See also 
the extract from Torkington's Pilgrimage in the Notes. 

^ * when I came to yow }per ' follows, and is struck out. 

* ori;j. know. 

* Prioi John Howghton was convicted of high treason on April 29, 15.35, 
and executed on May 4 {Stoive). 



§ 35, 36.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE IN SCOTLAND, 1536-7. 61 

keppt in person ^ straytly, & glad I was to wrett att theyr request ; 
but I wrott nothyng ]>ai I thowght shold be a-genst my prince, nor 
yow, nor no o\>er man. I pray god pat yow may prouyde a goode 
prior for pat place of london ; for truly per be many wylfull & 
obstynatt yowng men pat stondyth to much in per owne co72saytt, 
& wyll not be reformyd, butt playth Jje cbyldryn ; & a good prior 
wold so serue them lyk chyldryn. News I haue to wrett to yow, 
butt I p?'etende to be w*t^ yow shortly ; for I am halfF very ^ off pe 
baryn contry, as lesu cryst knowth, who euer keppe yow in helth & 
honer. tfrom leth, a myle from Edynborowh, the fyrst day off Apryll, 
by the hand off yowr Poer skoler & seruantt 

[directed on back] " Andrew Boorde, Freest. 

"To the right honerable esq?a're, Mastev 

Thomas Cromwell, hygh secretory to 

jje Kjnges grace." 

In his Breuiary of Helth, Boorde also tells us that he first prac 
tised Physic in Scotland, and stayed there a year : 

" I dyd practyse phisicke fyrst in Scotlande ; and after that I had 
taried there one yere, I returned then into England, and dyd come 
to a towne in Yorkeshire named Cuckold, where a bocher had a 
Sonne that.fel out of a hyghe haye licke" [see below for the rest]. — 
The Seconde Boke of the Breuiary of Health, named the Extraua- 
gantes, Fol. xxiiii.; 

that among his patients were two lords, 

" "Whan I dyd dwell in Scotlande, and dyd practice there Phisicke, 
I had two lordes in cure that had distyllacion like to nature ; and so 
hath many men in al regyons." — ih. Fol. xxii., back ; 

and that though he was hated as an Englishman, yet his knowledge 

got him favour : 

" Also, it is naturally geuen, or els it is of a deuellyshe dysposi- 
cion of a scottysh ma?i, not to loue nor fauour an englishe maw. And 
I, beyng there, and dwellyng among them, was hated ; but my 
sciences & other polices did kepe me in favour that I did know 
theyr secretes." — Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge; 
Taylor's reprint, sign. H. 

§ 36. From Yorkshire, Boorde returned to London, and saw 
Cromwell, to whom he afterwards wrote the following letter from 
Cambridge, on Aug. 17, and in the year 1537, as I think certain, for 

' Was * prison ' meant ? Or only that he was watcht, and kept in his cell ? 
' weary. The Scotch w and v of this time are used for one anotlier. 



62 BOORDe's 7TH LETTER, FROM CAMBRIDGE, 1537. [§ 36. 

he could hardly expect Cromwell to recollect such a trifle as meet- 
ing him, after the interval of more than a montii or two ; and Boorde 
would hardly allow more than that time to pass over before apply- 
ing for help to recover his stolen horses. 

[Letter VII. Cambridge, 13 August [1537].] 

"Reuerently salutyd viiih loue and fere. I desyre jour lord- 
shepp to co?itynew my good lorde, as euer yow haue byn : for, god be 
my iudge, yff I know wAat I myght do )?at myght be acceptable to 
yow, I wold do ytt ; for ^per ys no creature lyuywg ))at y do loue 
and fere so much as yow, and I haue nott in ))is world no refuge 
butt only to yow. when I cam to london owtt of skotlond, and. )jat 
yt plesyd yow to call me to yow, as yow cam rydyng from west- 
mestre, I had ij horsys stolyn frome me, & I can tell the pe?'Sons 
])at hath bowght them, butt I can nott recouer my horse[s] althowh 
they Jjat bowght ))em dyd neuer toll for them, nor neuer bowth 
])eni in no markett, butt prmetly. Also \)er be yn london certyn 
persons thatt owth me in mony and stuff .liij"., ))e which my frendes 
gaue me. I do aske my dewty off Jjem ; & they callyth me 'appostata, 
& all to nowght,' & sayth they wyll troble me, & doth slawnder me 
by-hynd my bak off thynges Jjat I shold do xx" 3ers a-gone ; & 
trewly they can nott proue ytt, nor I neuer dyd ytt ; J)e matter ys, 
fat I shold be cowuersantt w?'t^ wome?i : o])er matteres they lay 
nott to my charge. I desyer yow to be good lord to me, for 1 wyll 
neuer complayne forther then to yow. I thank lesu cryst, I can 
lyue, althowh I neuer haue peny off ytt ; but I wold be sory J)at they 
))at hath my good, shold haue ytt : yff any off joux seruanttes cowld 
gett ytt, I wold geue ytt to them, yo^^r fayghtfuU seruantt, master 
watter thomas, dwellyng in wrettyll,' knowth all )je hoole matte?*, 
and so doth hys son, dwelly^zg in jje temple. I commytt all to yow, 
to do y^ith me & ytt what ytt shall plese yow ; desyeryng yow to 
spare my rude wrettyng, for I do presume to wrett to yow upon jouv 
gentylnes, as god knowth, who euer kepp yov/ in helth and hone?' ! 
tfrome cambrydg, jje xiij day off August, by the bond off yowr bed- 
maTi, & se^-uantt to ])e vttermust off my poor power. 

" Andrew Boorde, prest. 
[dWected on the hack] " To the ryght r^„^„,.,,^ Andrew Boordo 
honerable lorde the lord of the ^ t ( - \^ 
pryueseale^bethysbylldyrectyd." ^ ^ ^^ 

Who were Walter Thomas of Writtle, and his son dwelling in the 
Temple 1 

* ? Writtle, Essex. - 

'^ Cromwell was created Keeper of the Privy Seal on July 2, 1536 ; Earl of 
Essex in 1539, and beheaded, 28 Jul)', 1540. 



§ 37.] forewords: boorde's life, travels. 63 

§ 37. How soon after 1537 Boorde left England a fourth time for 
the Continent, and no doubt travelled about it, we cannot tell. The 
Dissolution of the Eeligious Houses in England in 1538 must have 
assured him of his freedom, and he probably used it to journey 
about, to see and know. The range of his travels at different times 
astonishes one. For though at first sight we maybe inclined to 
think that there's a bit of brag in his talk about his travels ' round 
about Christendom, and out of Christendom' {Fyrst BoJm^ chap, 
vii.), yet I am convinced that he is quite honest in what he says, 
and that the words he sets down with his hand, tell the facts that he 
saw with his eyes. The very differences between his full treatment 
of certain places, &c., in a country, and his slurring over others of 
equal importance, prove it. Had we his full Itinerary left, instead of 
only the English part of it that Hearne printed in his Abbot of 
Peterborough's lives of Henry III and Richard I (ii. 777, &c. a.d. 
1735), I feel sure that Boorde's entries would contain all the coun- 
tries he describes in his Fyrst Bake,, except perhaps Turkey and 
Egypt. At any rate, there are touches in his descriptions of the 
following places which render it impossible to doubt that he had been 
thfere : — 

England, p. 116. Spain, p. 198. Saxony, p. 164. 

Wales, p. 125. Castile, p. 199. Denmark, p. 162. 

Scotland, p. 135. Biscay, p. 199. Italy, p. 177. 

Ireland, p. 131. Compostella, p. 205. Lombardy, p. 186. 

France p 190 Catalonia, p. 194. Venice, p. 181. 

Calais, p. 191. Flanders, p. 146. ^^"'^f ^^^'^ *^^°^'* 

Boulogne, p. 209. Antwerp, p. 151. Nanlel n 176 

Orleans, p. 191. ^ , ^„ ^ JNapies, p. I7b. 

Montne ier n 194 Germany, p. 159. Greece, p. 171. 

Montpelier, p. 194. ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ p^ ^^^ Jerusalem, p. 218. 

All these places, besides (as I believe) aU the other countries 
mentioned in his Fyrst Bake, Boorde must have visited before he 
settled down in Montpelier,'^ and there by 1542 wrote his Introduc- 
tion, Dyetary, Breuyary^ and Treatise upon Beards (assuming that 
it existed). What he tells us about himself and these books has 
been already quoted on pages 15 — 26 above ; and what Barnes says 

* Brev. II. fol. iv. back, p. 76, below. 

* I do saye as I do knowe, not onelye by my selfe, but by manye other 
whan I did vse the seas. — (^Brev. ch. 381. Fol. C. xxii.) 



64: BOORDE AT WINCHESTER ; IN LONDON IN 1547. [§ 38. 

about the books, and about Boorde's getting drunk at Montpelier,^ 
earning a reputation by his books, and denouncing beards, will be 
found at p. 307, 309, below. The reader may as well turn on, and 
run his eye over the passages. 

§ 38. I suppose that Boorde came back to England in 1542, 
when the first edition of his Dyetary was publisht (p. 12), and that 
he was also in England when he wrote his Pronosticaeion for 1545 
(p. 25). During this time he probably settled at Winchester ; and 
if we suppose that then were left to him by his brother the houses 
and property in that town which he devises by his will, or the houses 
in Lynn (in Norfolk) which he also devises, or that he made money 
by practice as a physician, so that the * lacke of money' which stopt 
the printing of his Introduction (p. 15) ceast, we can account for the 
publishing of that book in 1547 (or 1548), as well as of the second 
edition of the Dyetary, the Breuyary, and the Astronamye, which 
was evidently intended as a companion to the Breuyary, and was 
written in four days with one old pen without mending (p. 16, 
above). To superintend the passing of these books through the 
press — though I doubt whether he read his proofs — he ought to have 
been in London ; and, most luckily, it is in 1547, or just before, that 
we find a " Doctor Borde " there, as the last tenant of the house ap- 
propriated to the Master of the Hospital of St Giles's, by Lord Lisle, 
to whom Henry VIII had in 1545 granted nearly all the possessions 
of the Hospital, part of the Eeformation spoil. In 1547 Lord Lisle, 
by Henry's license, conveyed the Hospital property to Sir Wymonde 
Carew, and in the description of it, Dr Borde's name occurs.^ The 

' Compare the result as stated by Barnes with William Langley's Glutton 
in the Vision of Piers Plowman, Text B, Passus V, p. 76, 1. 361-3, who 
. . coughed up a caudel * in Clementis lappe ; 
Is non so hungri hounde • in Hertford schire 
Durst lape of )je leuynges • so vnlouely Jjei smau^te. 
* Necnon unuw alium messuagium, parcell?*?/* situs nup<??" dic^i Hospitalis, 
una cum pomeriis & gardinis eidem messuagio p<?rtinentiJw« sive adjacen^i- 
hus, existen^?.&?/« in prfdic^a parochia Sa»c#i Egidii. nupcr in tenura sive 
occupacio7te Doctoris Borde, 

The Licence to Lord Lisle is dated July 6, 1547. The original is, says 
Parton, " Among the records in the Lord Treasurer's Kemembrancer's office, in 
the Exchequer, to wit, in the fifth part of the originals of the 38th year of the 
reign of King Henry the Eighth, Roll CV, and is printed in p. 35, note 32, of 
* Some Account of the Hospital and Parish of St. Giles in the Fields, Middle- 
sex, by the late Mr John Parton, Vestry-Clerk.' 1822." 



§ 39.] forewords: BOORDe's LIFE. BP PONET's CHARGE. 65 

unpleasant alternative that this Dr Borde may have been Dr Richard 
Borde of Pevensey, I am unable to negative.^ 

§ 39. Just at this time, at the culminating point of Boorde's life, 
the most serious charge of that life is brought against him, and this 
by no less a person than John Ponet, Bishop of Winchester, ^ — the 

By this grant [of Henry VIII in 1545] all the possessions of the hospital 
of St Giles (not expressly mentioned in the exchange with the king) were 
vested in Lord Lisle, They consisted of the hospital, its site and gardens, the 
church and manor of St Giles. 

After this grant Lord Lisle fitted up the principal part of the hospital for 
his own residence, leasing out other subordinate parts of the structure, and por- 
tions of the adjoining grounds, gardens, &c., and at the end of two years he 
conveyed the whole of the premises to John Wymonde Carewe, Esq., by licence 
from the king, in the last year of his reign. 

The capital mansion or residence which Lord Lisle fitted up for his own 
accommodation, was situate where the soap manufactory of Messre Dix and 

Co. now is, in a parallel direction with the church, but more westward 

The house appropriated to the master of the hospital was situate where 
Dudley Cavet has been since built, and is mentioned as occupied by Dr Borde 
in the transfer from Lord Lisle to Sir "Wymonde Carewe, which is said to 
have been afterwards the rectory house, being given by the Duchess for that 
purpose. 1834. — B. Dohic, History of the United Parishes of St Giles-in-t?ie- 
Meld, and St George, Bloom sbvry, 2nd ed., p. 23-5. 

" The grant of the hospital by Henry VIII. to Lord Lisle simply describes 
it as ' All that the late dissolved hospital of St. Giles in the Fields, without 
the bars of London, with its appurtenances, &c., lately dissolved.' But his 
licence to that nobleman to convey the same to Wymond Carew, contains a 
description of part of these premises, sufficiently detailed to afford almost 
every information that can be desired. They are thus particularized : — 

* All that mansion, place, or capital house, late the house of the dissolved 
hospital of St. Giles in the Fields ;— and all those houses, gardens, stables, and 
orchards to the same belonging ; and one other messuage (parcel of the site 
of the said late hospital), and the orchard and garden to the same belonging 
and adjoining, late in the tenure of Dr. Borde.' " — Barton's Account of tJie 
Hospital and Parish of St Giles-in-the- Fields, pp. 51, 52 (^printed in 1822). 

' " That Andrew was connected with Bevensey by residence [?] and pro- 
perty is well established. Contemporary with him, and probably a near kins- 
man, was another Doctor Borde, who held the vicarage of Pevensey, the 
vicarage of Westham, and the chantry of the chapel of Northye in the adja- 
cent marsh. In the 'Valor Ecclesiasticus ' of Henry VIII. [a.d. 1535] his 
valuable preferments are thus stated : 

Pevensey. 
BXaardn's, Bord, doctor, vicarius ihidem, valet clare per annum &c. 18£ G.f. M. 

Westham. 
Rica?*^us Bord, doctor, vicarius ihidevtx, valet &c. 21. 10. 10. 

CantaHa de Northyde (sic). 
Ricfl7'dus Bord, doctor, capellanus ibidem, valet &c. 2. 13. 4." 

M. A. Lower, in Sussex Arch. Coll. vi. 200. 

^ He was appointed Bishop in May, 165l.—Stryjje''s Memorials, vol. ii. 
rt I. p. 483, ed. 1822. 

BOORDE. 5 



00 BP PONET CHARGES BOORDE WITH KEEPING 3 WHORES. [§ 39. 

very town that Boorde had lived in, — and who, therefore, must liave 
known what Boorde's fellow-citizens said of the facts of the case. In 
his controversy with Stephen Gardiner, Ponet published a second 
book in 1555 (says Wood), whose title in the 'correctid and 
amendid ' edition in the British Museum is — 

"An Apologie fully avnsweringe by Scriptures and aunceant 
Doctors / a blasphemose Book gatherid by D. Steph. Gardiner / of 
late Lord Chauncelari, D. Smyth of Oxford / Pighius / and other 
Papists / as by ther books appeareth, and of late set furth vnder the 
name of Thomas Martin, Doctor of the Ciuile lawes (as of himself he 
saieth) against the godly mariadge of priests. Wherin dyuers other 
matters which the Papists defend be so confutid / that in Martyns 
ouerthrow they may see there own impudency and confusion. 

By John Ponet Doctor of diuinitie, and Busshop of Winchester. 
Newly correctid and amendid. 

The author desireth that the reader will content himself with 
this first book vntill he may haue leasure to set furth the next / 
wiche shalbe by Gods grace shortly. Yt is a hard tiling for the to 
spurn against the prick. Act. 9." 



At page 48 of this work Bp Ponet says : — 



And Avithin this eight yere [that is, in or after 1547] / was 
there not a holy ma?2, named maister Doctour boord, a Phisicion, 
that thryse in the week would drink nothinge but water / such a 
proctour for the Papists the?i / as Martyn the lawier is now 1 Who 
vnder the color of uirginitie / and of wearinge a shirte of heare / and 
hanginge his shroud and socking / or buriall sheete at his beds feet / 
and mortifyeng his body / and straytnes of lyfe / kept thre whores at 
07ice in his chambre at Winchester / to serue / not OTiely him self / 
but also to help the virgin preests about in the contry, as it was 
prouid / That they might with more ease & lesse payn keepe tlieire 
blessed uirginitie. This thinge is so trew / and was so notoriously 
knowen / that the matter cam to examination of the iustices of 
peace / of whom dyuerse be yet lyuinge / as Sir Ihon Kingsmill / Sir 
Hewry Semar / etc. And was before them confessed / and his 
shrowd & sheart of hear openly shewed / and the harlots openly in 
the stretes / & great churche of Whinchester punished. These be 
knowen story es, wbiche Martin ^ and the Papists can not denye / " ^ — 

' Sir Thomas More. ^ Stephen Gardiner. 

^ I add the continuation of tlie passage, which is somewhat violent and 
exaggerated, so that it may lessen, perchance, the effect of the charge against 
Boorde. '* And they know well enoughe themselues / that there be of the 
lyke thousands / whiche I omitt for brefenes / that destroy this affection of 
Martin's prouinge him a false Iyer in this point. — When the deuell by losenea 



j 40.] forewords: boorde's life, guilty or not guilty •? 67 

Ponet's Apologie, &c., pp. 48, 49 ; printed 1556.^ 

§ 40. Now we know, on the one hand, that " the way of a man 
with a maid " is one of the four things that Agur the son of Jakeh 
knew not (Proverbs xxx. 1, 18-19), and we all are in like case: we 
know that lechery is an old-man's sin,^ and that Boorde had been 
charged with the same sin in early life, though he denied it ; and we 
see that the bishop of Boorde's diocese and town brought the charge 
as one of public notoriety against Boorde's memory, appealed to 
witnesses then living, in confirmation of it, and (as I suppose, 
though I have not seen Ponet's first edition of 1555) re-affirmed the 
charge in the second edition of his book published in the year of his 
death (he died April 11, 1556). We know too that Boorde under- 

of liuinge / appeareth in his owne forme / he can not so eas)'^ly deceaue the 
world as otherwise / wherfore who seeth not that he vseth to put on a vysor of 
holines / of the punishement of the body / and austeritie of lyfe as oftew as he 
myndeth thorowly to deceaue? Which thiwge he hath most perfectly brought 
to passe in all the orders of Antichrist. Of Popes / Cardinals / Buschoppes / 
preests / monks / Chanons / fryers / etc. To the perfect establishment of 
buggery of whoredom, a/id of all vngodlynes / and to the vniuersall ruine of 
the true faith of Christs trew religion / & of all vertrew and godly lyfe. And 
for cumpassinge of this enterpryse / Doctor Martin the lawyer is become the 
deuils Secretary / who being taught by his master / taketh diligent heed 
throughout his book / that in no wyse he geue any kynde of praise or com- 
mendacioM to matrimony in any kinde of peple. But termeth somtyme (car- 
nail libertie) somtyme (the basest state of lyfe in the churche of God) so??*- 
tyme (a color of bawdry) somtyme (that it is a let for a man to geue himself 
whollye to God). Somtyme that (it is a doubling / rather then a takinge away 
the desyer of flesh) making himself therin wyser then God, who gaue it for a 
remedye against the lasciuiousnes of the flesh, as God him selfe witnessed when 
he sayd faciamus ei adlutorium lette vs make Adam a helper. And in the 
leaues .121. & 122. he goethe aboute to proue by Saynte Paule that all menne 
should auoide mariadge. Wher-by he confirmeth the opinions of Montanus, 
Tatianus / and suche other abhominable beritlques." — Ponet's Apology, pp. 49, 
60, 51. 

* Strype's Memorials, vol. iii. Pt I. p. 529, reprints Ponet's attack on Boorde ; 
" Ponet also expected these sanctimonious pretenders to a single life, by the 
horrible uncleannesses they were guilty of." Bp Ponet had previously written 
A Defence for Marriage of Priestes, 1549, but this (says our copier, Mr Wood) 
contains nothing about Andrew Boorde. Strype says that Ponet wrote this 
book in 1544, when an exile {Memorials, vol. iii. Pt I. p. 235). But see his 
Cranvier, i. 75, 475, 1058, and especially his Life of Parker, ii. 445, and foil. 
He or his editors confuse the layman's tract on which Parker's Defence of 
Priests' Marriages was founded, with Ponet's two tracts, though it has nothing 
to do with either of them, except being on the same subject. 

^ Boorde must have been at least 57 in 1547. 



68 WAS BOORDE GUILTY OF FORNICATION'? [§ 40/ 

stood women,^ witness his article on them in his Breuyary, Fol. 
Ixxxii. back : — 

" IT The .242. Chapitre dothe sheAve of a woman. 

MVlier is the latin worde. In greke it is named Gyuy. In Eng- 
lyshe it is named a woman ; first, when a woman was made of 
God, she was named Virago because she dyd come of a man, as it 
doth appere in the seconde Chapitre of the Genesis. Furthermore 
now why a woman is named a woman, I wyll sliewe my mynde. 
Homo is the latin worde, and in Englyshe it is as wel for a woman 
as for a man ; for a woman, the silables co?2uerted, is no more to say 
as a man in wo ; and set wo before man, and then it is woman ; and 
wel she may be named a woman, for as muche as she doth bere 
chyldren with wo and peyne, and also she is subiect to man, ex- 
cept it be there where the white mare is the better horse ; therfore 
Vt homo non cantet cum cuculo, let euery man please his wyfe in all 
matters, and displease her not, but let her haue her owne wyl, for 
that she wyll haue, wdio so euer say nay. 

|^p° The cause of this matter. 

This matter doth sprynge of an euyl educacion or bringynge vp, 
and of a sensuall and a peruerse mynde, not fearyng god nor worldely 
shame. 

^p° A remedy. 

I^° Phisike can nat helpe this matter, but onely God and greate 
sycknes maye subdue this matter, and no man els. 

Vt mulier non coeat cum alio viro nisi cum proprio, ^c. 
|^p° Beleue this matter if you wyll. 
TAKE the gal of a Gote and the gal of a Wolfe, myxe them 
togyther, and put to it the oyle of Olyue, ET VNG. mrga. Or els 
take of the fatnes of a Gote that is but of a yere of age. ET VNG. 
virga. Or els take the braynes of a Choffe, and myxe it with Hony. 
ET VNG. virga. But the best remedy that I do knowe for this 
matter, let euery man please his wyfe, and beate her nat, but let her 
haue her owne wyll, as I haue sayde." 

We know, too, that medical students are apt to gain their know- 
ledge of women's secrets — and Boorde knew plenty — by practical ex- 
periences inconsistent with a vow of chastity ; and that in the 1 6th 
century, both at home and abroad, opportunities for indulgence must 
have been many, to a roving doctor. Still, the knowledge of women's 
external and internal arrangements shown by Boorde in his Bre- 

* Compare the answer to the question what women most desire in The 
Marriage of Sir Gawaine, Percy Folio Ballads and Romances, i. 112. 'Item, 
I geue to all women, souereygntee, which they most desyre ; &; that they neuer 
lacke excuse.' — Wyll of the Deuyll, 



§ 40.] FOREWORDS : BOORDE's LIFE. WOOD's ACCOUNT OF HIM. 69 

uyary may have been only professional, and got purely. He also 
knew all the Doctors' remedies for lechery," and the penalty of indulg- 
ence by old men ; though, as he says, "it is hard to get out of the 
flesh what is bred in the bone ".^ We know too that the Protestant 
parson, William Harrison, in his Description of England , printed in 
1577, within 30 years of Boorde's death, called him "a lewd and vn- 
gratious priest," and in the 2nd edition of 1 586-7 " a lewd popish 
hypocrite, and vngratious priest,"^ using lewd in its modern sense. 
On the other hand, we know that Bp Ponet's charge was made at 
second hand, in a controversial book, and we have Anthony a 
Wood's suggested plea, above 140 years afterwards, in mitigation of 
the charge : 

'* He always professed celibacy, and did zealously write against 
such monks, priests, and friers, that violated their vow by marriage, 
as many did when their respective houses were dissolv'd by king 
Hen. 8. But that matter being irksome to many in those days, was 
the reason, I think, why a Calvinistical bishop (Joh. Ponet, B. of 
Winchester, who was then, as it seems, married), fell foul upon him, 
by reporting (In his Apology fully answeHng, &c. Tho. Martin's 
Book, &c., printed 1555, p. 32. See more in Tho. Martin) openly, 
that under colour of virginity and strictness of life, he kept three 
whores at once in his chamber at Winchester, to serve not only him- 
self, but also to help the virgin priests, &c. about 1547. How true 
this is, I cannot say (though the matter, as the bishop reports, was 
examined before several justices of peace) because the book here 
quoted contains a great deal of passion, and but little better lan- 
guage, than that of foul-mouth'd Bale, not only against him (And. 
Borde), but also against Dr. Joh. Storie, Dr. Th. Martin, &c. The 
first of whom, he saith, kept a wench called Magd. Bowyer, living in 
Grandpoole in the suburbs of Oxon ; and the other, another call'd 
Alice Lambe, living at the Christopher inn in the said city. But 
letting these matters pass (notwithstanding I have read elsewhere * 
that the said three whores, as the bishop calls them, were only 

' See his chapter on Priajjisnws, p. 100, below. 

^ " And an olde man to fall to carnall copulacion to get a chj'lde, he doth 
kyll a man, for he doth kyl hym selfe, except reason with grace do rule hym. 
But of tymes in this matter old men doth dote, for it is harde to get out of the 
lleshe, that is bred in the bone. And furthermore I do saye Qui multuDi 
coniunt dill t'mere nonjjossimt, for it doth ingender dyuers infirmyties, specially 
if venerious persons vse carnall copulacion vpon a full stomake." — Breuiary^ 
Fol. xxxi. back. See too p. 84, 1. 4, below. 

^ See p. 106, below. 

' Wood gives no reference, and I don't know what book or MS he alludes to. 



70 WHY WAS BOORDE PUT IN THE FLEET? [§ 40, 41. 

patients that occasionally recurred to his hous), I cannot otherwise 
but say, that our author Borde was esteemed a noted poet, a witty 
and ingenious person, and an excellent physician of his time ; and 
that he is reported by some to have been, not only physician to king 
lien. 8, but also a member of the colledge of physicians at London, 
to whom he dedicated his Breviary of Health" — Athen. Oxon. I. 
170, 171.1 

but on the evidence before us I must confess myself unable, as 
judge, to ask, or hint to, the jury, to acquit the prisoner. Perhaps 
the publication or investigation of the Winchester records will throw 
further light on the matter. It is a painful business to wind up the 
record of a useful life with ; but men are men. (See p. 85, JN'o. VII.) 
§ 41. We come now to the closing scene. Our lettered and 
widely-travelled healer of others' bodies, our preacher to others' souls, 
and reprover of others* vices, our hero sinned against and sinning, 
lies in the Fleet prison, sick in body, yet whole in mind. He is 
there, says Bp Bale in 1557-9, for his sin at Winchester, and has 
poisoned himself to save public shame : 

" Quum sanctus hie pater, Vuintoniae in sua domo, pro suis con- 
ccelibibus Papse sacrificulis prostibulum nutriret, in eo charitatis 
officio deprehensus, uenenato pharmaco anno Domini 1548 '^ sibijpsi 

' The prior part of Wood's Memoir, with many mistakes, is as follows : 
" Andrew Borde, who writes himself Andreas Perforatus, was born, as it 
seems, at Pevensey, commonly called Pensey, in Sussex, and not unlikelj 
educated in Wykeham's school, near to Winchester, brought up at Oxford, (a- 
he saith, in his Introduction to Knowledge, cap, 35), but in what house, unless i 
in Hart-hall, I know not. Before he had taken a degree, he entred himself i 
brother of the Carthusian order, at or near to London? where continuing tiil 
he was wearied out with the severity of that order, he left it, and for a time 
applied his muse to the study of physic in this university, Soon after, having 
a rambling head, and an unconstant mind, he travelled through most parts of 
Europe (through and round about Christendom, and out of Christendom, as 
he saith, Introdiiction to Knowledge, cap. 7), and into some parts of Africa. 
At length upon his return, he settled at Winchester, where he practised his 
faculty, and was much celebrated for his good success therein. In 1641 and 
1542, I find him living at Montpelier in France, at which time he took the 
degree of doctor of physic, and soon after being incorporated in the same 
degree at Oxon, he lived for a time at Pevensey, in Sussex, and afterwards at 
his beloved city of Winchester ; where, as at other places [? invention or 
gammon, this 'other places'], it was his custom to drink water three days in a 
week, to wear constantly a shirt of hair, and every night to hang his shroud 
and socking or burial-sheet at his bed's-feet, according as he had done, as I 
conceive, while he was a Carthusian." [Why accept the hair-shirt, (fee, and 
reject the whores, Mr Anthony ?] 
•"' Read 1549. 



§ 41.] forewords: boorde's life. MR J. p. collier's daring. 71 

mortem accelerauit, ne in publicum spectandus ueniret." — Bale's 
Scriptorum illustrium maioris Brytannice^ Catalogus ; Scriptorcs 
nostrl Temporis (after Gent, xii.) p. 105, edit. 1569. 

Or, as Wood says : 

" Joh. Bale, in the very ill language that he gives of Dr Borde, 
saith ^ that the brothelhouse which he kept for his brother- virgins 
being discovered, took physical poison to hasten his death, which was, 
as he saith, (but false 2) in 1548. This is the language of one who 
had been a bishop in Ireland." — ^A\^ood's Athen. Oxon. I. 173, ed. 
Bliss, 1813. 

He is there for his poverty,^ says Mr Payne Collier, with that no- 
torious daringness of invention that has made him read imaginary lines 
into MSS, and spelling into words, and has rendered him a wonder and 
warning to the editors of this age.* 

' In lib. De Script, maj. Britan, p. 105, post cent. 12. 

' Bale is wrong by less tban a month ; he wrote in old-style times. 

' " poverty brought him to the Fleet prison, where, according to Wood 
{Ath. Oxon. I. 172, edit. Bliss) he died in 1549." (Bibliographical Cata- 
loffve, i. 327.) And yet Bliss gives Boorde's Will, showing all the houses 
and property that he left by it ! 

"* To the Council of the Camden Society, who have lately put him among 
them, an object of honour, and (I suppose) a model for imitation. 

As minor instances of this * daring ' of Mv Collier's, take the last four that 
I have hit on in following him over the first 61 pages of his print of the 
Stationers' Registers, and one song in a Royal MS. 1. The clerk has left out 
the subject of one ballad, and entered on leaf 22, back, ' a ballytt of made by 
nycholas baltroppe ; ' the a of 7nade is not very decided, so that a hasty reader 
might take the word to be mode. Ritson (or the man he followed) so read it. 
Mr Collier prints the entry, leaves out the word of, and says, " We cannot 
suppose that Ritson saw the entry himself, and misread the words, ' A ballytt 
made,' * A ballytt of mode.' " 2. On leaf 75 of the Register, the clerk has 
made a first entry of the printing a picture of a monstrous child born at 
Chichester, for which id. was paid ; a second entry of one born in Suffolk, 
the sum paid for which is not put to it ; and a third entry of the print of a 
monstrous pig, for which the usual id. was also paid. Mr Collier has run 
parts of the 1st and 2nd entries together, making one of the two, and put 

* [no s?/w] ' at the end : he has then added the following note * [Perhaps the 
clerk of the Company did not know what ought to be the charge for a license 
for a publication of this kind ' [though he had entered the iiij^/ just before] ; 

* but, when he made the subsequent entry, he had ascertained that it should be 
the same as for a ballad, play, or tract].' 3. On the back of leaf 84 of the 
MS, in an entrj-- is ' o?/r salvation cosesth [= consest[et]h] only in christe.' 
Mr Collier prints this ' cosesth ' as * coseth,' and says we ought to read for 

* coseth,' comisteth. i. In MS No. 58 of the Appendix to the Royals in the 
British Museum is the song or ballad, ' By a bancke as I lay,' set to music. 
Mr Collier prints the words in his Stat. Beg. i. 193-4, makes two lines, 

So fayre be seld on few 
Hath floryshe ylke adew, 



72 boorde's illness perhaps the ''syckenes of the prisons." [§ 4i. 

As we know the sad state of London prisoners in Elizabeth's 

time from Stubbes/ — and it was doubtless worse earlier — we may, if 

we like, conjecture that Boorde's illness may have been the "Sickenes 

of the prison " for which he prescribes in his Breuyary, Fol. xxvi. 

back. 

" IT The .59. Chapitre doth shewe of the 
syckenes of the prisons. 

CArcinoma is the greke worde. In englyshe it is named the sickenes 
of the prison. And some auctours doth say that it is a Canker, 
the whiche doth corode and eate the superial partes of the body, but 
I do take it for the sickenes of the prison. 

1^° The cause of this infirmitie. 
IF This infirmitie doth come of corruption of the ayer, and the 
breth and fylth the which doth come from men, as many men to be 
together in a lytle rome, hauyng but lytle open ayer. 

IT A remedy. 

|^° The chefe remedy is for man, so to lyue, and so to do, that he 

deserue nat to be brought into no prison. And if he be in prison, 

eyther to get frendes to helpe hym out, or els to vse some perfumes, 

or to smel to some odiferous sauours, and to kepe the prison cleane." 

and observes on these " there is some corruption, for it seems quite clear that 
' few ' and ' adew ' must be wrong, although we know not what words to sub- 
stitute for those of the MS." Why not keep to the manuscript's own, — not 
misreading it, and foisting your own rubbish on to it ? — 
So fayre be feld on fen^ 
hath floryshe ylke a den). 
These rashnesses arose, no doubt, from Mr Collier taking his careless copy- 
ing as very careful work, not reading his proofs or revises with his MS, and 
yet finding fault with other people as if he had so read them. 

A neat instance of Mr Collier's May of correcting a mistake of this kind 
occurs in his Stat. Reg. ii. xiv. Mr Halliwell, having in a note duly attributed 
the Ballad * Faire wordes make fooles faine ' to its writer, Richard Edwards, 
Mr Collier misses the note, and says {Stat. Reg. i. 87) that Mr Halliwell ocas 
not aware of Edwards's authorship. Having found afterwards that that gen- 
tleman's print showed his awareness of the fact, Mr Collier corrects his own 
mistake by saying {Stat. Reg. ii. 14) that Mr Halliwell did pi-operly assign the 
ballad to Edwards, " a circumstance to which we did not advert when we 
penned our note." 

Lastly, we have the beginning of the process that resulted in the imaginary 
words in the Dulwich MSS, in Mr Collier's printing the Stationers' clerk's 
"kynge of " as "kynge of skottes" {Stat. Reg. i. 140, at foot). Here 

Mr Collier's insertion is the right one ; but this importing his knowledge with- 
out notice into one MS, led to his importing his fancies into others, also with- 
out notice. 

' Anatomic of Abuses, p. 141-2, ed. 1836, quoted in my Ballads from MSS 
(Hallad Soc, 1868), p. 33. 



§ 41.] FOREWORDS: BOORDE's LIFE. HIS WILL, 11 APRIL, 1549. 73 

But whether Bale be right or wrong in the causes he assigns to 
Andrew Boorde's imprisonment and death, here is all that Boorde 
himself tells us : — 

" In the Name of God, Amen. The yere of our lorde God, a 
Thousande five hundreth ffortie and nyne, the xj*** daye of Aprill, I, 
Andrewe Bord of Wynchester, in Hamshire, Doctoi^r of Phisike,^ 
being in the closse warden of the Flete, prisoner in london, hole in 
mynde and sicke in body, make this my last will in maner and forme 
[following]. First, I bequeth my soule to Almyghtie God, and my 
bodie to be buried in erthe, where yt shall please my Executo?zr. 
Also I bequeth vnto the poore prisoners now lying in the close warden 
of the Flete, x s. Also I bequeth to Edwarde Hudson a fetherbed, a 
bolster, a paire of shettes, and my best coverlet. Also I bequeth and 
giue to Richard Mathew, to his heires and to his assignes, two tene- 
jRentes or howses lying in the soocke in the towne of Lynne.^ Also 
I giue and bequeth vnto the same Richard Mathew, to his heires and 
to his assignes, all those tenemente^j with thappurtenawnces whiche I 
had by the deathe of my brother lying in Pemsey in Sussex. All 
whiche two tenementes in Lynne, whiche I hadd by the gifte of one 
Mr Conysby,^ and those other tenementes in Pemsey whiche I had by 
my brother, with all and singuler ther appurtenawnces, I will and giue, 
by this my last Wyll, vnto Richard Mathew, and to his heires and 
his assignes for ever (the deutye of the Lordes of the Fee always ex- 
cepted). The residue of all my goodes vnbequethed, moveable and 
vnmoveable, I will and bequeth vnto Richarde Mathew, whom I 
make my Executour, and he to dispose as he shall thynke best for my 
soule and all Christen soules. Also I giue and bequeth all my 
chattelles and houses lying abowte Wynchester or in Wynchester 
vnto Richard Mathew and his assignes. Witnesses vnto this wyll, 

' He has dropt the " prest " of his letters. 

^ " The ' Soken ' was used to distinguish the inhabited part of the parish 
of All Saints, South Lynn, which, though within the fortifications, was subject 
to the Leet of the Hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, from the Bishop's Borough of 
Lynn. Ux inf. : Alan H. Swatman, Esq., of Lynn. It was incorporated with 
the Borough, tonp. Phil. & Mary." — Cooper. 

3 " Dr Borde's friend and benefactor at Lynn was William Conyngsby, Esq., 
some- time Recorder of, and Burgess in Parliament for, that Borough,* who, in 
July, 1540, was made a justice of the King's Bench, and died in a few months. 
In addition to his house at Eston Hall, Wallington,-]- he resided in a mansion- 
house, in a street called the Wool-Market in Lynn. He was much trusted by 
the Crown and by Cromwell, to whom he addressed several letters preserved 
in the State-paper Office."— W. D. Cooper, in the Sussex Archceological So- 
cieti/s Collections, xiii. 268, 269. 

* " Wm. Conysby was elected recorder of Lynn, pursuant to the new charter, on Monday the feast 
of St. Michael, I'etli Hen. VIII., and was elected burgess to serve in parliament, for that borouph, 
31st March, 28th Hen. Vril. {Ex inf. : Alan H. Swatman, Esq.) He was afterwards a Judge Cico 
Foss's JiuJpes, v., 1 1.5.) I have not been able to identify IJonle's houses."— Cooper. 

t " He also owned West Linch Manor, in Norfolk."— CooiJer. 



74 boorde's breuyary. he likes ale and wine. [§ 42, 43. a. 

"WiLLM. Manley, Gent. John Pannell. Marten Lane. Hum- 
frey Bell. Edward Hudson. Thomas Wosenam. Nicholas 
Brune. 

" Boorde's Will was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canter- 
bury, by the oath of Richard Mathew, on the 25th of April, 1549 ; 
and the copy is in the register Poppulwell, 32." ^ 

Boorde must thus have died very soon after the date of his WiU, 
11 April, 1549 ; but we have no record of where he was buried. 

§ 42. Portraits of Andreiv Boorde. No authentic portrait of 
Boorde exists besides that which he has left us in his works. Neither 
of the two old woodcuts of him in this volume (pages 143, 
305) was ever drawn for him. The engraving of him in the 
1796 edition of Scogin's Jests, after (?) Holbein's ^ picture, of a man 
carrying a bone (?) in one hand and a cylindrical jar in the other, is 
not authenticated. Readers who want to know Boorde must therefore 
go to his works, of which the two most characteristic and interesting 
are contained in the present volume. But his Breuyary has also 
many incidental passages containing statements of his opinions, 
notices of his travels, and touches of himself, which ought to be 
before the reader, and the chief of these I therefore extract here. 



§ 43. Characteristic Extracts from Boorde! s Breuyary. 

a. Let us take first the passages in which Boorde speaks of him- 
self or his tastes. 

I. Boorde hates water, ^ but likes good Ale and Wine. 

"This impediment [Hidroforhia or abhorynge of water] doth 
come, as many auctours doth say, of a melancoly humour, for the 
inpotent is named a melancoly passion ; but I do saye as I do 
knowe, not onelye by my selfe, but by manye other, whan I dyd 
vse the seas, and of all ages, and of all complexions beynge in 
my company, that this matter dyd come more of coler than melan- 
coly, considerynge that coler is mouable, and doth swimme in the 
stomake. 

1 Henry Poppulwell's will is the first in it. 

^ Mr R. N. Wornum says it is not Holbein's. 

' He tells you also to wash your face only once a week if you want to clear 
it of spots. On the other days, wipe it with a Skarlet cloth. See Fol. xlix. 
and p. 1)5 here, bee also p. 102, * wypc the face with brownc paper that is sof te.' 



§ 43. a.] FOREWORDS : BOORDe's OPINION ON EVIL SPIRITS. 75 



A remedy. 
For this matter, purge Coler and melancoly humours ; for I 
my splfe, whiche am a Phisicion, is combered muche lyke this passion, 
for I can not away with water, nor waters by nauigacion, wherfore I 
do leue al water ^, and to take my selfe to good Ale ; and other whyle 
for Ale I do take good Gascon wyne, but I wyl not drynke stronge 
wynes, as Malmesey, Romney, Romaniske wyne, wyne Qoorse, wyne 
Greke, and Secke ; but other whyle, a draught or two of Muscadell or 
Basterde, Osey, Caprycke, Aligant, Tyre, Raspyte^, I wyll not re- 
fuse ; but white wyne of Angeou, or wyne of Orleance, or Renyshe 
wyne, white or read, is good for al men ; there is lytle read Renyshe 
wyne, except it growe about Bon, beyonde Colyn. There be many 
other wynes in diuers regions, prouinces, and countreys, that we haue 
not in Englande. But this I do say, that all the kyngdomes of the 
worlde haue not so many sondry kyndes of wynes, as be in Englande, 
and yet there is nothynge to make wyne of." — Fol. C.xxii. 

Boorde does not love Whirlwinds. His opinion of Evil Spirits. 

"IT The .183. Chapitre dothe shewe of standynge 
vp of mannes heare. 

HOrripilacio is the latin worde. In Englyshe it is named stand- 
yng vp of a mans heare. 

1^" The Cause of this impediment. 
IT This impediment doth come of a colde reume myxte with a 
melancoly humour and fieume. It may come by a folyshe feare, 
when a man is by hym selfe alone, and is a frayde of his owne 
shadow, or of a spirite. 0, what saye 11 1 shulde haue sayde, afrayd 
of the spirite of the buttry, whiche be perylous beastes. for suche 
spirites doth trouble a man so sore that he can not dyuers times 
stande vpon his legges. Al this notwithstandyng, with out any 
doute, in thunderynge and in lyghtenynge and tempestious wethers 
many euyl thynges hath ben sene and done ; but of all these afore- 
sayde thynges, a whorlewynde I do not loue : I in this matter myght 
bothe wryte & speake, the which I wyl passe ouer at this tyme. 

I^° The seconde cause of this impediment. 
IF This impediment doth come of a faynte herte, and of a feare- 
full mynde, and of a mannes folyshe conceyte, and of a tymerous 
fantasy. 

H A remedy. 

II Fyrste, let euery man, woman, or chylde, animate them selfe 

vpon God, and trust in hym that neuer deceyued no man, that euer 

had, hath, or shal haue confidence in hym. what can any euyl spirite 

or deuell do any man harme without His wyll 1 And if it be my 

* II n'a pas soif qui de Veau ne boit : Prov. Hee's not athirst that will 
uot water drinke. — Cotgrave, A.D. 1611. See p. 255, below. ^ for 'Raspyce.' 



76 BOORDe's BREUYARY. the state and vices of ROME. [§ 43. a. 

Lorde Goddes wyl, I wolde all the deuyls of hell dyd teare my fleshe 
al to peces ! for Goddes wyll is my wyll in all thynges." — Fol. Ixv, 
back. 

Yet Boorde is afraid that Devils may enter into him. He is also 
shocked at the vicious state of Rome. 

" The fyrst tyme that I did dwell in Eome, there was a gentyl- 
woman of Germany the wliiche was possessed of deuyls, & she was 
brought to Eome to be made whole. For within the precynct of S. 
Peters church, without S. Peters chapel, standeth a pyller of white 
marble grated rounde about with Yron, to the whiche our Lorde 
lesus Chryste dyd lye in hym selfe vnto in [so] Pylates hall, as the 
Romaynes doth say, to the which pyller al those that be possessed of 
the deuyll, out of dyuers countres and nacions be brought thyther, 
and (as they saye of Rome) such persons be made there whole. 
Amonge al other, this woman of Germany, whiche is .CCCC. myles 
and odde frome Rome, was brought to the pyller ; I then there beyng 
j)resent, with great strength and vyolently, with a .xx, or mo men, this 
woman was put into that pyller within the yron grate, and after her 
dyd go in a Preest, and dyd examyne the woman vnder this maner 
in the Italyan tonge : — ' Thou deuyl or deuyls, I do abiure the by the 
potenciall power of the father, and of the sonne our Lorde lesus 
Chryste, and by the vertue of the holy ghoste, that thou do shew to 
me, for what cause that thou doest possesse this woman ! ' what 
wordes was answered, I wyll not wryte, for men wyll not beleue it, 
but wolde say it were a foule and great lye, but I did heare that I was 
afrayd to tary any longer, lest that the deuyls shulde haue come out 
of her, and to haue entred into me, remembrynge what is specified in 
the .viii. Chapitre of S. Mathewe, when that lesus Clirist had made 
.ii. men whole, the whiche was possessed, of a legiow of deuyls. A 
Icgiow is .ix. M. ix. C. nynety and nyne ; the sayd deuyls dyd desyre 
Igsus, that when they were expelled out of the aforesayd two men, 
that they myght enter into a herde of hogges ; and so they dyd, and 
the hoggeg dyd runne into the sea, and were drowned. I, consyder- 
ynge this, and weke of faith and afeard, crossed my selfe, and durst 
not to heare and se suche matters, for it was so stiipendious and abouo 
all reason, yf I shulde wryte it. and in this matter I dyd maruel of an 
other thynge : yf the efficacitie of such makynge one Avhole, dyd rest 
in the vertue that was in the pyller, or els in the wordes that the 
preste dyd speake. I, do iudge it shuld be in the holy wordes that 
the prest dyd speake, and not in the pyller, for and yf it were in tlie 
pyller the Byshops and the cardinalles that hathe ben many yeres 
past, and those that were in my tyme, and they that hath ben sence, 
wolde haue had it in more reuerence, and not to suiFre rayne, hayle, 
snowe, and such wether to fal on it, for it hath no couerynge. but at 
last, when that I dyd consyder that the vernacle, the fysnomy of 
Christ, and skarse the sacrament of the aulter was in maner 



§ 43. a.] FOREWORDS. BOORDE ON ST PETER'S AT ROME. 77 

vncouered, & al .S. Peters churche downe in ruyne, & vtterly decayed, 
and nothyng set by ; consydering, in olde chapels, beggers and baudes, 
hoores and theues, dyd ly within them ; asses, and moyles dyd defyle 
within' the precynct of the churche; and byenge and sellynge there 
was vsed within the precynt of the sayd churche, that it did pytie my 
hart and mynde to come and to se any tyme more the sayde place 
and churche. Then dyd I go amonges the fryers mendicantes, and 
dyuers tymes I dyd se releuathes -pro de-functis hange vppon fryers 
backes in walettes ; then I wente to other relygious houses, as to the 
Celestynes and to the Charter-house, and there I dyd se nullus ordo. 
And after that I dyd go amonges the monkes & chanons and cardy- 
nalles, and there I dyd se horror inhahltans. Then did I go rounde 
aboute Eome, and in euery place I did se Lechery and boggery i, de- 
ceyt and vsery in euery corner and place. And if saint JPeter and 
Paule do lye in Rome, they do lye in a hole vnder an Aulter, hauyng 
as much golde and syluer, or any other lewell as I haue about myne 
eye ; and yf it do rayne, hayle, or snowe, yf the wind stande Est- 
warde, it shal blowe the rayne, hayle, or snow to saynt Peters 
spelunke; wherfore it maketh manye men to thynke that the two 
holye Apostles shulde not lye in Rome, specially in the place as the 
Romaynes say they do lye. I do marueyle greatlye that suche an 
holye place and so great a Churche as is in all the worlde (except 
saynt Sophis churche in Constantinople), shulde be in such a vile case 
as it is in. Consyderynge that the bysshops of Romes palice, and 
his castel named Castel Angil standyng vpon the water or great ryuer 
of Tiber within Rome, and other of theyr places, and all that Car- 

* " And lyghtlye there is none of theym [Cardinals and Prelates] withoute 
.iii. or .iiii. paiges trymmed like yonge prynces ; for what purpos I wolde be 
loth to tell. — If I shoulde saye, that vnder theyr longe robes, they hyde the 
greattest pride of the worlde, it might happen some men wolde beleue it, but 
that they are the vainest men of all other, theyr owne actes doe wel declare. 
For theyr ordinarie pastime is to disguise them selfes, to go laugh at the Court- 
isanes houses, and in the shrouing time, to ride maskyng about with theim, 
which is the occasion that Rome wanteth no iolie dames, specially the strete 
called Itdla, whiche is no more than halfe a myle longe, fayre buylded on both 
sydes, in maner inhabited with none other but Courtisanes, some worthe .x. and 
some worthe .xx. thousand crownes, more or lesse, as theyr reputacyon is. 
And many tymes you shal see a Courtisane ride into the countrey, with .x. or 
.xii. horse waityng on hir. — Briefely by reporte, Rome is not without 40,000. 
harlottes, mainteigned for the most part by the clergye and theyr foloweis. 
So that the Romaines them selfes suffer theyr wifes to goe seldome abrode, 
either to churche or other place, and some of theim scarcelye to looks out at a 
lattise window, wherof theyr prouerbe sayeth, In lioma tale pin la jiutana^ 
eke la moglie liomana, that is to say, ' in Rome the harlot hath a better lyfe, 
than she that is the Romaines wyfe.' — In theyr apparaile they are as gorgeouse 
as may be, and haue in theyr goyng such a solemne pace, as I neuer sawe. In 
conclusion, to line in Rome is more costly than in any other place ; but he 
that hathe money maye haue there wh.at liym lyketh." — 1549 a.d., Thomas's 
lUstonj of Itahjc, foi. 39 (edit. 1561). 



78 boorde's breuyary. the night-mare. [§ 43. o. 

dynalles palacis, be so sumptuously maynteyned, as well without as in 
maner within, and that they wyl se their Cathedral churche to lye 
lyke a Swynes stie. Our Peter pence was wel bestowed to the re- 
edifieng of s. Peters Churche, the which dyd no good, but to noryshe 
syn & to niaynteyne war. And shortly to conclude, I dyd neuer se 
no vertue nor goodnes in Rome, but in Byshop Adrians days, which 
wold haue reformed dyuers enormities, & for his good wyl & preteTice 
he was poysoned within .iii. quarters of a yere after he did come to 
Pome, as this mater, with many other matters mo, be expressed in a 
boke of my sermons. & now to co/iclude, who so euer hath bene in 
Pome, & haue sene theyr vsage there (excepte grace do worke aboue 
nature, he shal neuer be good man after), be not these creatures pos- 
sessed of the deuyl 1 This matter I do remit to the iudgement of the 
reders, for God knoweth that I do not wryte halfe as it is or was ; but 
that I do write is but to true, the more pitie, as God knoweth." — 
JSxtrauaganteSj Pol. iv, back. 

On another page of his Breuyary he says : 

" In Pome they will poyson a mannes sterope, or sadle, or any 
other thynge ; and if any parte of ones body do take anye heate or 
warmenes of the poyson, the man is then poysoned." Pol. C.xvi. back. 

Boorde is told of a Spirit hy an Ancress at St Alban's. 

"The .119. Chapitre dothe shewe of the Mare, 

and of the spirites named Incubus 

and Succuhus. 

EPhialtes is the greke worde. Epialtes is the barbams worde. 
In latin it is named Incubus and Succubus. In Englyshe it is 
named the Mare. And some say that it is kynd of spirites, the which 
doth infect and trouble men when they be in theyr beddes slepynge, 
as Saynt Augustine say the De ciuitate dei, Capi. 20. and Saynt 
Thomas of Alc^uine sayth, in his fyrst parte of his diuinitie. Incubus 
doth infeste and trouble women, and Succubus doth infest men. 
Some holdeth opynyon that Marlyn was begotten of his mother of 
the spirite named Incubus. Esdras doth speke of this spirite, and I 
haue red much of this spirite in Speculum exemplorum ; and in my 
tyme at saynt Albons here in Englande, was infested an Ancresse of 
such a spirite, as she shewed me, & also to credyble persons.^ but this 
is my opynyon, that this Ephialtes, otherwyse named the Mare, the 

' Compare the curious set of depositions in a Lansdowne MS, 101, leaves 
21-33, as to 'the Catt' which Agnes Bowker, aged 27, brought 'fforthe at 
Herboroghe, within the lurisdietion of y^ Archdeaconrie of Leicester, 22 Janu. 
1568.' The vermilion drawing of 'the Catt,' its exact size, 'measured by a 
paire of compasses,' is given on the inside of the folio, leaf 32, back, and leaf 
33. Agnes Bowker seems to have been delivered of a child, and to have 
substituted a flayed kitten in its place. 



§ 43. a.] FOREWORDS. ANDREW BOORDE HAS CACHEXIA. 79 

whiche doth come to man or woman when they be sleping, doth come 
of some euyll humour ; consyderyng that they the which be thus 
troubled slepyng, shall thynke that they do se, here, & fele ; — the 
thyng that is not true. And in such troublous slepyng a man shal 
scarse drawe his breth. 

The cause of this impediment. 

IT This impediment doth come of a vaporous humour or fumosytie 
rysynge out and frome the stomake to the brayne ; it may come also 
thorowe surfetynge and dronkennes, and lyenge in the bed vpryght ; 
it may come also of a reumatyke humour supressyng the brayne ; and 
the humour discendynge, doth perturbate the hert, bringyng a man 
slepynge into a dreame, to thynke that the which is nothynge, is 
somwhat ; and to fele that thyng that he feleth not, and to se that 
thynge that he seeth not, with such lyke matters. 
IT A remedy. 

^^ Fyrste, let suchepersons beware of lyenge vpryght, lest they 
be suffocated, or dye sodenly, or els at length they wyll fall into a 
madnes, named Mania ; therfore let suche persons kepe a good dyet in 
eatynge and drynkynge, let theym kepe honeste company, where 
there is honest myrth, and let them beware of musynge or studienge 
vpon any matter the whiche wyl trouble the brayne ; and vse diners 
tymes sternutacions with gargarices, and beware of wynes, and euery 
thyng the whiche doth engender fumositie. 

|^° Yf it be a spirite, &c. 

IT I haue red, as many more hath done, that can tell yf I do 
wpyte true or false, there is an herbe named fuga Demonum, or as the 
Grecians do name it Ipericon. In Englyshe it [is] named saynt 
Johns worte, the which herbe is of that vertue that it doth repell 
suche malyfycyousnes or spirites." — Fol. xlv. 

Boorde has Cachexia, or a Bad Habit of Body, 



The .60. Chapitre dothe shewe of an infirmite the 
whiche is concurrant with an Hyedropsy. 

CAceciay or Cacexia^ or Cathesia, be the greke wordes. In latin it is 
named Mala hahitudo. In Englyshe it is named an euyl 
dweller, for it is an infirmitie concurrant with the hidropsies. 
IF The cause of this infirmytie. 
If This infirmitie doth come thorowe euyll, slacke, or slowe 
digestion. 

II A remedy. 
I^° Vse the confection of Alkengi, and kepe a good dyet, & 
beware of drynkynge late, and drynke not before thou do eate 
somewhat, and vse temperate drynkes, and labour or exercise the body 
to swete. I was in this infirmite, and by greate trauayl I dyd make 
my selfe whole, more by labour than by phisicke in receyptes of 
medecines." — Fol. xxiii. back. 



80 BOORDE HAS THE STONE, AND GETS NITS DOWN HIS THROAT. [§ 43. a. 

Boorde accidentalh/ has the Stone, and cures himself of it. 

" IT The .207. Cliapitre dothe sliewe of the stone 
in the bladder 

LIthiasis is the greke worde. In latin it is named Calculus in 
vesica, and Lapis is taken for all the kyndes of the stones. In 
Englysshe, lithiasis is the stone in the bladder. And some doth saye 
that Nefresis is the stone in the raynes of the backe, therfore loke in 
the Chapytre named Nefresis. 

% The cause of this impediment. 

This impedimente doth come eyther by nature, or els by eatynge 
of euyl and vyscus meates, and euyl drinkes, as thycke ale or beare, 
eatynge broyled and fryed meates, or meates that be dryed in the 
smoke, as bacon, martynmas biefe, reed hearynge, sprottes, and salt 
meates, and crustes of breade, or of pasties, and such lyke. 

IT A remedy. 

|^° If it do come by nature, there is no remedy ; a man maye miti- 
gate the peyne, and breake the stone for a tyme, as shalbe rehersed. 
If it do come accidentally, by eatyng of meates that wyll ingender 
the stone, take of the bloud of an Hare, & put it in an erthen pot, 
and put therto .iii. vnces of Sa[xi]frage rotes, and bake this togyther in 
an Ouen, & than make pouder of it, and drynke of it mornynge and 
euenyng. For this mater, this is my practise : fyrste I do vse a dyet 
eatynge no newe bread, excepte it be .xxiiii. houres olde. I refuse 
Cake bread, Saffron bread, Rye bread, Leuyn bread, Cracknelles, 
Symnelles, and all maner of crustes ; than I do drynke no newe ale, 
nor no maner of beere made with Hoppes, nor no hoote wynes. I 
do refrayne from Fleshe and fyshe, which e be dryed in the smoke, 
and from salte meates and shell fyshes. I do eate no grosse meates, 
nor burned fleshe, nor fyshe. thus vsynge my selfe, I thanke God I dyd 
make my sclfe whole, and many other, but at the begynnyng, whan I 
went about to make my self whole, I dyd take the pouder folowynge : 
I dyd take of Brome sedes, of Percilles sedes, of Saxfrage sedes, of 
Gromel sedes, of eyther of them an vnce ; of Gete stone a quarter of 
an vnce, of Date stone as much ; of egges shelles that chekyn hath 
lyne in, the pyth pulled out, half an vnce ; make pouder of al this, 
and drynke halfe a sponeful mornyng and euenynge with posset ale 
or whit wyne. Also the water of Hawes is good to drynke." — 
Fol. Ixxii. (See p. 292, below.) 

Boorde occasionally gets a Nit or a Fly doivn his Weasand, and 
commits the Cure to God. 

"1^- The .356. Chapitre doth shewe of the Wesande 
or throte boll. 

TTMiachea arteria be the latin wordes. In Englyshe it is named the 
X wesande, or the throte bol, by tlie whiche the wynde and the 



§ 43. a.] BREUYARY EXTRACTS. BOORDe's EXPERIENCES. 81 

ayer is conueyed to the longes ; & if any crome of brede, or drop of 
drynke, go or enter into the sayde wesande, yf a man do not coughe 
he shulde be stranguled ; and therfore, whether he wyl or wyll not, he 
must cough, and laye before hym that is in the throte and mouth ; nor 
he can be in no quietnes vnto the tyme the matter be expelled or ex- 
pulsed out of the throte, as it doth more largely appere in the Chapitre 
named Strangulacio. 

IT The cause of this impediment. 

IT This impedimente doth come of gredynes to eate or drynke 
sodeynly, not taking leysure ; also it may come of some flye inhausted 
into a mans throte sodeynely, as I haue sene by other men as by my 
selfe ; for a nytte or a flye comming vnto a mannes mouth, when he 
doth take in his breth and ayer, loke what smal thyng is before the 
mouth, is inhausted into the wesande, and so it perturbeth the pacient 
with coughynge. 

|^° A remedy. 

4- For the fyrst cause, be nat to gredy, eate and drynke with ley- 
ser, fearyng God ; and as for the seconde cause, I do committe only 
to God : for this matter, coughynge is good." — Fol. C.xiiii. See too 
Fol. C.xxi. back. 

Boorde can take-in other Phisicians by his Urine. 

" There is not the wisest Phisicion liuynge, but that I (beynge an 
whole man) may deceyue him by my vryne ; and they shall iudge a 
sicknes that I haue not nor neuer had, and all is thorowe distem- 
peraunce of the bodye vsed the day before that the vryne is made in 
the mornynge ; and this I do saye, as for the colours of vrynes, 
[vryne] is a strumpet or a harlot, and in it many phisicions maye 
be deceyued, but as touchy nge the contentes of vrynes, experte 
phisicions maye knowe the infyrmyties of a pacient vnfallybly." — 
ExtravAxgantes^ Fol. xxvi. 

Booi'de has seen Worms come out of Men. 



The .364. Chapitre dothe shewe of diners 
kyndes of wormes. 

YErmes is the latin worde. In greeke it is named ScoUces. In 
English e it is wormes. And there be many kyndes of wormes. 
There be in the bodye thre sortes, named Lumbrici, Ascarides, and 
Cucurbiti. Lumbrici be longe white wormes in the body. Ascarides 
be smal lytle white wormes as bygge as an here, and halfe an ynche 
of length ; and they be in a gutte named the longacion ; and they wyl 
tycle in a mans foundement. Cucurhiti be square wormes in a mans 
body : and I haue sene wormes come out of a mans body lyke the 
fashion of a maggot, but they haue bene swart, or hauynge a darke 
colour. Also there be wormes in a mans handes named Sirones, & 
there be wormes in a mans fete named degges; then is there a rynge 

BOORDE. 6 



82 BOORDE ON FASTING, SWEARING, AND HERESIES. [§ 43. /3. 

worme, named in latin Impetigo ; And there may be wormes in a mans 
tethe & eares, of the which I do pretende to speke of nowe. As for 
all the other wormes, I haue declared theyr properties and reme- 
dies in theyr owne Chapitres. 

1^° The cause of wormes in a mannes Eare. 

IT Two causes there be that a man haue wonnes in his eares, the 
one is ingendred thorowe corruption of the brayne, the other is acci- 
dentall, by crepynge in of a worme into a mans eare or eares. 
|^p° A remedy. 

|^° Instyll into the eare the oyle of bitter Almons, or els the oyle 
of woimewode, or els the iuyce of Eewe ; warme euery thyng that 
must be put into the eare." 

§ 43. j3. Let us take, secondly, the notices of seven evils in Eng- 
land of which Boorde complains : — I. The neglect of fasting. II. 
The prevalence of swearing and heresies. III. The Laziness of young 
People. lY. The want of training for Midwives. V. Cobblers 
being Physicians. VI. The Mutability of Men's Minds. VII. 
The Lust and Avarice of Men : — adding his few allusions to the 
state of the poor (p. 86-7), and his one to early marriages (p. 87). 

I. The neglect of Fasting. 

a. " As for fastyng, that rule now a dayes nede not to be spoken 
of, for fastynge, prayer, and almes dedes, of charytie, be banyshed 
out of al regions and prouinces, and they be knockynge at paradyse 
gates to go in, wepynge and waylynge for the Temporaltye and spirit- 
ualtye, the which hath exyled them." — Fol. vii. back. 

(i. " Here it is to be noted that nowe a dayes few or els none doth 
set by prayer or fasting, regardyng not Gods wordes : in this mattere 
I do feare that such persons be possessed of the deuil, although they 
be not starke madde." — The JSxtrauagantes, Fol. iiii. back. 

II. The prevalence of Sicearing and Heresies. 

" Do not you thynke that many in this contrie be possessed of the 
deuil, & be mad, although they be not starke mad? who is blynder then 
he that wil not se? who is madder then he that doth go about to kyl his 
owne soule ? he that wil not labour to kepe the commaundementes of 
God, but dayly wil breke them, doth kil his soul, who is he that loueth 
God and his neyghbour, as he ought to do ] but who is he that nowe a 
dayes do kepe their holydayes ? & where be they that doth vse any 
wordes, but swearyng, lyeng, or slaunderynge is the one ende of theyr 
tale. In all the worlde there is no regyon nor countrie that doth vse 
more swearynge, then is vsed in Englande, for a chylde that scarse 
can speake, a boy, a gyrle, a wenche, now a dayes wyl swere as great 



§ 43. (i.] BOORDE ON SWEARING, HERESIES, AND LAZINESS. 83 

otlies as an olde knaue and an olde drabbe. it was vsed that when 
swearynge dyd come vp fyrst, that he that dyd swere shulde haue a 
phylyp, gyue that knaue or drabbe a phylyp with a club that they 
do stagger at it, and then they and chyldren wolde beware, after that, 
of swerynge, whiche is a damnable synne ; the vengeance of God doth 
oft hange ouer them, and yf they do not amend and take repent- 
ance, they shalbe dampned to hell where they shalbe mad for euer 
more, worlde without ende. Wherfore I do counsayle al suche euyll 
disposed persons, of what degre so euer they be of, amende these 
faultes whyles they haue nowe leysure, tyme, and space, and do 
penance, for els there is no remedy but eternall punyshement. 

A remedy. 
Wolde to God that the Kynge our soueraygne lorde, with his 
most honorable counsell, wolde se a reformacion for this swerynge, and 
for Heresies, for the whiche synnes we haue had greate pimyshment, 
as by dere price of come and other vitayles ; for no man can remedy 
these synnes, but God and our kynge ; for there be a perilous nomber 
of them in Englande if they were diligently sought out ; I do speke 
here of heretikes : as for swearers, a man nede not to seke for theym, 
for in the Kynges courte, and lordes courtes, in Cities, Borowes, and 
in townes, and in euery house, in maner, there is abhominable swer- 
ynge, and no man dothe go about to redresse it, but doth take 
swearyng as for no synne, whiche is a damnable synne ; & they the 
which doth vse it, be possessed of the Deuiil, and no man can helpe 
them, but God and the kyng. For Demoniacus loke in the Chapitre 
named Mania." — The Extrauagantes, Fol. vi. 

III. The Laziness ^ of young People.^ 

" l^° The .151. Chapitre dothe shewe of an euyl Feuer 

the whiche dothe cumber yonge persons, 

named the Feuer lurden. 

AMonge all the feuers I had almost forgotten the feuer lurden, with 
the which many yonge menne, yonge women, maydens, and 
other yonge persons, be sore infected nowe a dayes. 

* ' the slowe worme and deadely Dormouse called Idlenes, the ruine of 
realmes, and confounder of nobilitie.' Louis, Duke of Orleans, to Henry IV, 
in the 5th year of his reign. — Hall's Chronicle, p. 33, ed. 1809. 

^ Compare Discipline's saying, in W. Wager's " The longer thou liuest, the 
more foole thou art," ab. 1568 a.d. (Hazlitt), sign. D iij back. 

Two thinges destroye youth at this day, 

Indulgentia parentnm, the f ondnes of parents, 

Which will not correct there noughty way, 

But rather embolden them in there entents. 

Idlenesse, alas ! Idlenesse is an other. 

Who so passeth through England, 

To se the youth he would wonder, 

How Idle they be, and how they stand I 



84 BOORDE ON LAZINESS, MIDWIVES, AND COBBLER-DOCTORS. [§ 43. ft. 

H The cause of this Peuer. 

IT This feuer doth come naturally, or els by euyll and slouthfuU 
bryngynge vppe. If it come by nature, then this feuer is vncurable, 
for it can neuer out of the lleshe that is bred in the bone ; yf it come 
by slouthfuU bryngynge vp, it may be holpen by dylygent labour. 

U A remedy. 

|^° There is nothyng so good for the Feuer lurden as is Vngiien- 
turn haculinura, that is to say, Take me a stycke or wan[d] of a yerde of 
length and more, and let it be as great as a mans fynger, and with it 
anoynt the bake and the shulders well, mornynge and euenynge,^ and 
do this .xxi. dayes ; and if this Feuer wyll net be holpen in that 
tyme, let them beware of waggynge in the Galowes ; and whiles they 
do take theyr medecine, put no Lubberworte into theyr potage, and 
be [w] are of knauerynge aboute theyr hert ; and if this wyl nat helpe, 
sende them than to Newgate, for if you wyll nat, they wyll brynge 
them selfe thither at length." — Breu. Fol. Iv. 

IV. The loant of training for Midioives. 

" If it do come of euyll orderynge of a woman whan that she 
is deliuered, it must come of an vnexpert Mydwyfe, In my tyme, as 
well here in Englande as in other regions, and of olde antiquitie, 
euery Midwyfe shulde be presented with honest women of great 
grauitie to the Byshop, and that they shulde testify, for her that they 
do present shulde be a sadde woman, wyse and discrete, hauynge ex- 
perience, and worthy to haue the office of a Midwyfe. Than the 
Byshoppe, with the counsel of a doctor of Physick, ought to examine 
her, and to instructe her in that thynge that she is ignoraunt ; and 
thus proued and a[d]mitted, is a laudable thynge ; for and this were 
Ysed in Englande, there shulde not halfe so many women myscary, 
nor so many chyldren perish ^ in euery place in Englande as there be. 
The Byshop ought to loke on this matter." — The ExtrauaganteSj FoL 
XV. back. 

V. Cobblers being Physicians. 

** lorde, what a gTcat detriment is this to the noble science of 
phisicke, that ignoraunt persons wyl enterpryse to medle with the 

A Christian mans hart it would pittie, 

To behold the euill bringing vp of youth ! 

God preserue London, that noble Citie, 

Where they haue taken a godly ordre for a truth : 

God geue them the mindes the same to maintaine ! 

For in the world is not a better ordre. 

Yf it may be Gods fauour still to remaine, 

Many good men will be in that bordre. 
See the curious list of Fool's ofl&cers, * A whole Alphabete ' of them, ' a rable 
of roysterly ruffelers,' on the back of leaf F 4. 

• See quaint W. Bulleyn on Boxyng, &c., Baiees Booh, p. 240-8. 

* orig. perished. 



§ 43. /3.] BREUYARY EXTRxVCTS. MEN's CHANGEABLENESS AND LUST. 85 

ministracion of phisicke, that Galen, prince of phisicions, in his 
Terapentike doth reprehende and disproue, sayeng, 'If Phisicions 
had nothyng to do with Astronomy, Geomatry, Logycke, and other 
sciences, Coblers, Curryars of lether. Carpenters and Smythes, and al 
such maner of people wolde leaue theyr craftes, and be Phisicions,' as 
it appereth no we a dayes that many Coblers be, fye on such ones ! 
whervpon Galen reprehended Tessalus for his ignoraunce : for Tes- 
salus smattered and medled with Phisicke, and yet he knewe not 
what he dyd, as many doth no we a dayes, the whiche I maye ac- 
compte Tessalus foolyshe dyscyples." — Breu. Fol. ii. (Compare the 
First Chapter of the Introduction of Knowledge.) 

VI. The Mutahility of Men's Minds. 

" IF The .23. Chapitre doth shewe of a mannes mynde. 

ANimus is the latin worde : In greke it is named Tliimos. In 
englyshe it is a mannes mynde. The mynd of a man is very 
mutable and inconstant, more in one man then in another, but the 
moste parte myght be amended. 

IF The cause of this Mutabilitie. 

|^° This mutabylytie doth come thorowe wauerynge and incon- 
stant wyttes, lackynge loue and charytye to God, to a mannes owne 
selfe, and to his neyghbour, regardynge more, other ^ sensualytie or 
prodigalytie, couetys or lucre, then the welth and profyte of the soule. 
Yet the mynde of man is so occupied aboute worldly matters and 
businesses, that God and the soule of man is forgotten, by the whiche 
great daungers foloweth. 

1^" A remedy, 

IT Fyrst, let euery man reconcylc hym selfe in and to God, and not 
to set by the worlde, but to take the worlde as it is, not beyng par- 
manente nor abydynge place, but to lyue as one shulde dye euery 
houre. And yf a man may haue this memory, he wyl not be 
mutable, nor set by the worlde, but be constant, hauynge euer a 
respect to God his creatour, and to his neyghbour, which is euery 
man where soeuer he dwell." — Breu. Fol. xv. 

VII. The Lust and Avarice of Men. 

"I^° The .340. Chapitre doth shewe of touchyng 
the whiche is one of the .v. wyttes. 

T Actus is the latin word. In greke it is named Aj^hi. In Eng- 
lishe it is named touching or handlyng ; and of handlyng or 
touching be ii. sortes, the one is venerious and the other is auari- 
cious ; the one is thorowe carnal concupiscence, & the other is thorowe 
cupiditie of worldly substance or goodes. 

' other = or. 



86 BOORDE ON DISEASES OF THE POOR IN YOUTH. [§ 43. /3. 

IF The cause of these impedimentes. 

IT The fyrst impedimente doth come eyther that man wyll not 
call for grace to God not to displese hym, or els a man wyl folowe his 
luxurious sensualtie lyke a brute beaste. The seconde impediment, 
the which is auaryce or couetyse, wyll touch all thynges, and take as 
much as he can get, for al is fyshe that cometh to the nette with such 
persons. 

1^° A remedy. 

IT For these matters I knowe no remedy, but onely God ; for there 
is fewe or none that doth feare God in none of these .ii. causes : if 
the feare of God were in vs we wolde not do so. lesus helpe vs all ! 
AMEJST." — Breu. Fol. C.x. [Does this mean ' guilty, and sorry for 
it'1 p. 66.] 

On the state of the poor there is hardly anything in Boorde's 
books. The chapters on Kybes, noticing the bad shoes of children, 
that on Croaking in the Belly, and that on Lowsiness — a point 
brought under our notice before by the Bahees Booh (p. 134, 209), 
and Caxton's BooTc of Curtesye — are the only ones I have noted. 

ChilUains. 

" l®° The .272. Chapitre dothe shewe of an impedi- 
ment in the Heles. 
PErniones is the latin worde. Pernoni is the Barbarous worde. In 
Englyshe it is named the kybes in a mannes heales. 

|^° The cause of this impedimente. 

IF This impediment most comonly doth infest or doth happen 
to yonge persons the which be hardly brought vp, goyng barefoted, or 
with euyil shoes j and it dothe come of extreme colde and fleumatyke 
humours. 

If A remedy. 

IT For the Kybes beware that the Snowe do nat come to the 
Heles, and beware of colde, nor prycke, nor pycke the Kybes : kepe 
them warme with woUen clothes, and to bedwarde washe the heles 
and the fete with a mans propre vrine, & with Netes fote oyle." — 
Breu. Foi. Ixxxxi. 

Croaking in tlie Belly. 

"t The .309. Chapitre dothe shewe of crokyng 

in a mannes bely. 

P Vgitus ventris be the latin wordes. In Englyshe it is named 

It crokyng or clockyng in ones bely. In greke it is named 

Brichithmos. 



§ 43. /3.] BEEUYARY EXTRACTS. ON LOWSINESS AND THE TONGUE. 87 



The cause of this impediment. 
This impediment doth come of coldenes in the guttes, or 
longe fastyng, or eatyng of fruites and wyndy meates, and it may 
come of euyl dyet in youth. 

10° A remedy. 
10° Fyrste, beware of colde and longe fastynge, and beware of 
eatynge of frutes, potages, and sewes, and beware that the bely be 
not constupated or costiue, and vse dragges to breake wynde." — 
Breu. Fol. C. back. 

Lowslness. 

"10° The .273. Chapitre dothe shewe of lyce in a 
mannes body or head or any other place. 

PEdiculacio or Morbus pedieulorum be the latin wordes. In greke 
it is named Phthiriasis. In Englyshe it is named lousines, and 
there be .iiii. kyndes, whiche be to say, head lyce, body lyce, crabbe 
lyce, and nits. 

IF The cause of this impediment. 
This impediment doth come by the corruption of bote humours 
with sweat, or els of rancknes of the body, or els by vnclene kepyngc, 
or lyenge with lousy persons, or els not chaungjmge of a mannes 
sherte, or els lyenge in a lousy bedde. 

10° A remedy. 
10° Take of the oyle of Baye, an vnce and a halfe ; of Stauysacre 
made in fyne ponder, halfe an vnce ; of Mercury mortified with fast- 
ynge spetyll, an vnce ; incorporate al this togyther in a vessel vpon a 
chafynge dyshe of coles, and anoynt the body. I do take onely the 
oyle of Bayes with Mercury mortified, and it doth helpe euery man 
and woman, excepte they be not to rancke of complexion." — Fol. 
Ixxxxi. 

The custom of mere boys marrying, which Stubbes reproves so 
strongly in his Anatomie of Abuses, p. 100, ed. 1836 (quoted in my 
Ballads from MSS, p. 32), Boorde only notices incidentally : 

" And let boyes, folysh men, and hasty men, the whych be 
maryed, beware howe that they do vse theyr wyues when they be 
with child." — Breu. Fol. viii, 

§ 43. y. Thirdly, we may take some of Boorde's opinions. 
Boorde on the Tongue and its greatest Disease. 

" IF The .208. Chapitre doth shewe of a mannes tonge. 

Lingua is the latin worde. In greke it is named Glossa, or Glotta. 
In Englyshe it is named a tonge. The tonge of man is an in- 
strument or a member, by the whiche not onely tasty ng, but also the 



88 BOORDE ON THE TONGUE, AND ON MIRTH. [§ 43. y. 

knowledge of mans mynde by the spekyng of the tonge, is brought 
to vnder-standynge, that reason may knowe the truth frome the fals- 
hod. and soe conuerse. The tonge is the best and the worste offycyall 
member in man : why, and wherfore, I do remit the matter to the 
iudgement of the reders. But this I do say, that the tonge may haue 
dyuers impedimentes besyde sclaunderynge and lyenge, the which is 
the greatest impediment or syckenes of all other diseases, for it doth 
kyll the soule without repentaunce. I passe ouer this matter, and wyll 
speake of the sickenesses whiche may be in mannes tonge, the which 
niaye swell, or elles haue fyssures, or wheales, or carnelles, or the 
palsey." — Breu. Fol. Ixxi. back. 

Boorde on Mirth and Men's Spirits. 

"The .163. Chapitre dothe shewe of 
loye or myrthe. 

GAudium is the latin worde. In Englyshe it is named ioye or 
myrth. In Greke it is named Hidonce. 

The cause of myrthe. 

Myrth commeth many wayes : the princypal myrth is when a 
man doth lyue out of deadly syn, and not in grudg of conscience in 
this worlde, and that euerye man doth reioyce in God, and in charitie 
to his neyghbour. there be many other myrthes and consolacions, 
some beynge good and laudable, and some vytuperable. laudable 
myrth is, one man or one neyghboure to be mery with an other, with 
honesty and vertue, without sweryng and sclaunderyng, and rybaldry 
speaking. Myrth is in musyeall instrumentes, and gostly and godly 
syngyng; myrth is when a man lyueth out of det, and may haue 
meate and drinke and cloth, although he haue neuer a peny in his 
purse ; but nowe a dayes, he is merye that hath golde and syluer, and 
ryches with lechery ; and all is not worth a blewe poynte. 

IF A remedy. 

IF I do aduertise euery man to remember that he must dye, how, 
whan, and what tyme he can nat tel ; wherfore let euery man amende 
his lyfe, and commyt hym selfe to the mercy of God." — Breu. FoL 
Iviii. back. 



The .329. Chapitre doth shewe of a mannes Spirites. 

SPiritus is the latin word. In Greke it is named Pnoce or Pneuma. 
In Englyshe it is named a spirite. I do not pretende here to 
speake of any spirite in heauen or in hell, nor no other spirite, but 
onely of the spirites in man, in the which doth consyst the lyfe of 
man, & there be thre, naturall, anymal, and vytall : the naturall 
spyrite restcth in the head, the animall spirite doth rest in the lyuer, 
and the vital spirite resteth in the hert of man. 



§ 43. y.] BREUYARY EXTRACTS. ON THE HEART, MIRTH, AND PAIN. 89 



To conforte and to reioyce these spirites. 
Fyrste lyue out of syn, and folowe Christes doctrine, and 
than vse honest myrth and honest company, and vse to eate good 
meate, and drynke moderatly." — Fol. C.vii. 

" iK" To comforte the stomake, vse Gynger and Galyngale, vse 
myrth and well to fare ; vse Peper in meates, & beware of anger, for 
it is a shrode hert that maketh al the body fare the worse." — Fol. 
C.viii. back. 

Boorde on the Heart of Man, and on Mirth. 

" IT The .86. Chapitre doth shewe of 
the herte of man. 

COr is the latin worde. In Greke it is named Cardia. In Englyshe 
it is an herte. the herte is the principal member in man ; And 
it is the member that hath the fyrste lyfe in man, and it is the laste 
thynge that dothe dye in manne. The herte dothe viuifycate all 
other members, and is the grounde and foundacion of al the vitall 
spirites in man, and doth lye in the my die of the bodye, and is bote 
and drye. And there is nothyng so euyl to the herte as is thought 
and care, and feare : as for other impedimentes that be longynge to 
the herte, [they] dothe appere in theyr Chapitres, as Cardiaca. 
1^° To comfort the herte. 
There is nothynge that doth comforte the herte so much, besyde 
God, as honeste myrth and good company. And wyne moderately 
taken doth letyfycate and dothe comforte the herte ; and good breade 
doth confyrme and doth stablyshe a mannes herte. And all good 
and temperate drynkes the which doth ingender good bloud doth 
comforte the herte. All maner of cordyalles and restoratiues, & al 
Fwete or dulcet thinges doth comfort the hert, and so doth maces and 
gynger ; rere egges, and poched egges not harde, theyr yolkes be a 
cordiall. Also the electuary of citrons, Roh de pitis, Rob de ribes, 
Diambra Aromaticum mtistatum, Aromaticum rosatinn, and so is 
Electuarium de gemmis, and the confection of XiloaloeSf and such 
lyke be good for the hert." — Breu. Fol. xxxv. 

Boorde mi Pain and Adversity. 
"^ Tlie .99. Chapitre dothe shewe of peyne or dolour. 

Dolor is the latin word. In Greke it is named Lype. In Eng- 
lyshe it is named peyne or dolour, the whiche may be many 
wayes, as by syckenes of the body, or disquietnes of a mannes 
mynde. 

^p° The cause of this peyne. 

1^" Dyuers tymes of greate pleasure doth come greate peyne, as 

we se dayly that thorowe ryot and surfetyng and sensualytie doth 

come dyuers sickenesses. Also with sport and playe, takyng great 

heate, or takynge of extreme colde doth ingender diseases and peyne. 



90 BOORDE ON PAIN, INTEMPERANCE, AND DRUNKENNESS. [§, 43. y. 

Also for lacke of pacyence many mens and womens myndes be vexed 
and troubled. 

IF A remedy. 
1^" If a man wyll exchewe many peynes and dolours, lette hym 
lyue a sober lyfe, and [not] distemper nor disquyed the body by any 
excesse or sensualite. And let hym arme hym selfe with pacience, 
and euermore thanke God what soeuer is sente to man ; for if ad- 
uersitie do come, it is either sent to punysse man for synne, or els 
probacion : and with sorowe vse honest myrth and good company." 
— Breic. Fol. xxxviii. back. 

Boorde on Intemperance. 

" l^° The .214 Chapitre doth she we of intemperance. 

LVxv4i is the latin word. In Greke it is named Asotia. In Eng- 
lishe it is named intemperance. . Temperance is a morall vertue, 
and worthely to be praysed, considerynge that it doth set all vertues 
in a due order. Intemperance is a greate vyce, for it doth set euery 
thyng out of order ; and where there is no order there is horror. And 
therfore this worde Luxus may be taken for all the kyndes of sensual- 
itie, the whiche can neuer be subdued without the recognition and 
knowledge of a mannes selfe, what he is of him selfe, and what God 
is. And for asmuch as God hath geuen to euery man lining fre wil, 
therefore euery man ought to stand in the feare of God, and euer to 
loke to his conscience, callynge to God for grace, and dayly to desyre 
and to praye for his mercye ; and this is the best medecyne that I do 
knowe for intemperance." — Fol. Ixxiii. back. 

Boorde on Drunkenness. 

"The .110. Chapitre dothe shewe 
of dronkennes. 

EBrietas is the latin worde. In Greke it is named Mcethce. In 
Englyshe it is named dronkennes. 

IT The cause of this impediment. 
1^" This impedimente doth come eyther by wekenes of the 
brayne, or els by some greate hurte in the head, or of to much ryotte. 

IT A remedy. 
|^° If it do come by an hurt in the head, there is no remedy but 
pacience of all partes. If it do come by debilite of the brayne & 
head, drynke in the mornynge a dyshe of mylke, vse a Sirupe named 
Sh'upus acetosus de prunis, and vse laxatiue meates, and purgacions, 
if nede do requyre, and beware of superuflous drynkynge, specially 
of wyne and stronge ale and beere, and if anye man do perceuye 
that he is dronke, let hym take a vomite with water and oyle, or with 
a fether, or a Eosemary braunche, or els with his finger, or els let hym 
go to his bed to slepe." — Fol. xlii. 



§ 43. y.] SREUYARY EXTRACTS. ON MAN, MARRIAGE, ETC. 91 

Boorde on Man and Woman, which he reasonable Beastes. 
" IT The .182. Chapitre doth shewe of a man. 
Omo is the latin worde. In Greke it is named Anthropos or 



H 



Anir. In Englyshe it is named a man or a woman, which he 
resonable beastes ; and man is made to the similitudenes of God, and 
is compacke and made of .xv. substances. Of bones, of grystles, of 
synewes, of veynes, of artures, of strynges, of cordes, of skyn, of 
pannycles, pellycles, or calles, of heare, of nayles, of grece, of fleshe, 
of blond, and of mary within the bones, a man hath reason with 
Angelles, felynge with beastes, lyuynge with trees, hauyng a beyng 
with stones." — Fol. Ixiiii. back. 

Boorde on Marriage, 

" And here is to be noted for maried men, that Aristotle sayth, 
Secundo de Anima, that euery parfyte thynge is, whan one may 
generate a thynge lyke to hymselfe ; for by it he is assimiled to the 
immortall . God. Auicene De naturalihus glorified natural procrea- 
cion. And for this cause God made man and woman, to encrease & 
multiply to the worlds ende. For this matter loke further in the 
Extrauagantes in the ende of this boke." — Fol. xxxii. 

Boorde on the Words of late-speaking Children, 

" Chyldren that can not speake vnto the tyme that they do come 
to a certein age, doth speke these .iii. wordes : Aua, Acca, Agon, 
Aua doth signifye father ; Acca doth signifye ioye or myrth ; Agon 
doth signifye dolour or sorow. All infantes doth speke these wordes, 
if a man do marke them ; and what wa doth signifye when they 
crye, I coulde neuer rede of it; if it do signifye any thynge, it is 
displeasure, or not contented." — Extrauagantes, Fol. xxvi. back. 

Boorde on the Kings Evil?- 

"IT The .236. Chapitre doth shewe of the Kynges euyll. 

Orhus regius be the latin wordes. In Englyshe it is named the 
kynges euyll, which is an euyl sickenes or impediment. 



I 



^ See Brand's Antiquities, ed. Ellis, iii. 140—150. Boorde also believed in 
kings hallowing Cramp-rings as a remedy for Cramp : see his Introdnction, 
p. 121, below ; and Fol. C.vi. back, of his Brenyary : 

" 1^ The kynges maiestie hath a great helpe in this matter in halowynge 
Crampe rynges, and so gyuen without mony or peticion. Also for the Crampe, 
take of the oyle of Lyllyes and Castory, yf it do come of a colde cause. If it 
do come of a bote cause, anoynte the synewes with the oyle of waters Lyllyes, 
and wyllowes, and Roses. If it do come of any other cause, take of the oyle 
of Euforbiuw, and Castoiy, and of Pyretory, and confecte or compounde al to- 
gyther, and anoynt the place or places, with the partes adiacent." 



92 BOORDE ON THE KING'S EVIL. [§ 43 y. 

The cause of this impediment. 



This impediment doth come of the corruption of humours 
reflectynge more to a pertyculer place then to vnyuersall places, and it 
is muche lyke to a fystle ; for and yf it he made whole in one place, 
it wyl breke out in an other place. 

Bp Percy in his Northumberland Household Book, p. 436, ed. 1827, has 
the following note on Creeping to the Cross, and hallowing Cramp-Rings : — 
" This old Popish ceremony is particularly described in an ancient Book of the 
Ceremonial of the Kings of England, bought by the present Dutchess of 
Northumberland, at the sale of manuscripts of the late Mr Ansti's, Garter 
King of Arms. I shall give the whole passage at length, only premising that 
in 1536, when the Convocation under Henry VIII. abolished some of the old 
superstitious practices, this of Creeping to the Cross on Good-Friday, &c., was 
ordered to be retained as a laudable and edifying custom. — See Herb. Life of 
Henry VIII. 

* The Order of the Kinge, on Good Friday, touchinge the cominge to 
Service, Hallorcinge of the Cramjpe Rings, and Offeringe and Creepinge to the 
Crosse. 

* Firste, the Kinge to come to the Chappell or Closset, withe the Lords, and 
Noblemen, waytinge upon him, without any Sword borne before him, as that 
day. And ther to tarrie in his Travers until the Byshope and the Deane have 
brought in the Crucifixe out of the Vestrie, and layd it upon the Cushion 
before the highe Alter. And then the Usher to lay a Carpett for the Kinge to 
Creepe to the Crosse upon. And that done ther shal be a Forme sett upon the 
Carpett, before the Crucifix, and a Cushion laid upon it for the Kinge to knealo 
upon. And the Master of the Jewell Homse ther to he ready with the 
CramjJe Rings in a Bason of Silver, and the Kinge to kneele upon the Cushion 
before the Forme, And then the Clerke of the Closett he redie with tlie Booke 
concerninge the Hallowinge of the Crampe Rings, and the Amner [i. e. 
Almoner] moste kneele on the right hand of the Kinge holdinge the sayd hooke. 
When that is done, the King shall rise and goe to the Alter, wheare a Gent. 
Usher shall be redie with a Cushion for the Kinge to kneele upon : And then 
tlie greatest Lords that shall he ther to take t/te Bason with the Rings, and 
heare them after the Kinge to offer. And thus done, the Queene shall come 
downe out of her Closset or Traverse, into the Chappell, witfi La[dies] and 
Gentlewomen waytinge upon her, and Creepe to the Crosse : And then goe 
agayne to her Closett or Traverse. Arid then the La [dies] to Creepe to the 
Crosse likewise ; And the Lords and Noblemen likewise.' 

" On the subject of these Cramp-Rings, I cannot help observing, that our 
ancient kings, even in those dark times of superstition, do not seem to have 
affected to cure the King's Evil ; at least in the MS. above quoted there is no 
mention or hint of any power of that sort. This miraculous gift was left to be 
claimed by the Stuarts : our ancient Plantagenets were humbly content to cure 
the Cramp." — Boorde's words abolish this inference of the Bishop's. Brand, 
Antiquities, ed. Ellis, iii. 150, col. 2, quotes Boorde's Introd. and Brev. on 
this subject, and has other good references, iii. 160, i. 87 (quoting Percy), i. 89, 
the last of which quotes a letter of " Lord Berners the accomplished Translator 
of Froissart . . to my Lorde Cardinall's grace," 21 June, 1518 : "If yowr grace 
remember me \fiih some Crampe Ryngs, ye shall doo a thing much looked 
for." 



§ 43. y.] BREVYARY EXTRACTS. KING'S EyiL. MAN's FIVE WITS. 93 

IT A remedy. 
* For this matter let euery man make frendes to the Kynges 
maiestie, for it doth pertayne to a Kynge to helpe this infirm itie by 
the grace the whiche is geuen to a Kynge anoynted. But for as 
muche as some men dothe iudge diners tyme a Fystle or a French 
pocke to be the kynges Euyll, in suche matters it behoueth nat a Kynge 
to medle withall, except it be thorowe and of his bountifull goodnes 
to geue his pytyfull & gracious counsel. For kynges, and kynges 
sones, and other noble men, hath ben eximious Phisicions, as it ap- 
pereth more largely in the Introduction of Knowlege, a boke of my 
makynge, beynge a pryntyng with Ko. Coplawde," — Breu. Ixxx. 
back. 

Boorde on the Five Wits, and Men being Reasonable Beasts. 

"IT The .321. Chapitre doth shewe of the .v. 
wittes in man. 

Sens2is hominis be the latin wordes. In Greeks it is named Esthis^is 
anthropon. In Englyshe it is named the sences or the wyttes 
of man. And there be .v. which be to saye, heryng, felynge, seynge, 
smellynge, and tastynge ; and these sences may be thus deuyded, in 
naturall, anymall, and ractionall. The naturall sences be in all the 
members of man the which hath any felyng. The animall sences bo 
the eyes, the tonge, the eares, the smellynge, and all thynges per- 
teynyng vnto an vnreasonable beast. The racionall sences consisteth 
in reason, the which doth make a man or woman a reasonable beaste, 
which by reason may reuyle vnresonable beastes, and al other thynges 
beyng vnder his dominion. And this is the soule of man, for by 
reason euery man created doth knowe his creatour, which is onely 
God, that created al thynges of nothyng. Man thus created of God 
doth not differ from a beaste, but that the one is reasonable, which 
is man, and the other is vnresonable, the whiche is euery beast, foule, 
fyshe, and worme. And for as much as dayly we do se and haue in 
experience thart the moste part of reasonable beastes, which is man, 
doth decay in theyr memory, and be obliuious, necessary it is to know 
the cause, and so consequently to haue a remedy. 

IF The cause of this impedimente. 

I^° This impediment doth come eyther naturally or accydentally. 
I^p° A remedy. 

If naturally a mans memory is tarde of wyt an<l knowlege or 
vnderstandyng, I know no remedy ; yf it come by great study or soli- 
citudnes, breakyng a mans mynde about many matters the which he 
can nat comprehende by his capacite, and although he can compre- 
hend it with his capacite, and the memory fracted from the pregnance 
of it, let hym vse odiferous sauours and no contagiouse ayers, and 
vse otherwhyle to drynke wyne, and smel to Amber de grece : euery 



94 BOORDE ON WOUNDS AND OBLIVIOUSNESS. [§ 43. y. 

thyng whiche is odiferous doth comfort the wittes, the memory, and 
the sences ; and all euyll saiioars doth hurt the sences and the memory, 
as it appereth in the Chapitre named Obliuio" — Fol. C.iiii. 

Boorde on Wounds. 

" 1^" The .377. Chapitre doth shewe of woundes. 

VVlnvs or Vulnera he the latin wordes. In Greke it is named 
Trauma or Traumata. In Englyshe it is named a wounde or 
woundes : and there he dyuers sortes of woundes, some he newe and 
freshe woundes, and some he olde woundes, some he depe woundes, 
and some he playne woundes, and some fystuled, and some he fes- 
tered, some be vloerated and some hath fyssures, and some hath none. 
1^" The cause of woundes. 

IF Most comonly woundes doth come thorowe an harlot, or for an 
hounde ; it doth come also thorowe quarelynge, that some hote knau- 
yshe hloude wolde he out; & dyuers tymes woundes doth come 
thorowe dronkennes, for when the drynke is in, the wytte is out, and 
then haue at the, and thou at me : fooles he they that wold them 
part, that wyl make such a dronken marte. 

IT A remedy. 

1^" If it he a grene wounde, fyrste stanche the hloude ; and yf 
the wounde he large and wyde, styche it, and after that lay a playster, 
and let it lye .xx. houres or more, thari open it, and mundify it with 
white wyne. And if the wounde he depe, vse siccatiue playsters 
made with Olihanum, Frankensence, Literge, Yreos, the bran of 
Bones, and Aristologia rotunda and suche lyke. If the wounde be 
playne, take of the rotes of Lyllies, of pome Garnade rynes, of Galles, 
of Aloes or suche lyke» If the woundes be indifferent, the wounde 
mundified, vse the ponder of Myrtylles and Rose leues, and suche 
lyke ] and let the pacient beware of venerious actes & of contagious 
meates and drynkes." — Fol. C.xxi. 

Boorde on Obliviousness. 

" ^P° The .253. Chapitre doth shewe of an impedi- 
ment named Obliuiousnes. 
OBliuio is the latin worde. In Greke it is named Lithi. In Eng- 
lyshe it is named obliuiousnes or forgetfulnes. 

IF The cause of this impediment. 
This impedimente doth come of reume or some ventosytie, or 
of some colde humour lyenge about the brayne ; it may come of soli- 
citudenes, or great study occupyenge the memory so much that it is 
fracted ; and the memory fracted, there muste nedes then be obliuious- 
nes ; & it may come to yonge men and women when theyr mynde is 
bryched. 



§ 43. y.] BREUYARY EXTRACTS. ON DREAMS AND THE FACE. 9.5 



A remedy. 

Fyrst beware and eschewe all suche thynges as do make or in- 
gender obliiiiousnes, and than vse the confection of Anacardine, & 
smel to odiferous and redolent sauours, and vse the thynges or me- 
decines the whiche is specified in the Chapitre named Anima and 
Memoria. * A medecine for Bryched persones, I do nat knowe, ex- 
cept it be Vnguentum haculinum, as it dothe appere in the Chapitre 
named the feuer Lurden." — Fol. Ixxxv. back (p. 83, above). 

Boorde on Dreams. 

" Q Omnia is the latin worde. In Greke it is named Enqmia. In 
U Englyshe it is named dreames. 

IT The cause of this impediment. 
^^ This impedement doth come most comonly of wekenes or 
emptynes of the head, or els of superfluous humours, or els of fan- 
tasticalnes, or coUucion, or illusyons of the deuyll ; it maye come also 
by God thorowe the good aungell, or such lyke matters : but specially, 
of fraction of the mynde and extreme sickenes doth happen to many 
men. 

A remedy. 
IT For this matter vse dormitary, and refraine from such matters 
as shulde be the occasion of such matters, and be not costiue. &c." — 
Extrauagantes^ Fol. xxvii. 

Boorde on the Face. 

« The .133. Chapitre dothe shewe of 
a mannes face. 

I'^Acies is the Latin worde. In Greke it is named Prosopmi. In 
^ Englyshe it is named a face, the which is the fayrest thing that 
euer God made in the compasse of a fote ; and it is a wonderfuU 
thynge to beholde, consyderynge that one face is not lyke another. 
The face may haue many impedimentes. The fyrst impedyment is to 
se a man hauyng no berde, and a woman to haue a berde. In the 
face maye be moles, wertes, the morphewe, ale pockes, saucefleme, 
dandrutfe, skurfe, scabbes, pockes, mesele, fystles, cankers, swell- 
ynges. For all suche matters loke in the Chapitres of the in- 
fyrmyties. 

IT A remedy to mundifie the face. 
|^p° To clere, to dense, and to mundifie the face, vse stufes and 
bathes, and euery mornyng after keymyng of the head, wype the face 
with a Skarlet cloth, and washe not the face ofte, but ones a weke 
anoynt the face a lytle ouer with the oyle of Costine, and vse to eat 
Electuary de aromatibus, or the confection of Anacardine, or the 
syrupe of Fumitery, or confection of Manna, and do as is wrytten in 
the Chapitre named Pulchritudo." —Breu. Fol. xlix. 



96 BOORDE ON THE PACE, AND TRUSTING TO NATURE. [§ 43. 5. 

§ 43. 5. Fourthly, let us see Boorde as a physician : some of the 
cases in which he specially notes his own treatment of diseases.^ 
But we should observe, first, that he does not, like a very popular 
modern medical work for mothers, insist that for every little ail- 
ment the right treatment is " Send for a duly qualified medical 
man." For blisters (or boils) " the whiche doth ryse in the nyght 
vnkyndely," Boorde says (fol. Ixxxv.), 



Fyrst, for this matter, bcAvare of surfetyng, and late eating 
and drynkyng. And for this impediment, I do neither minister 
medecines nor yet no salues, but I do wrap a lytle clout ouer or aboute 
it ; and as it dothe come, so I do let it go ; for and a man shulde, for 
euery tryfle sycknes and impediment, runne ^ to the Phisicion or 
to the Chirurgion, so a man shuld neuer be at no point with hym- 
selfe, as longe as he doth lyue. In great matters aske substancial 
counsel! ; and as for small matters, let them passe ouer." 

And he repeats the advice again, under "A White Flaws," Fol. 
Ixxxx. back. 

" I wolde not councel a man for euery tryfle sycknes to go to 
Phisike or Chierurgy : let nature operate in suche matters in expul- 
synge suche humours, and medle no further." 

So also under " A Blast in the Eye," Fol. C.xxi. back, he says : 

" I myghte here shewe of many salubriouse medecines, but the 
best medecine that I do knowe is, to lette the matter alone, and 
medle nat with it, but were before the eyes a pece of blacke sarcenet, 
and eate neyther garlycke nor onyons, nor drynke no wynes nor 
stronge ale, and it wyll were awaye." 



JBoorde's treatment of Itch : — A good Pair of Nails. 

" If The .292. Chapitre doth shewe of Itchynge. 

PRurigo is the latin word. In Englyshe it is named itching of a 
mans body, skyn, or fleshe. 

% The cause of this impedimente. 

IT This impediment doth come of corrupcion of euyll bloud, the 
which wolde be out of the fleshe ; it may also come of fleume myxt 
with corrupt bloud, the which doth putrifie the fleshe, and so conse- 
quently the skyn. 

' See that of Stone, p. 80. ' shulde runne, orlg. 



§43. 5.] BREUYARY EXTRACTS. FEVER, SCURF, CURDED MILK. 97 



A remedy. 

This I do aduertise euery man, for this matter to ordeyne or 
prepare a good payre of nayles, to crache and clawe, and to rent & 
teare the skynne and the fleshe, that the corrupt bloud niaye rimne 
out of the fleshe ; and vse than purgacions and stuphes & sweates ; 
and beware, reuerberate not the cause inwarde with no oyntment, nor 
clawe nat the skyn with fyshye fyngers, but washe the handes to bed- 
warde." — Breu, Fol. Ixxxxvi. back. 

So under Pruritits he says : 

" For this mater ordeyne a good payre of nayles and rent the skyn 
and teare the fleshe and let out water and bloude." — Fol. Ixxxxvi. 

Booi'de's treatment of Tertian Fever. 

" The medecines the whiche dothe helpe the Feuer causon, wyl 
helpe a Feuer terciane. Fyrste purge coler, and .iii. or .iiii. houres 
before the fytte dothe come, I do thus. I cause a man to lye in his 
doublet, and a woman in her waste cote, then do I cause them to 
put on a payre of gloues, & with .ii. garters I do bynde the wrestes 
of the armes, and do lay theyr armes and handes into the bedde, & 
do cast on clothes to brynge theym to a sweate before the fyt do come 
.iii. or .iiii. houres ; and out of Gose quylles, one put into an other, 
they do take theyr drynke, because they shall take no ayer into the 
bed ; then I do geue them fyrst an ale brue, and suff'er them to drynke 
as muche Posset ale as they wyl ; & when the burnyng do begyn, I 
do withdrawe the clothes ; and thus I do .iii. courses, & haue made 
many hundredes whole ; but theyr good dayes I do nat sufii-e them to 
go in the open ayer." — Fol. li. 

Boorde^s treatment of Scurf. 

" IT For this matter I do take .iii. vnces of Bores grece, the 
skynnes pulled out ; than I do put to it an vnce of the pouder of 
Oyster shelles burnt, and of the pouder of Brymstone, and .iii. vnces 
of Mercury mortified with fastyng spetyl ; compounde al this togy- 
ther, & anoynt the body .iii. or .iiii. tymes, & take an easy purgacion." 
— Fol. IxxiiL 

Curding of Milk in WomerCs Breasts. 

" If the niylke be curded in the brestes, some olde auctours wyll 
gyue repercussiues ; I wolde not do so, I do thus : I do take Dragagant^, 
and gumine Arabycke, and do compounde them with the whyte of 
rawe egges, and the oyle of violettes, and do make a playster. Or 
els I do take pytch, and do lyquifye it in the oyle of Roses, puttynge 
a lytle doues dunge to it, and dregges of wyne or ale, and make 
playsters." — Fol. Ixxv. 

' Tragacanth, a gum. 
BOORDE. 7 



98 BOORDE ON women's APPETITES AND ULCER IN THE NOSE. [§ 43. ^. 

Pregnant Women^s unnatural Appetite. 
" An vnnaturall appetyde is to eate and drynke at all tymes with- 
out dewe order, or to desyre to eate rawe and vnlefull thynges, as 
women with chylde doth and such lyke 

IT A remedy for women that haue vnlefull lustes. 

If I have knowen that such lustes hath ben put awaye by smel- 
lynge to the sauer of theyr owne shoes, when they be put of. In 
such lustes, it is best that women haue theyr desyre, if it may be 
gotten, for they shal neuer take surfet by such lustes." — Fol. xvi. 
back. 



Ulcer in the Nose ; and how then to blow your Nose. 

The .264. Chapitre doth shewe of an 
vlcer in the Nose. 

Zenai is the Greke worde. In latin it is named Vlcera narium. 
In Englyshe it is named an Vlcer or sore^ in the nose. 







IF The cause of this impediment. 

IF This impedimente doth come of a fylthy and euyll humour, the 
which doth come from the brayne and heade, ingendred of reume and 
corrupte bloud. 

II A remedy. 

-\- In this matter, reume must be purged, as it dothe appere in the 
Chapitre named Eeuma ; than, pycke not the nose, nor tuche it not, ex- 
cepte vrgent causes causeth the contrary, & vse gargarices and sternu- 
tacions. I wyll councell no man to vse vehement or extreme 
sternutacions for^ perturbatyng the brayne. Gentyl sternutacions is 
vsed after this sorte. Fyrst, a man rysynge from slepe, or comynge 
sodenly out of a house, and lokynge into the element or Sonne, shal 
nese twyse or thrise, or «ls put a strawe or a ryshe into the nose, and 
tyckle the ryshe or the strawe in the nose, and it wyl make sternuta- 
cions : the ponder of Peper, the pouder of EUhorus alhus, simft or 
blowen into the nose, dothe make quycke sternutacions. But in this 
matter I do aduertise euery man not to take to muche of these ponders 
at a tyme, for^ troblynge the seconde principal member^ whiche is the 
brayne. and they the whiche wyll not nese, stope the nosethrylles 
witli the fore fynger and the thome vpon the nose, and nat within 
the nosethrylles ; and if they wold, they can not nese, al maner of 
medecines natwithstandyng ; howe be it, I wolde councell all men 
takyng a thynge to prouoke suche matters to make no restrictions." — 
Fol. Ixxxviii. back. 

' eere, t»rig. ^ for fear of, to prevent. ^ menber, orig. 



§ 43. ^.] BREUYARY EXTRACTS. ASTHMA, rALSY, EXCORIATION. 99 

Boarders cure for Asthma. 

" ^W ^ confection of muske is good. Also loch^ depino, loch de 
squiUa, locJi alfescera be good, and so is the sirupe of Isope, and the 
sirup of Calamint. For I haue practised these thynges, and haue 
sped wel. Fyrst I haue made a ptysane vnder this maner. Take of 
Enula campane rootes, pycked and made clene, and cut in slyces, vii. 
vnces ; of the rootes of Fenell washed, and the pyth pulled out .vi. or 
.vii. vnces ; of Anes sedes halfe a pounde, of fygges halfe a pounde ; 
of greate reasons, the stones pulled out, a quartron of a pounde ; of 
Isope thre good handfulles, of barly clensed .v. handefulles ; seth al 
this togither in two galons of runnyng water, to halfe a galon. And 
.XV. dayes I haue gyuen to my pacyent, mornynge, noone, and nyght, 
ix. sponefuUes at a tyme ; and at the ,xv. dayes ende I haue geuen 
pylles of Cochee, and after that I haue ministred Dyasulfur, and haue 
made many whole. Also the confection of Philonii of the fyrst in- 
uencion is good : And so is to anoynt the stomake with the oyle of 
Philosophers, named in latin Oleum philosophorum. And beware of 
Nuttes, Almons, Chese and mylke, and colde. And the pylles of 
Agarycke is good for this sycknes." — Fol. xx. 

Boorde's treatment of Falsi/. 

" ^^ ^yrst, vse a good dyet, and eate no contagious meates ; and 
yf nede be, vse clysters, and anoynt the body with the oyles of Laury 
and Camomyll ; but whether the Palsy be vniuersal or perticuler, I 
do anoynte the body with the oyle of Turpentine compounds with 
Aqua vite, and vse fricaciows or rubbynges with the haiides, as one 
wolde rub with grece an olde payre of Botes, not hurtynge the skyn 
nor the pacient. And I do gyue the pacient Treacle with the ponder 
of Peper, or els Mitridatum Avith Peper ; or els take of Diatriapipe- 
rion. And if one wyll, he may rub the pacient with the rotes of 
Lylyes brayed or stamped ; after that vse drye stuphes, as the pacient 
is able to abyde. Or els, take a Foxe, and with the skynne and all 
the body quartered, and with the herte, lyuer and lunges, and the fat- 
nes of the intrayles, stones and kydnes, sethe it longe in runnynge 
water with Calamynt and Balme and Carawayes, and bath the pacient 
in the water of it ; and the smell of a Foxe is good for the Palsy." — 
Fol. Ixxxxi. 

Wood-powder, Boorde^s remedy for Excoriation. 

" ^W Anoynt the place with Vnguentum ceridnum, or washe the 
place ofte with the water of Eoch alome, and then caste vpon the 
place the pouder of a Poste ; and if one wyll not washe the place 
with the water of Roche alome, washe the place then with white 
wyne, and vse the fyne pouder of a Poste, and there is nothynge wyll 
skyn so sone as it wyll do. Parauenture some persons readyng this 

7 * ' lozenge. 



100 BOORDE ON FOGEYNliiSS, PRIAPISMUS, WEBB IN THE EYE. [§ 43. B. 

boke, specially tliis mater, wyl laughe me to scorne ; but for all that, 
for skynnynge of a place there is nothyng shal skyn so sone as it wyl 
do if it be vsed, excepte the place be to miiche vlcerated, but for a 
mans yerd and other secrete places, I haue proued this pouder to be 
the most best." — Fol. xlix. 

Boorde's remedy for Fatness^ Fogeyness, or such lyJce. 



The best remedy that I do knowe is to vse purgacions, 
and with mete and potages of sewes is to eate muche Peper, and vse 
electuary of Lachar, and vse gargarices and sternutacions, as it is 
specified in the Chapitre named Ozinei." — FoL Ixxxxiii. 

Boorde on Priajyismus. a. 

"^W The .282. Chapitre dothe shewe of inuoluntary 
standynge of a mannes Yerd. 

PRiajnsmus is the Greke worde.. In latin it is named Erectio inuol- 
untaria virge. In Englyshe it is named an inuoluntary stand- 
yng of a mans yerd. 

The cause of this impediment. 

This impediment doth come thorow calidite and inflacions from 
the raynes of the backe, or els it dothe come of inflacions of the 
vaynes in the yerde and stones; it may come by the vsage of venerious 
actes. 

IT A remedy. 

1^° Fyrst, anoynt the yerde and coddes with the oyle of luneper ; 
and the oyle Camphoric is good. And so is Agnus castus brayed, and 
made in a playster, and layde vpon the stones, and let prestes vse 
fastyng, watchynge, euyll fare, harde lodgynge, and greate study, and 
fle from al maner of occasions of Lechery, and let them smel to Rue, 
Vrneger and Camphire." — Fol. Ixxxxiii. back. 

/3. Erection of the yerde to synne. A remedy for that is to leape 
into a greate vessel of colde water, or to put Nettles in the codpeece 
about the yerde and stones. Fol. C.ii.^ 

Weh in the Eye. 

" 4- In this matter there is .ii. wayes to make one whole. The 
first is by wyndynge or cuttyng awaye the webbe with an instra- 
me7zt. And the other is by a water to corrode & to eate away the 
webbe. it maye be remedied by the iuyce of Horehounde, Oculus 
Christi, and Diaserys, iniected into the eye, but I take only the iuyce 
of Horehonde; & the iuyce of Lycoryce iniected in the eye is very 
good." — ^Fol. Ixxxxvii. back. 

* bee also the end of Chapter 77 on CoituSy Fol. xxxii. 



§ 43. h.] BREUYARY EXTRACTS. GUT-CAUL, SAUCEFLEWME FACE. 101 

Impediment in tJie Eye. 

"I myghte here shewe of many salubriouse medecines, but 
the best medecine that I do knowe is to lette the matter alone, and 
medle nat with it, but were before the eyes a pece of blacke sarcenet, 
and eate neyther garlycke nor onyons, nor drynke no wynes nor 
stronge ale, and it wyll were awaye." — Fol. C.xxi. back. 

Boorde on the Gut-caul. 

**|^p° The .384. Chapitre doth shewe of a Panniclo 
the whiche shalbe rehersed. 

ZL'bus is the latin worde. In Englyshe it is a pannycle or a caule 
compounde of ii. thyn tunicles of dyuers artoures, and vaynes 
and fatnesse ; it doth couer the stomake and the guttes, and it doth 
kepe the heet of them, and doth defende the cold : this pellicle or 
pannycle or caule may be relaxed or broken. 

The cause of this impedimente. 
IT This impediment doth come of some great strayne, brose, or 
fall, or some greate lyft, or suche lyke thynges. 

If A remedy. 
|^° Fyrst make incision, and after that cauterise the abstraction ; 
and I haue sene the cut cauterised, that the fluxe of bloud shuld nat 
folowe. The ouerplus of my mynde in this matter, and all other 
matters, I do commyt it to the industry of wyse and expert Phisi- 
cions and Chierurgions." — Fol. C.xxiiL 

For the sake of Chaucer's Somonour, 

That hadde a fyr reed Cberubynnes face, 
ffor sawcejieevi he was, with eyen narwe. 
(^Canterbury Tales, Group A, § 1, 11. 624-5, Ellesmere MS, Chaucer Soc, p. 18) 

I add Boorde's two chapters on the disease. 

A Saucefleiome Face. 

**ir The .170. Chapitre dothe shewe of a 
saucefleume face. 

GVtia rosacea be the latin wordes. In Englyshe it is named a 
sauce fleume face, which is a rednes about the nose and the 
chekes, with small pymples : it is a preuye signe of leprousnes. 
^p° The cause of this impediment. 
IT This impedyment doth come of euyl dyet, and a hote'lyuer, or 
disorderynge a mans complexion in his youth, watchynge and syt- 
tynge vp late. 



102 BOORDE ON A SAUCEFLEWME FACE. ON THE SOUL. [§ 43. 5, t. 

IT A remedy. 
Fyrst, kepe a good dyet in meates & drynkes, drynke no wyne, 
feade nat of fresh e befe, eate no shell fyshes, beware of Samon & 
Eles, and egges, and qualyfie the heate of the Lyuer and the stomake 
with the confection of Acetose, and than take this oyntemewt : take 
of Bores grece .ii. vnces, of Sage pouned smal, an vnce and a halfe, 
of Quycke syluer mortified with fastynge spetyll, an vnce ; compounde 
all this togyther, and momynge and euenynge anoynte the face, & kepe 
the chamber .vii. dayes : or els, take of Burre rotes and of Affodyl 
rotes, of eyther .ii. vnces, of white vinegar .ii. vnces, of Auripigment 
.ii. drames, of Brymstone a drame ; make ponder of al that, that 
shulde be made ponder of; than put al togyther, and let it stande 
.xxiiii. houres, and after that anoynte the nose and the face." — Fol. 
Ix. back. 

"I®° The .311. Chapitre dothe shewe of a Sau- 
cefleume face. 

SAlsum flegma be the latin wordes. In Englyshe it is named a 
sausefleume face, whiche is a token or a preuy sygne of 
leprousnes. 

^P° The cause of this infirmite. 
This infirmytie doth come eyther of the calydytie or heate of 
the lyuer, or els of the malice of the stomake : it doth most comonly 
come of euyll dyet, and late drynkynge, and great surfetynge. 
1^" A remedy. 
^ Take of Bores grece — the skyn and straynes clene pycked out — 
an vnce, of Sage fynely stamped an handfull, of Mercury mortified 
with fastyng spetyl, an vnce ; incorporate al this togyther, and anoynt 
the face to bedward. In the mornyng wype the face with browne 
paper that is softe, and washe nat the face in .vi. or .vii. dayes, and 
kepe the pacient close out of the wynde." — Fol. C.i. back. 

§ 43. £. Fifthly, and lastly, let us see our author in his serious 
aspect. 

" IF The .22. Chapitre doth shewe of the soule of man. 

ANima is the latin worde. In Greeke it is named Psichae. In 
Englyshe it is named the soule of manne. The soule of man is 
the lyfe of the bodye, for when the soule is departed from the body, 
the body is but a deade thynge that can not se, heare, nor feele. 
The soule can not be felte nor sene, for it is lyke the nature of an 
Angell, hauynge wyll, wyt, wysdome, reason, knowledge and vnder- 
standynge. And is partaker of good or euyll, as the bodye and it 
doth or hath deserued or operated. The soule also is a creature made 
with man and connexed to man, for man is of .ii. natures, which is 
to say, the nature of the soule, and the nature of the body, whiche 



§ 43. c] BREUYARY EXTRACTS. THE SOUL. FREE-WILL. 103 

is flcshe and bloud, the fleshe or body is palpyble and may be aene 
and felte. The soule is not palbyble nor can not be sene nor felt, but 
both beyng together nowe and shalbe after the generall resurrection 
in tynie to come, doth, and shal do, fele ioy or payne, &c. 

It is not the soule onely doth make a man, nor the body of a man 
is a man, but soule and bodye connexed or ioyned together maketh a 
man. And the one decepered from the other be of .ii. natures as I 
haue sayd, vnto the tyme that they do mete againe at the day of 
dome. Ther fore let euery man in this lyfe so prouide by the meryte 
of Chrystes passion that soule and body beynge perfite man may 
enter into euerlastynge ioy and glory to be in heauen with God. The 
electuary of Gemmis : and the confection named Alcliermes be good 
to comforte the soule or the spirites of man, soule and body beynge 
together here in earth." — Fol. xiiii. back. 



The Apendex to all the premisses 
that foloweth. 

LOrdes, Ladies, and Gentylmen, learned and vnlerned, of what 
estate or degree so euer you be of, thynke not that no man can 
be holpen by no maner of medecynes, yf so be God do sende the 
sicknes ; for he hath put a tyme to euery man, ouer the which tyme 
no man by no art nor science can not prolonge the time : for the nom- 
ber of the monthes and dayes of mans lyfe, God knoweth. But this 
aforesayde tyme, these monthes and dayes, a man may shorten or 
abreuiate many wayes, concerning that God hath geuen man in this 
lyfe free "wyl, the whiche of his ryghteousnes, as longe as we do lyue, 
he can not take it awaye from vs. Nowe, we hauyng this free wyll, 
dyuers tymes we do not occupy it to the wyll of God, as it appereth, 
both for soule and body ; we do kyll our soules as much as doth lye in 
vs, when that we do breake any of his commaundementes, or do 
synne deadly ; for that matter he hath prouided a spirituall medecine, 
whiche is, repentaunce with penaunce. Also we do kyll our bodyes 
as much as lyeth in vs (excepte that a man do kyl hyni selfe wylfully, 
as many dayly doth, contrary to Goddes wyll) as wel the one as the 
other, when a manne doth abreuiate his lyfe by surfettynge, by dronk- 
ennes, by pencyfulnes, by thought and care, by takyngc the pockes 
with women, and leprousnes, and many other infectious sickenesscs, 
beside robbyng, fyghtyng, kyllyng, and many other myschaunces, 
whiche is not Goddes wyl that such thinges shuld be done ; but God, 
knowynge at the begynnyng of the creacion of the worlde, that man 
wolde be prone many wayes to abreuiate his lyfe, made then prouision 
that man might be holpen, by his grace, and then, the vertue the 
whiche he dyd gyue to herbes, wedes, trees, rootes, frutes, and stones. 
The propertie and vertue of the whiche, fewe men or none doth 
knowe them, except doctours of phisicke, and such as doth Labour 
to haue the knowledge of theyr operacions. And this knowledge 
notwithstandynge, let no man thynke that there is no Phisicion nor 



104 boorde's advice to the sick and dying. [§ 43. e. 

CLiemrgion can make a man sodenly wliole of his infyrmytie, as 
Cliryst and his disciples and manye other sayntes dyd ; for they must 
haue leysure tyme and space as theyr lerning and practise is ; for sycke 
men and women be lyke a pece of rustye harnys, the whiche can 
not be made bryght at the fyrst scourynge ; but lette a man continewe 
in rubbynge and scourynge, and than the harnys wyll be bryghte ; so 
in lyke maner a sycke man can not be made whole of his malady or 
syckenes the fyrst day, but he must continewe with his medecines. 
But here let euery man that is sycke, beware of blynd Phisicions and 
Chierurgions the which be ignoraunt, and can not tel what thynges 
doth parteyne to their science ; and therfore let al men be ware of 
vagabundes and ronagates that wyl sniatter with Physicke, for by 
such persons many sycke men haue ben deceyued, the more pytie, 
God knoweth ! who helpe vs al nowe and euer ! Amen 1" 

"IT A Preamble to sicke men and to those 
that be wounded. 

I Do aduertise euery sicke man, and al other men the which hath 
any infirmitie, sickenes, or impediment, aboue all thynges to 
pacyfye hym selfe, or to arme hym selfe with pacyence, and to fyxe 
his harte and mynde in Christes death and passion, and to call to his 
remembrance, what peynes, what aduersyte, and what penury, and 
pouerty Chryst dyd suffer for vs. And he that can thus pacyfy him 
selfe, and fele his owne peyne in Chrystes passyon, shall mittigate 
his peynes and anguyshe, be it neuer so greate. And therefore let 
euery sycke person stycke as fast to Christe in his peynes and sicke- 
nes, as Christ dyd stycke fast to the Crosse for our sinnes and re- 
dempcion. And then if the pacient wyl haue any councell in 
Phisicke : fyrste let hym call to him his spirituall Phisicion, which is 
his goostly father, and let him make his conscience cleane,' and that 
he be in perfyte loue and charitie ; and yf he haue done any wronge, 
let him make restitucion yf he cjan ; and yf he be in dette, let him 
loke to it, and make a formal wyl or testament, settyng euery thynge 
in a dewe order for the welth of his soule, — wyse men be sure of theyr 
testamentes makynge many yeres before they dye, and dothe renewe 
it once a yere as they increase or decrease in gooddcs or substance. — 
All these aforesayd thynges goostly and godly prouided for the soule, 
Then let the pacient prouyde for his body, and take councel of some 
expert phisicion, howe & in what wyse the body may be recouered of 
his infirmitie, and than to commyt his body to the industry of his 
Phisicion, and at al tymes redy to folow the wil, mynde, and councell 
of his Phisicion, for who so euer wyll do the contrary, saynt Augus- 
tine sayth, Seipsum interimit qui jpi^ecepta medici ohseriiare non vidt^ 
that is to save. He doth kyll hym selfe that doth not obserue the 
commaundement of his Phisition." 

(The reader should now turn to the Hindwords, p. 317.) 



§ 44.] FOREWORDS. CHARACTER OP ANDREW BOORDE. 105 

§ 44. If any one groans over the length of these extracts, he 
can relieve himself by skipping them, and losing the chance of 
knowing Boorde -well. But if he reads them all through, as well as 
the books following, I think he'll find Andrew Boorde worth know- 
ing, a man at times of great seriousness and earnestness, yet withal 
of a pleasant humour ; reproving his countrymen's vices, and ridicul- 
ing their follies ; exhorting them to prepare for their latter end, and 
yet to enliven their present days by honest mirth. A man eager to 
search out and know the truth of things, restless in that search, 
wandering far and often to see for himself. Yet a man bound by 
many of the superstitions of his time, though also free from many; 
not " a lewd Popish hypocrite and ungratious priest," as Harrison 
calls him, but a man genuine in his piety as well as his love of good 
ale and wine, and mirt}#; clever, able to take-in a Scotchman; at 
times weak and versatile, showing off occasionally, readily helping 
strangers, chancing to get drunk, falling into sexual excess — having, 
like his sex, " bursts of great heart and slips in sensual mire," — yet 
sound at the core, a pleasant companion in many of England's most 
memorable days, worthy, with all his faults, of respect and regard 
from our Victorian time. Any one who would make him a mere 
Merry- Andrew, or more of that than anything else, is a bigger fool 
than he would make Boorde. (See the Hindwards, p. 317.) 

§ 45. That Boorde and his writings were esteemed by his con- 
temporaries, we have seen, by his appointment as Suffragan Bishop of 
Chichester, his attendance on Sir Robert Drury and the Duke of 
Norfolk, his waiting on Henry VIII, his connection with Cromwell, 
Barnes's account of great people resorting to him, the evident 
references to his books in Wilson's Rhetorique (p. 116, below), 
" doctor Boords breuiary of health " being in Captain Cox's Library,^ 
and Harrison's mention of the Introduction of Knowledge, and of the 
Dyetary (if * parks ' mean * pleasure for harte & hynde, &c.') : — 

"An Englishman, indeuoring sometime to write of our attire, 
made sundrie platformes for his purpose, supposing by some of them 
to find out one stedfast ground whereon to build the summe of his 

' It's the last in the list of the Captain's books. See p. .SO of my edition 
of Cajptain Cox, or LanchanCs Letter, for the Ballad Society, 1870. 



106 WM HARRISON IN 1577-86 ON ANDREW BOORDE. [§ 45, 46. 

discourse. But in the end (like an oratour long without exercise) 
when he saw what a difficult peece of work he had taken in hand, 
he gaue ouer his trauell, and onelie drue the picture of a naked man, 
vnto whome he gaue a paire of sheares in the one hand, and a peece 
of cloth in the other, to the end he shuld shape his apparell after 
such fashion as himselfe liked, sith he could find no kind of garment 
that could please him anie while togither, and this he called an Eiig- 
Andrew Hshmau. Ccrtcs this writer (otherwise being a lewd [* popish 
Boord hypocrite] and vngratious priest) shewed himself herein not 
to be [altogether] void of iudgement, sith the phantasticall follie of 
our nation, [euen from the courtier to the carter] is such, that no 
forme of apparell liketh vs longer than the first garment is in the 
wearing, if it continue so long and be not laid aside, to receiue some 
other trinket newlie deuised by the fickle-headed tailors, who couet to 
haue seuerall trickes in cutting, thereby to draw fond customers to 
more expense of monie . . . the Morisco gownes, the Barbarian sleeues, 
[the mandilion worne to Collie weston ward, and the short French 
breches] make such a comelie vesture, that except it were a dog in a 
doublet, you shall not see anie so disguised, as are my countrie-men 
of England." — Harrison's Description of Englandy ed. 1586, p. 
171-2. 

" these dales, wherein Andrew Boorde saith there are more parks 
in England than in all Europe (ouer which he trauelled in his owne 
person)," ih. p. 205, col. 2. See below, p. 274. 

Traditions of Boorde linger in Sussex,^ whose anti-nightingale 
forest of St Leonards, its keepers and nigh-dwellers he knew,^ and 
the Sussex Archaeological Society has revived the memory of him in 
our day. Though Warton thought that his Dyetary was the only 
work that would interest posterity, yet Upcott's repriht of his Intro- 
dtiction showed that that book too had plenty of amusement and 
information in it (see p. 36, above), while the present volume testifies 
to the value of both works, as well as that of the Breuyary, which 
contains some of his most characteristic passages, and will, I hope, 
soon find an antiquarian doctor as an editor. 

§ 46. The present reprint of the Fyrst Boke of the Irdroduction 
of Knowledge is made, as I have said at p. 19, from Mr Christie- 
Miller's unique copy of William Coplande's first edition printed at 
the Rose-Garland in Fleet Street in 1547 or -8, collated with his 
second of 1562 or -3, printed in Lothbury. My thanks are due 1. to 

' The square brackets [ ] show the new matter inserted in the 2n(l oditiou 
of 1586. ' M. A. Lower, in Sussex Archccol. Collect io7is, vi. 

' Introduction, p. 121. 



§ 46.] FOREWORDS. THE WOODCUTS OF THE INTRODUCTION. 107 

Mr Christie-Miller for his kindness and hospitality to Mr Hooper 
and myself; and 2. to the Committee of the Chetham Library, and 
their Librarian, Mr Jones, for lending me their very rare Lothbury 
volume, and enabling Mr W. H. Hooper to copy all the cuts in it, 
of which Upcott had only a few copied. The reader will see that 
the same cut often serves for men of different countries. Mr 
Hooper says : 

" A Man with a hawk, and a Peasant with long-handled bill over 
his shoulder, are used, Chap. 6, p. 143, in the Lothbury edition (B) 
for 'Norway and Islonde,' Ch. 8, p. 146; both in A (the Rose- 
Garland edition) and B, for * Flaunders,' changing places right and 
left; and the hawker appears again at Ch. 14, 'high Almayne,' in 
both A and B. 

A dinner party illustrates Ch. 9, p. 148, * Selande and Holand,' 
and Ch. 13, p. 155, 'base Almayne,' in both A and B. 

A man with a cloak very jauntily thrown over his shoulder re- 
presents in B, Ch. 16, p. 165, ' Saxony;' Ch. 30, p. 198, 'Spaine;' 
Ch. 33, p. 206, 'Bion;' and Ch. 38, p. 217, 'Egypt.' 

f A bearded man in a skull-cap and long coat, Ch. 19, p. 170, is 
'Hungary,' and Ch. 26, p. 188, a Genoese; at Ch. 19, p. 170, he 
is in company with a bird in a tree that appears at Ch. 15 as a pro- 
duction of ' Denmarke.' 

A turbaned figure, half-length, is in both A and B, as, Ch. 20, 
p. 171, 'Greece;' Ch. 23, p. 175, 'Italy;' and Ch. 24, p. 181, 
' Venis ; ' with two little gi'oups in this last instance. 

A crowned head, half-length, stands in B for (Ch. 21) 'Sicell;* 
Ch.28,p.l94, 'Catalony;' Ch. 31, p. 199, 'Castile &biscay;' Ch. 32, 
p. 202, * Nauer ;' while in A, two cuts do duty for the four countries. 

A grave and learned individual in a long robe stands alone, Ch. 
25, for 'Lombardye,' p. 186 ; and at Ch. 35, p. 209, he enacts 'The 
latyn man ' so well that the ' englyshma7i ' takes off his hat to him. 

t The foresaid long-coated man in Ch. 19 and 26 is very like the 
man labelled Dr Boorde in Barnes in the defence of the Berde ; so 
like that I think it is hardly worth while to cut another. 

The cuts for this book seem to have been got together from all 
quarters. The Englishman in the first chapter may have been cut 
for the work : there is a bluff King-Hal sort of a look about him 
that suggests the period.^ But the Irishman is so knocked about 
that it is certain he is ' written up to,' ^ as the publishers have it now- 
a-days. They look to me an odd lot in every sense of the word ; 
for some seem printed from the wood, while others are from casts, 
e.g. the Scot is bruised at the edges, and the ends of the ground-lines 
are thickened, just as old ' stereos ' wear. Some of the blocks seem 

' The cut of the Frenchman, p. 190, seems to me of the period too. — F. 
* No 1 The Irishmau's parasites were well known, — F. 



108 THE WOODCUTS OF THE INTRODUCTION. [§ 46. 

to be much older than the date of the book, m they are wormed, and 
damaged by use." 

Ou turning to Wynkyn de Worde's print of HyckescorneTy for 
my edition of Laneham, I found, on the back of the title, two of our 
Introduction cuts. The man who in the Lothbury edition does duty 
for Saxony, Spain, Bayonne, and Egypt, p. 165, 206, &c., figures in 
Hyckescorner as " Imagyna{cyon]," while the long-coated man used by 
Copland for the Hungarian (p. 170), and the Genoese (p. 188), and 
by Wyer for Boorde (p. 305), is Wynkyn de Worde's "Pyte." In 
T?Le Enterlude of Youthy printed by William Coplande at Lothbury 
(after the Rose-Garland Introduction)^ Boorde's Dane, p. 162, is used 
for " Humility" (though he has no name over his head) ; and 
Boorde's Bohemian, p. 166, is used for "Youth." 

In like manner the cut used for Andrew Boorde himself i, Intro- 
ductioUy Ch. VII, p. 143, below, is merely an old cut of some one else, 
with a corner cut out, and Boorde's name let down into it ; a fact ob- 
scured by Upcott's woodcutter, who evidently thought the break in the 
top line ugly, and so filled it up. This " portrait (as is well observed 
by Herbert, in his MS memoranda) is introduced for one of Skelton 
in the frontispiece to * Certaine bookes co?wpiled by maister Skelto??, 
Poet Laureat, printed by Kynge and Marshe.' " — A mes (ed. Dibdin, 
1816), iii. 160. Many of the Boorde cuts are used in the titleless 
copy of the Shepherd's Kalendar in the British Museum, which I 
claim as Copland's (p. 25, above) ; and most have, no doubt, an 
earlier continental history. That on p. 208 is part of Wynkyn de 
Worde's ' Robert the DeuyU.' 

Again, the 2-men cut of Galen and another man in Boorde's 

Dyetary, p. 232, below, is used on the title-page of a little tract in 

4 leaves in the British Museum, "Imprynted by me Rycharde 

Banckes," and called " The practyse of Cyrurgyons of Mountpyller : 

and of other that neuer came there." It is chiefly on the treatment 

of skull-wounds. 

' The cut on the title-page of the Introductwn, which Mr W. C. Hazlitt 
calls one *of two serving-men conversing,' is stated by him to have been 
copied on the title-page of ' The doctrynall of good sei'vauntoH. Impryntcd at 
London in Flete strete, at the sygne of Saynt Johau Euangelyste, by me 
Johan Butler [^circa 1550] 4to. 4 leaves. In verse.' Dr Kimbault re-edited 
this tract for the Percy Society. The cut is also in Frcderyke of Jcnncn. 



§ 46.] FOREWORDS. THE DYETARY AND ITS INITIALS. 109 

To our member, Mr Henry Hucks Gibbs, — an old friend and 
helper of Herbert Coleridge and myself in our Dictionary work 
since 1858, — I am indebted for the ready loan of his copy — unique, 
so far as I know — of the 1542 edition of Boorde's Dyetary from 
which the reprint in the present volume is taken. It has been col- 
lated with the undated edition by Robert Wyer in the British 
Museum, and also with the edition of 1547 (colophon 1567) by 
Wyllyam Powell. Mr W. H. Hooper has copied the cuts for this 
tract too, and wishes to call attention to the two of St John at the 
end of it and on the title-page. That on the title is evidently from 
a cast of the block of that in the colophon, which cast has been cut 
down, and had another ornament put at the side of it, with a line 
atop, just as Mr Hooper has made the facsimile now. Mr Hooper 
has further evidence which proves clearly to him as a woodcutter, 
that our old printers in the 16th century could cast, and used casts, 
as we do, though of course to a less extent. 

Of the big initial letters used in the Dyetary ^ Mr Hooper has cut 
all but five, of which he thought the designs much less good than 
those he has cut, and one extra-big A of the same pattern as the 
smaller one used on page 234, &c., below, which latter he has copied. 
The only other alterations in the text are, that the contractions have 
been expanded in italics according to our rule, — a as a?^, y* as thaty 
&c., — and that the first letters of proper names, and the stops, have 
been conformed to modern usage. 

§ 47. For all the materials of these Forewords I am indebted to 
Boorde^s own books, and to the workers who have preceded me in 
the field, Wood, Bliss, Ellis, Lower, Cooper, Rimbault, Hazlitt, &c. 
To the latter I feel grateful, though I have expressed freely some of 
my differences from them. My task has been only to get to their 
authorities, keep to these without straggling into guesses, and work 
into them Boorde's own statements in his different books. The 
number of supposes and probables is still lamentably great ; I hope 
they will be lessened by the future volumes of Professor Brewer's 
admirable Calendar, or some other antiquarian publication of this 
age, which is setting itself, with more or less vigour, to get at all the 
facts it can about the men and speech of Early and Middle England. 



110 HARD TO WORK IN THE COUNTRY. WOE TO LOUIS NAPOLEON,' 

The notes I have added would have been longer and better, had 
I been at home among my books, but this, and divers other bits of 
work, have dawdled on during our four-months' stay here, from the 
time when I began to write in the garden, with the lovely lilacs 
round me, and the hum of bees, till all the roses have gone, and the 
fresh green of the grass is brown. Games with my boy, long walks 
with my wife under " the glad light green" of Windsor-Park beeches 
lit by the golden sun, strolls down the long Ehododendron-Walk 
with its glorious masses of mauve towering high on either hand, 
over Runnymede, starred with wild flowers, canopied with sunsets of 
wondrous hue; rows on the Thames, dotted with snowy swans 
sailing over the ever-varying green of water-plants; gaily-coloured 
races at Ascot, picnic at the truly-named Belvedere ; drives, visits, 
dances — oh fair-haired Alice, how well you waltz ! — chats, pleasant 
outdoor country-life : who can work in the midst of it all ? I can't. 

And now comes the angry roar of war to trouble one's sweet 
content, to make one feel it wrong almost to think of private 
pleasure or Society's work. What interest can one take in printers' 
dates, or Boorde's allusions, when the furious waves of French vain- 
glory, driven by the guilty ambition of a conscienceless adventurer, are 
dashing against the barriers of German patriotism, striving to deluge 
thousands of innocent homes in blood? — May this Napoleon and 
his followers be humbled to the dust ! — Still, the Forewords, &c., 
take up one-third of this book, and that is a fair share for an editor 
to fill. A great number of most troublesome little points have 
started up in the course of the work, and my ignorance of monastic 
rule. Continental countries, coins, languages, medicine, and botany, 
has made me leave many of these points to future students of the 
book to settle. I hope, however, that Andrew Boorde will be hence- 
forth better known to English readers than heretofore, and only 
regret that some of the mirth he loved so well, has not crept into 
these foregoing pages, through all the bright sights and sweet sounds 
that have been before and around me while this work has been going 
on. But one does not get lighter-hearted as one gets older, alas ! 

\Valnut-T7'ee Cottage^ Egharriy 
July 30, 1870. 



Itttrobuttion of kitobkirgt €\ft hjfjgcij 

botije teaclje a man to speate parte of all matter of 

languageisf, anti to Jtnoto t\}t fasage anti fasJ}ton of 

all maner of eountregs. ^ntJ for to fenoto tlje 

moste parte of all maner of eognes of mo- 

nej, t^e toijgcl) is eurrant in euerg region* 

JHatie is anlireto Bortie, of pj)2^ 

Sgcfte IDoctor* JietJscatelJ to 

tlje rigJ)t J}onoraljle $c gra^ 

ciow5 latig JHarg tiouglji 

ter of our soueragne 

iortie ftgng Senrg 

tjje eggljt* 




112 



^ To the ryght honorable and gracyous lady Mary 

doughter of our souerayne Lorde kyng Henry 

the .viii. Andrew horde of phisyk doctor, 

doth surrender humble com- 

mendacion wyth honour 

and helth. 

AFter that I had dwelt (moste gracyous Lady) in Scotlande, and 
had trauayled thorow and round about all the regions of 
Christynte, & dwelling in Mou?itpyler,* remembryng your bountyful 
goodnes, pretended to make thys first booke, named " the Introduc- 
tion of knowledge" to your grace, the whyche boke dothe teache a man 
to speake parte of al maner of languages ; and by it one maye knowe 
the vsage and fashyon of all maner of countres or regions, and also to 
know the moste part of all maner of coynes of mony, that whych is 
currant in euery prouince or region; trustyng that your grace will 
accept my good wyll and dylygent labour in Chryste, who kepe your 
grace in health and honour. Fro Mountpyler the .iii. daye of Maye, 
the >ere of our Lorde .M.CCCGC.xlii. 

f The Table of thys booke foloweth. 

THe fyrst chapter treateth of the naturall disposicyon of an 
Englyshman, and of the noble realm of England, and of the 
mony that there is vsyd. [And of Cornwall, p. 122] (p. 116) 

The seconde chapter treateth of the naturall dysposycion of 
Walshmen, and of the countre of Wales, teching an Englyshe man 
to speake some Walshe. (P- 125) 

The thyrd chapter treateth of the naturall dysposiciow of an 
Irysh man, and of the kyngdomeshyp of Irland, and also teachyng 
an Englyshe man to speake some Irysh, and of theyr mony. (p. 131) 

• Contractions in the original are expanded here in italics, as * that ' for 
• y' ; ' capitals are put to some proper names ; foreign words are printed in 
italics ; modern stops are put, and hyphens. 



INTRODUCTION. TABLE OP CONTENTS. 113 

^ The fourthe chapter treateth of the naturall disposycyon of a 
Scotyshe man, and of the Kingdom of Scotland, and the speche of 
Scotland, and of their mony. (p. 135) 

The .V. chapter treateth of Shotlande ^ and of Fryselond, and 
of the naturall dysposycion of the people of the countreys, and of ^ 
theyr money. (p. 139) 

The .vi. chapter treateth of Norway & of Islond, and of the* 
naturall disposycion of the people of the countreys, and of theyr 
speche, and of theyr money. (p. 140) 

The .vii. chapter treateth of the Auctor, tliQ^ which went thorow 
and rounde about Christendome ; and what payne he dyd take to do 
other men pleasure. (p. 143) 

The .viii. chapter treateth of Flaunders, and of the naturall dis- 
posicion^ of Fleminges, and of their money, and oV theyr speche. 

(p. 146) 

The .ix. chapter treateth of Seland & Holand, & of the natural 
disposicion of the people, & of theyr spech, and of their money, (p. 148) 

The .X. chapter treateth of Braban, & of the naturall disposicion 
of Brabanders, & of their money & speche. (p. 150) 

The .xi. chapter treateth of Gelderlawd and of Cleuelawd, and of 
the natural disposicion of the people of that^ couwtreys, and of ^ 
their money and speche. (p. 152) 

The .xii. chapter treateth of Gulik & Lewke,^'' & of the naturall 
disposycion ^ of the people of the® countreys, and of their money, 
and of their speche. (p. 155) 

The .xiii. chapter treateth of base Almayn, and of the natural 
disposicion of the people of that countrey, and of theyr money, and 
of' theyr speche. (p. 155) 

The .xiiii. Chapter treateth of high Almayn, & of the naturall 
disposicion of the people of that couwtrey, and of theyr mony, and 
of their spech.^i (p. 159) 

* sign. A .ii. ' Scotlande A ; Soctlande B. 

» A has only « of ; " B only " and." " theyr AB. * of Auctor y« AB. 

' dispocion A ; a mistake made 4 or 5 times more. '' B leaves out "of." 

* for " those." ' B leaves out " and of." 

" Julich or Juliers (the town is between Aix and Cologne) and Li^ge. 

" and speche B, 

BOORDE. 8 



114 INTRODUCTION. TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

The .XV. chapter treateth of Denmarke, and of the' na^turall dis- 
posicion of the people of the countrey, and of the money and speche. 

(p. 162) 

The .xvi. chap, treateth of Saxsony, & of the natural disposicion 
of t?i6 Saxons, & of their money, & of their spech. (p. 164) 

The .xvii. chapter treateth of the kingdom of Boem, and of the 
disposicion of the people of the countrey, and of theyr money, and 
of their speche. (p. 166) 

The .xviii. chapter treateth of the kingdom of Poll, & of the 
naturall disposicion of the people of the countre, & of theyr mony, 
and of theyr speche. (p. 168) 

The .xix. chapter treateth of the kingdome of Hungry, and of 
the natural disposicion of the people of theyr couwtrey, and of theyr 
money, and of their speche. (p. 170) 

The .XX. chapter treateth of the land of Grece, & of Cowstantin- 
nople, and of the natural disposicion of the people of the countrey, 
and of theyr mony and speche. (p. 171) 

The .xxi. chapter treateth of the kyngdom of Sycel & of 
Calabry, and of the disposicion of the people of the countrey, and 
of theyr mony and speche. (p. 175) 

The .xxii. chapter treateth of the kingdom of Naples, and of the 
disposicion of the people of the countrey, and of tjieyr money and 
speche. (p. 176) 

The .xxiii. chapter treateth of Italy and of Eome, and of the dis- 
posicion of the people of the countrey, and of theyr money, and of 
theyr speche. (p- 177) 

The .xxiiii. chapter treateth of Venys, & of the disposicion of the 
people of the couTitrey, & of^ their money & spech. (p. 181) 

The .XXV. chapter treateth of Lombardy, & of the natural dis- 
posicions of the people of the countrey, & of theyr money, and of 
theyr speche. (p. 186) 

The .xxvi. chapter treateth of leene and of the leneueys,* and of 
theyr spech, and of theyr money. (p. 188) 

The .xxvii. chapter treateth of Fraunce, and of other ^prouinces 

' that AB. » sign. A .11. back. ^ B leaves out "& of." 

* Genoa and the Genoese. * A .ill. not signed. 



INTRODUCTION. TABLE OP CONTENTS. 115 

the which be vnder Fraunce, and of the disposicion of the people, 
and of their mony and speche. (p. 190) 

The .xxviii. chapter treateth of ^ Catalony, and of the kyngdom of 
Aragon, and of the disposicion of the people, and of theyr money, and 
of theyr speche. (p. 194) 

The .xxix. chapter treateth of Andalosye, and of the kingdome of 
Portingale, and of the dysposicion of the people, and of theyr speche, 
and of theyr money. (p. 196) 

The .XXX. chapter treateth of Spayne, & of the disposycion of a 
Spayneard, and of the^ money and of the^ speche. (p. 198) 

The .xxxi. chapter treateth of the kyngdome of CasteP and of 
Byscaye^, and of the dysposycion of the ® people of that countrey, and 
of^ theyr money and spech. (p. 199) 

The .xxxii. chapter treateth of the kyngdome of Nauer, and of 
the disposicion of the people, and of ^ theyr money and theyr speche. 

(p. 202) 

The .xxxiii. chapter treateth of Bay on, and Gascoyn, and of lytle 
Britayn, and of the disposicion of the people of those countreys, and 
of theyr mony and of ^ their spech. (p. 206) 

The .xxxiiii. chapter treateth of NormaTwiy & Picardy; of the 
disposicion of the people, & of their money & spech. (p. 208) 

ITie .XXXV. chapter treateth of the Latyn man and of the 
Englysh man, and where Latine is most vsed. (p. 209) 

The .xxxvi. chapter treateth of Barbari, and of the blake Mores, 
and of* Moryske speche. (p. 212) 

The .xxxvii. chapter treateth of Turkey, & of the Turkes, and of 
their money and of® their speche. (p. 214) 

The .xxxviii. chapter treateth of Egypt, and of the Egypciens, & 
of « their speche. (p. 217) 

The .xxxix. chapter treateth of lury and of the lues, and of® 
their speche. (p. 218) 

IT Thus endeth the table. 



* B leaves out "of." * and their B. ' Castle B (Castille). 

* Bascaye H. *-* people and B. ^ B leaves out " and of." 



116 THE ENGLISHMAN WHO LOVES NEW FASHIONS. [ciIAP. I. 




% The fyrst chapter treateth of the naturall dysposi- 

cion of an Englyshman, and of the noble realme of 

England, & of the money that there is vsed. 



I'm naked, 
as I can't settle 
what to wear. 



I like new 
laahions. 



IT I am an English man, and naked I stand here, 
Musyng in my mynde what payment I shal were 3 
For now I wyll were thys, and now I wyl were that ; 
Now I wyl were I cannot tel what. 4 

All new fashyons he plesaunt to me ; 
I wyl haue them, whether I thryue or thee.^ 

* A .iii. back. 

^ See chapter xxii. below, p. 177. The Neapolitan sa3's : " Al 
new fashyons to Englond I do bequeue." Wilson, speaking of 
books, says : " And not onely are matters set out by description, 
but men are painted out in their colours, yea, buildynges are set 
forthe, Kingdomes and Realmes are portreed, places &c timca 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION, THE ENGLISHMAN. 117 

Kow I am a frysker, all men doth on me looke; 

What should I do, hut set cocke on the hoope? 8 

What do I care, yf aU the worlde me fayle? 

I wyll get a garment, shal reche to my tayle ; I'n pet a garment 

. , to reach to my 

Inan I am a minion, for I were the new gyse. tau. 

^The next 2 yere after this I trust to he wyse, 12 

Not only in wering my gorgious aray, 

For I wyl go to learnyng a hoole somers day : ^ Next year I'U 

take to leai-ning. 

I wyll learne Latyne, Hehrew, Greeke and Frenche, 

And I wyl learne Douche, sittyng on my henche. 16 

I do feare no man ; all men feryth me ; Aii men fear me. 

I ouercome my aduersaries hy land and by see ; 

I had no peere, yf to my selfe I were trew ; 

Bycause I am not so, dyuers times I do rew. 20 

Yet I lake nothyng, I haue all thynge at wyll ; i lack nothing. 

Yf I were wyse, and wolde holde my self styl. 

And medel wyth no matters not* to me partayning, 

But euer to be trew to God and [to] my kynge.^ 24 

But I haue suche matters rolling in my pate, 

That I wyl speake and do, I cannot tell what ; 

"No man shall let me, but I wyl haue my mynde, 27 iviuioM luice. 

And to father, mother, and freende, I wyl be vnkynde; 

I wyU folow myne owne mynd and myn old trade; 

Who shal let me, the deuyls nayles vnpared? who'Ustopme.p 

Yet aboue al thinges, new fashions I loue well, i do love new 

And to were them, my thryft I wyl sell. 32 

In all this worlde, I shall haue but a time ; 

Holde the cuppe, good felow, here is thyne and myne ! 

are described. The Englishma/i for feeding and chaunging 
for (sic) apparell : The Dutchman for drinking : The French- 
man for pride & inconstance : The Spanyard for nimblenes of 
body, and much disdaine : the Italian for great wit and pol- 
licie : the Scottes for boldnesse, and the Boeme for stubborn- 
nesse." — 1553. Wilson's Art of Bhetorique, edit. 1584, fol. 
181-2.— W. C. Hazlitt. 

' A .iiii. not signed. ' B leaves out " next." 

^ See note ', next page. * A leaves out B's " not." 

* B leaves out this line : because of the " kynge," I sup- 
pose, as Queen Elizabeth was reigning in 1562 and 1563. 



118 ANDREW BOORDE ON ENGLISHMEN AND ENGLAND. [CHAP. I, 

^ The Auctor respondith. 

Englishmen! f Q good Englyshe-man, here what I shall say: 

strive for leam- Study to haue learnyng,^ with vertue, night and day ; 

ing, and stop ■,-,■, ni-r 

swearing; Leue thy swearyng, and set pryde a syde, 37 

And cal thou for grace, that with thee it may byde ; 
Than shall al nacions, example of the^ take, 
That thou hast subdued syn, for lesus Christes sake. 40 
And werkes of mercy, and charyte, do thou vse ; 
And al vyces and syn, vtterly refuse ; 

then all countries Than al countreys a confluence wyl haue to thee, 

will come to you 

to learn the truth, s To haue knowledge of trueth and of the veryte, 44 
Of lernyng of Engly^he, of maners also, 
lesus I beseche, to kepe thee from all wo, 
And send thee euer fortune, and also much grace, 
That in heauen thou mayst haue a restyng place. 48 

Is our land good, ^ The Italycu and the Lombarde say, Anglia 

our people bad ? . ^ , 

No. terra — bona terra, mala gent. 1 hat is to say, "the lam 

of England is a good land, but the people be yl." But 

Englishmen are I Say, as I doo know, the people of England be as good 

men; as any people in any other lande and nacion thai euer 

I haue trauayled in, yea, and much more better in many 

thynges, specially in maners &> manhod. as for the noble 

and English fartylc cou??trey of England, hath no regyon lyke it; for 

none^like!'^^ * there is plentye of Gold & Siluer. Eor Gold, Siluer, 

Tin, Lead & Yron, doth grow there. Also there is 

plenty of fisshe, flesshe and wylde foule, and copious- 

Butnocom ncs of woll & clotli. And if they wold kepe their 

ported. ' come w^t7^in their realme, they had ynough to finde 

themself wMout scarcite, & of a low price. Though 

they haue no wines growing within the realme — tliQ 

which they might haue yf they would, — yet there is no 

' On the contempt for learning in England in Henry VIII's time, see the 
Forewords to the Bahees Book, p. xii-xiv, the Additions to it of 186^, the 
Preface to Qtiene Elizahetlies Ackademy, &c. p. ix, x, and Starkey's Dialogue 
on Bngland in Henry VIITs Time, E. E. T. Soc. 1870, p. 182-6, &c. On tho 
Swearing in England, see p. 82-3 above. * thee B. ^ A .iiii. back. 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. ENGLAND, AND NOBLE LONDON. 119 

realme that hath so many sortes of wines as they. The 

regioTi is of such fertilite that they of the countrey 

nede not of other regions to helpe them. EnglishmeTz Englishmen are 

be bolde, stroTig, & mighty ; the women be ful of bewty, Englishwomen 

, Till imi /. .-i^-i. ^^^ of beauty. 

6 they be decked gayly. They fare sumptiously ; God is 

serued in their churches deuoutli : but treason & deceyt ^ut treason is in 

' "^ the l?.nd. 

among them is vsed crafty ly, the more pitie; for yf they 

were true wythin themselfs, thei nede not to feare al- were we true 

to ourselves, 

though al naciows were set agai72st them; specialli now, we need fear 

cowsyderiwg our noble prynce hath, & dayly dothe^ make 

noble defences, as castels, bulwarkes, & blokhouses, so our King buuds 

ciistles too. 

thatj almost, his grace hath munited, & in maner walled 
England rounde aboute, for ^^e sauegard of the realme, so 
that the poore subiectes may slepe and wake in saufe- 
gard, doing theyr busines without parturbaunce. 

^ IF In England there be manye noble Cities and 
townes, Amonges the whyche the noble citie of London The nobic city of 

London excels 

precelleth al other, not onely of that region, but of all aii others; and 

other regyons ; for there is not Constantynople, Venis, 

Kome, Flore?ice, Paris, nor Colyn, can not be compared 

to London, the qualities and the quantite consydred in 

al thynges. And as foi the ordre of the citie in 

maners, and good fashyons, & curtasy, it excelleth al 

other cities and townes. And there is suche a brydge of its bridge is the 

'' ° fairest in the 

pulcritudnes, that in all the worlde there is none lyke.* world. 

In Englande is a metropolytane, the whych is a tii» Metropolitan 

° r J J J of England is a 

patriarke; and ther be now but few; for there was a Patriarch, 
patriarke of lerusalem, ther is a patryarke at Constanti- 
nople, & there is a patryarke af* Venis; but al these 
aforesayde patriarkes hath not, one for one, so many with more 

•^ ^ 7 ./ bjgjjQpg than any 

bysshops vnder them as the patriarke or metrapolytan other. 

' ? this applies rather to 1542 than 1547. See Notes. Boorde notices that 

7 castles were built, and 5 renewed by Henry. — Forewords, p. 23, near the foot. 

■■* sign. B .i. 

^ This bridge was the first stone London Bridge, begun by Peter of Cole- 
church, A.D. 1176, finished in 1209, and which lasted till the New Bridge was 
built in 1825. For many centuries it was the wonder of Europe. — Chronicles 
a/ London Bridge, 2nd ed. 1839. " A leaves out B's "at." 



120 



PORTS AND LANGUAGES OP ENGLAND. 



[chap. 



Universities, 



Oxford and 
Cambridge. 



Ports and 
Havens. 



The speeches 
spoken in 
England 

French, 

Welsh, 

Cornish, 

Irish, 

Northern or 
Scottish ; 



and all kinds by 
aliens. 



The wonders of 
England : 



hot baths at 
Bath; 



salt wells ; 



Stonehenge; 



of England. In England is the tliyrd auwtyke^ vniuer- 
site of the worlde, named Oxford. And there is another 
nohle vniuersitie called Cambrige. There is also in 
Englande more nobiler ^ portes and hauens than in any 
other region; there is Sandwiche, Doner, Rye, Wyn 
chelse, Hastynges, Pemsey, Bryght-Hemston,^ Arndel 
Chychester, Porche mouthe, Southhampton, Dartmouth 
Exmouth, and Plommouth. I do not recone no hauens 
nor portes betwixt Cornewall, Deynshire, and WaleSj 
but beyond Cornewal and Wales, as saynt Dauys 
Carnaruan, Umarys,'* Abarde,^ Cornewal, Weschesterj 
Cokersend, and Cokermouth, Carlel, Barwyke, New 
castell, Bryllyngtone, Hull, Bostowe, Lyn, Yermouthe 
and Harwyche, and dyuers other portes and hauyns 
long to reherse. IT In Englande, and vnder the do 
minion of England, be many sondry speches beside 
Englyshe : there is Frenche vsed in Engla/id, specyally 
at Calys, Gersey, and Jersey : In Englande, the ^ Walshe 
tongue is in Wales, The Cornyshe tongue in Corne' 
wall, and Iryshe in Irlande, and Frenche in the Eng- 
lysshe pale. There is also the Northen tongue, the 
whyche is trew Scotysshe; and the Scbttes tongue is the 
Northen tongue. Furthermore, in England is vsed all 
maner of languages and speches of alyens in diuers 
Cities and Townes, specyally in London by the Sea 
syde. If Also in England be manye wonderfuU thynges : 
Fyrst, there is at Baath certayne waters, the whyche be 
euer bote or warme, and neuer colde; wynter & Somer, 
they be euer at a temperat heate. In wynter the poore 
people doth go into the water to kepe themself warme, 
and to get them a heate. ^ In England be salt wel 
waters ; of the whych waters, Salte is made. If Vpon the 
playn of Salysbury is the stonege, whyche is certayne 

• ancientest. ' noble B. ' Bryght, Hewston A ; Brighthelmstone or Brighton. 

* ? Beaumaris, on the east coast of Anglesey. 

' ? A})erystwith, on the west coast of Cardiganshire, or Aberffraw, west coast 
of Anglesey, &o. ® sign. B .i. back. 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. WONDERS OF ENGLAND. 121 

great stones, some standyng, and some lyenge ouer- 
thawart, lyeng and hangyng, that no Gemetricion can set 
them as they do hange. And although they stande 
many a hondred yeares, hauyng no reparacion nor no 
solidacioTi of morter, yet there is no wynde nor wether 
that doth hurte or peryshe them. Men say that Marlyn (Merlin ooiit 

Stonehenge.) 

brought to that place the sayd stones by the deuels 
helpe & crafte. 

IF In the Forest of saynt Leonardes in Southsex there a forest, st 
dothe neuer synge Nightyngale ; althoughe the Forest no nightingale 
rounde aboute in tyme of the yeare is replenysshed ^ ^ '"* 
wyth Nightyngales, they wyl syng rounde aboute the 
Forest, and neuer within the precyncte of the Forest, as 
dyuers kepers of the Forest, and other credible parsons 
dwellyng there, dyd shew me. 

IT In dyuers places in England there is wood the which wood that turns 

into stone. 

doth tume into stone. IT The kynges of England, by the 
power that God hath gyuen to them, dothe make sicke 
men whole of a sycknes called the kynges euyll.^ f The 
''Kynges of Englande doth halowe euery yere Crampe Cramp-Eings 

hallowed by our 

rynges,^ the whyche rynges, worne on ones fynger, dothe Kings, 
helpe them the whyche hath the Crampe. 

^ There is no regyon nor countrey in al the world England's the 

only country with 

that thej'^r money is onely gold & syluer, but only Eng- only gold and 

lande; for in England all theyr money is golde & syluer. 

There Golde is fyne and good, specyally the souerayns. Our gold coins. 

the Ryals, and the halfe Ryals; the olde noble, .the 

Aungels and the halfe aungels, is fyne golde. But the 

nobles of twenty grotes, and the crownes and the halfe 

crownes of Englande, be not so fyne Golde as the other 

is. Also Golde of other regyons, and some Syluer, yf it 

be good, doth go in England. The syluer of England our silver coma. 

is Grotes, halfe grotes. Pens, halfe pens, and there be 

some Fardynges. IT In England doth grow golde, and Our mines. 

* See The Brevyary of Health, fol. Ixx, and Forewords, p. 91-93 above. 
* sigu. B .ii. ' See the Forewords, p. 91-2. 



122 OP CORNWALL, AND CORNISH MSN. j^CHAP. I. 

Mines In Eng- Syluei, Tyn, Leade, and Irene. IF The speche of Eng- 
Engiish speech lande is a base speche to other nohle speches, as Italion, 
is base. Castylion, and Frenche ; howheit the speche of Englande 

of late dayes is amended.^ 

% The apendex to the fyrst Chapter, treatinge of 
Oornewall, and Cornyshe men. 

I can brew ^ Iche cham a Cornyshe man, al[e] che can brew; 

beastly beer 

It wyll make one to kacke, also to spew ; 
It is dycke and smoky, and also it is dyn ; 
like hogwash. It is lyke wash, as pygges had wrestled dryn.^ 4 

Iche cannot brew, nor dresse Fleshe, nor vyshe ; 

Many volke do segge, I mar many a good dyshe. 
Dup the dore, gos ^ ! iche hab some dyng to seg, 7 

' Whan olde knaues be dead, yonge knaiies be fleg." 
I'm very hungry; Iche chaym yU afyngred,* iche swere by my fay 
Iche nys not eate no soole ^ sens yester daye; 
6 Iche wolde fayne taale ons myd the cup; 
give me a quart Nym mc a Quart of ale, that iche may it of sup. 12 

of ale. I've fish J ^ » j r 

and tin, A, good gosse, ichc hab a toome,''^ vyshe, and also tyn ; 

Drynke, gosse, to me, or els iche chyl begyn. 
but suflfer cold Qod ! watysh great colde, and fynger iche do abyd ! 

and hunger ./ o 

Wyl your bedauer, gosse, come home at the next tyde. 
Iche pray God to coun him wel to vare, 1 7 

That, whan he comit home, myd me he do not starie 
For putting a straw dorow his great net. 

Another pot of ale, good gosse, now me fet ; 20 
I'll go to law For my bedauer wyl to London, to try the law, 

To sew Tre poll pen, for waggyng of a straw. 
15'ow, gosse, farewell ! yche can no lenger abyde ; 

Iche must ouer to the ale howse at the yender syde ; 

' Boorde evidently didn't appreciate the Anglo-Saxon words of our speech 
as he did his own long Latin and Greek coinages. 

* therein : as dyn above is " thin," dycke, " thick." ^ gossip, mate. 

* a-hungered. * soul, flavouring, meat ; p. 138, 1. 21. 
° aign. B .ii. back. ' at home. 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTION. CORNWALL, AND CORNISH. 123 

And now come myd me, gosse, I thee pray, 26 

And let vs make mery, as longe as we may. 

IT Cornwal is a pore and very barren countrey of al 
maner thing, except Tyn and Fysshe. There meate, and comwaii has 
theyr oread, and dryncke, is marde and spylt for lacke (See Notes.) 
of good ordring and dressynge. Fyrres and turues is Their food is 
theyr chief fewel; there ale is starke nought, lokinge cooking, 
whvte & thycke, as pyeges had wrasteled in it. Their aie is 

J J J trj oo awful stuff; 

^ smoky and ropye, 

and neuer a good sope, 

in moste places it is worse and worse, 

pitie it is them to curse ; 

for wagginge of a straw 

they wyl go to law, ^^^y'li go to law 

•J '' '=> ' for wagging of a 

and al not worth a hawe, straw, 

playinge so the dawe. 

IF In Cornwall is two speches ; the one is naughty 
Englyshe, and the other is Cornyshe speche. 

And there be many men and women the whiche ManyComish 

people can't 

cannot speake one worde of Englyshe, but all Cornyshe. speak a word of 
Who so wyll speake any Cornyshe, Englyshe and Cor- 
nyshe doth folow. 
One. two. thre. foure. fyue. six. seuen. eyght. nyne. The Comish 

numerals. 

Ouyn. daw. tray, peswar. pimp. whe. syth. eth. naw. 
2 Ten. aleuyn. twelue. thertene. fourtene. fyftene. 

Dec. vnec. dowee. tredeec. peswardeec. pympdeec. 
Syxtene. seuentine. eyghtyne. nyntene. twenty. 
Wliedeec. sythdeec. ethdeec. nawdeec. Igous. 
One and twenty, two and twenty, three and twenty. 
Ouyn war igous. dow war Igous. tray war ygom. 
Fouer and twenty, &c. 
pesimr ygovs : and so forthe tyl you come to thyrty. 

IF No Cornysheman dothe nomber aboue .xxx. so is their highest 

number. 

and is named. Deec wamegous. And whan they haue 

tolde thyrty, they do begyn agayn, " one, two, and 

' Printed as prose. ^ B .iii. not signed. 



124 A TALK IN CORNISH AND ENGLISH. [CHAP. L 

thre," And so forth, and whan they haue recounted to a 
hondred, they saye kans. And if they nomber to a 
thousand, than they saye Myle. 
A talk in Cornish God moiow to you, syi ! Dar day dew a why, serra / 
God spede you, mayde ! Dar zona de why math-tath} 
You be welcome, good wyfe ! 

Welcom a whe givra da 
I do thanke you, syr. Dar dala de why, syrcu 
How do you fare ? Vata leio genar why ? 
Well, God thanke you, good master ! 

Da dar dala de why, master da / 
Hostes, haue you any good meate 1 
HosteSf eus bones ^ de why 1 

Yes, syr, I haue enowghe. Eus, sarra, grace a deio. 

Giue me some meate, good hostes I 
Rewh hones * de vy, hostes da I 

Mayde, giue me bread and drinks ! 
Math-tath} eus me harow ha dewas / 

Wife, bringe me a quarte of wme ! 
Gwrac, drewh quart gwin de vy I 

Woman, bringe me some fishe ! 
Benen^ drewh pyscos de vi ! 

* Mayde, brynge me egges and butter 
Math-tath,^ drewgh me eyo ^ hag a manyn de vi 

Syr, much good do it you ! 
Syrra, betha why lowe weny eke ! 

Hostes, what shal I paye 1 
Hostes J jprendra we pay ? 

Syr, your rekenyng is .v. pens. 
Syrra, iges rechen eu 2yymp in ar. 

How many myles is it to londoni 
Pes myll der eus a lemma de Londres ? 

Syr, it is thre houndred myle. 
Syrra, tray kans myle dere. 

Mahtheid P. (John W. Peard). ' Boos P ' Beven AB. (Bemien ?.) 

♦ B .iii. back. * oije, an egg ; pi. oyow P. 



CHAP. II.] 



INTRODUCTION. OF WALES. 



im 



God be with you, good hostes ! 
Bena tewgena a^ why liostes da 1 

God gyue you a good nyght ! 
DeAO rebera vos da de why! 

God send you wel to fare ! 
Dew reth euenna thee lohy fare eta t 

God bo wyth you ! Deio gena why 1 

I pray you, commend me to all good felowes. 
Meesdesyor^ why coinmende ine the aide matas^ da. 

Syr, I wyl do your commaun dement. 
Syira, me euydeii geivel ages commaundement why. 

God bo witli you ! Deto gena why / 



A talk in ComiBh 
and English. 




% The second chapytre 

treateth of Wales. And 

of the natural disposi- 

cion of Welshmen. 

Teaching an Eng- 

lyshman to speake 

some Welsh. 



Am a Welshman, and do dwel in Wales, 
I liaue loued to serche boudgets, & looke in males; i like thieving. 



' Dew geneWy P. ' 1 Maz den syra, good man Sir, good Sir, P. 

^ ? viayni/s, pi. of vuiyn, an intimate, P. * B .iiii. not signed. 



1S6 



I don't like work, 
and I do like 
prigging. 



I'm a gentleman 
and love the 
Virgin Mary. 



I go bare-legged. 



I love Roasted 
Cheese, (p. 129.) 

My Harp is my 
treasure j 

it's made of 
mare-skin and 
horse-hair. 



I sing like a 
bumble-bee. 



South Wales is 
better than North, 
for food. 



Mountains : 
Snowdon and 
Manath Deny. 



THE WELSHMAN AND WALES. 



[chap. II. 



8 



12 



I loue not to labour, nor to delue nor to dyg ; 
My fyngers be lymed lyke a lyme twyg ; 
And wherby ryches I do not greatly set, 
Syth all hys fysshe that commeth to the net. 
I am a gentylman, and come of brutes blood ; 
My name is, ap Eyce, ap Dauy, ap Flood. 
I loue our Lady, for I am of hyr kynne ; 
He that doth not loue hyr, I be-shrew his chynne. 
My kyndred is ap hoby, ap lenkin, ap goffe. 
Bycause I do go barlegged, I do each the coffe ; 
And if I do go barlegged, it is for no pryde ; 
I haue a gray cote, my body for to hyde. 
' I do loue cawse boby,^ good rosted^ chese ; 
And swyshe swash e metheglyn I take * for my fees ; 16 
And yf I haue my harpe, I care for no more ; 
It is my treasure, I do kepe^ it in store ; 
For my harpe is made of a good mares skyn, 19 

The stringes be of horse heare, it maketh a good din ; 
My songe, and my voyce, and my harpe doth agree, 
Muche lyke the hussyng of a homble be ; 
Yet in my countrey I do make good pastyme, 
In tellyng of prophyces whyche be not in ryme. 24 
Wales is deuided into two partes, whyche be to saye, 
North Wales, and South Wales. South Wales is better 
than North Wales in many thinges, specially for wyne, 
Ale, Breade, and wylde foule; yet bothe the countreys be 
very barayne, for there is muche waste, & wast ground, 
consydering there is maryses, & wylde and high moun- 
taynes. The mountayne of Snowdon is the hyghest 
mountayne of Wales. There is another hyghe moun- 
tain [in] Walles, called Manath deny, vpow the toppe 



' B .iiii. back. 

' See the anecdote in * The Hundred Merry Tales ' (^Notes') 
of St Peter getting the bothering Welsh out of heaven by shout- 
ing " Cause hobe" outside the gate, and then locking the gate 
on them when they'd rusht out. ^ roted A ; rosted B. 

* toke B. * I kepe B. 



CHAP. II.] INTRODUCTION. WELSHMEN AND WALES. 127 

of the which is a fayre fountayne. And yf the winde be a wonder of 
any thyng vp, yf a man do stande at the top of the 
hyl in any place, and do cast his hat or cap downe the 
hyll, the cap or hat shall flye bacwarde, and not for- 
warde, although a man stande in neuer so came^ a place, 
as they of the couwtrey doth tel me. 

There is a wel in Wales called " Saynte "Wenefrydes st Winifred's 
Well." Walshe me?* sayth that if a man doth cast a (see xoten.) 
cupe, a staffe, or a napkyn, in the well, it wyll be full of Welshmen He 
droppes or frakils, and redyshe like blonde; the whyche 
is false, for I haue proued the contrary in son dry tymes. 
f In Wales there hath ben many goodly & strowge 
Castels, and some of them stande yet. The Castels and waies is uke 
the Countre of Wales, and the people of Wales, be Biiay. 
muche lyke to the Castels and the countrey and the 
people of Castyle and Byscaye; ^for there is muche 
pouerty, and many reude and beastlye people, for they do The people are 
drynke mylke and whay; they do fare ful euel, and theyr ^^t^"^ *"** 
lodgynge is poore and bare, excepte in market townes, 
In the whych is vsed good fashion and good vytales, 
good meate, wine, and competent Ale, and lodgynge. 
North Wales and Sowth Wales do vary in there speche, 
and in there fare, and maners. Sowth Wales is best; south waies is 
but for all the variaunce of the premisses, they cannot b^''®'^*'^^ North, 
speke .X. wordes to-gyther of Welshe, but " deauol," Welshmen always 
that is to say, " the deuyl," is at the ende of one of the orvn.^^*''' 
wordes. As "the foule euyll," whyche is the fallyng and Scotchmen 
syckenes,^ is at the ende of euery skottysh mans tale. ^^ "^® ^°"^ ^^^ 
In Wales in diuers places is vsed these two stulticious* TheWeishdo 
matters, the fyrste is, that they wyP sell there lams, and "'"p'*^ *^'"^' '• 
theyr calues, and theyr corne the whyche is not sowen, i. seii aii produce 
and all other newynges, a yere before that they be sure * ^**"^ 
of any newynge ; and men wyl bye it, truvstynge vppon 
hope of suche thynges that wyl come. The seconde 

* ? calm. ' sign. C .1. ^ See p. 136, line 4. 
* stulticious in, B. ' well A ; wel B. 

9 



128 



CHABACTER OF WELSHMEN. 



[chap. II. 



2. When a friend 
dies. 



they cry out, 
" Darling, why 
did ycu do it ? 



Come back, or 
we'll die with 
you!" 



I saw this at 
Ruthin and 
Oswestry. 



The Welsh think 
too much of their 
kin; 



stulticious matter is, that yf any of tlieyr frendes do 
dye, & whan they shall be buried and put in to the 
graue, in certayne places they wyl cry out, making an 
exclamacion, and sayeng, " venit^ !" that is to saye, "0 
swetynge! why dost thou dye? thou shalt not go from 
vs!" and wil pul away the corse, sayeng, "venit! we 
wyl die with the, or els thou shalt tary with vs ! " 
wyth many other folyshe wordes, as the Castilions and 
the Spaniardes do say & do at the burieng of theyr 
frendes 2 : thys dyd I se & here in Rithen and Oswold- 
estre, and other places. 

% The Walsh men be hardy men, stronge men, & 
goodly men ; they woulde be exalted, & they do set muche 
by theyr kynred & prophecyes; and many of them be 
louynge and kyndharted, faythful, & vertuous. And 
are thieves; there be many ^of them the whyche be lyght fyngered, 
& loueth a purse ; but this ^ matter latly is reformed, 
but lechery in manye places is to much vsed, Wherfore 
ther be many bastards openly knowen ; and many prestes 
sonnes aboundeth in the countre, specially in North 
Wales; but that is no we reformed, considring the re- 
striction of the kynges actes, that prestes shal haue no 
concubynes.'* who so wyll lerne to speake some Welshe, 
Englyshe.and Welshe foloweth. And where that I do 
not wryte true Welshe, I do write it that euery man 
may rede it and vnderstand it without any teachynge. 
One. two. thre. four. fyue. syx. seuyn. eyght. 
Uun, daw. try. pedwar. pimp, wheeth^. saygth. oweyth. 
jSTyne. ten. aleuen. twelue. thyrtene. fourtene. 
nau. deek. vnardeeh. deuardeek. tryardeek. pedwardeeh, 
Fyftene. syxtene. seuyntene. eyghtene. 

pympdeek. vnarhundeek. dauarhundeek. tryarhundeek. 
Nyntene. twentye. one and twenty, two and twenty. 

pedwarhuntheek. igain. vnar igayn. deuar igayn. 

' Lat. benedictns, D. (B. Davies.) ^ See p. 200. ' sign. C .i. back. 
* Statute 31 Hen. VIIT, chap. 14, A.D. 1539. See 'Notes.' * wJieech D. 



there are many 
bastards and 
priests' sons ; 

but that's stopt 
now 



The Welsh 
numerals. 



OHAP. II.] 



INTRODUCTION. A TALK IN WELSH. 



129 



Therty. forty, fyfty. syxty. seuenty. 

thegarUgen. deugen. degadugen. try gen. degatrygen. 
Eyghty. nynety. a.C. two .C. M. 

pedivarugen. degapedwaittgen. leant, dekant. MyL 

% God spede, fayre woman ! . 

Deu ven-dicko *, gwen wraac ! 

Good morow, fayr mayd ! Deyth dawh theetmorwyn t 

IF God nyght, masters all ! Nos dawy masters igeet. 

Syr, can you speke any Welshe 1 

Sere, auedoroivgh weh Gamraac ? 

Ye, syr, I can speke some Welshe. 

Ede, oh sere, medora heth^ dycJc. 

Mayden, come hether, and gyue me some roste chese I 

Morwyn, therdomma moes imi gawse hohy ! 

Tarry a lytle, man, and you shall haue enowgh. 

8 Arow heth* dycke, gower wheh gooh dygan. 

Wyfe ! hath preestes wyues in Wales? 

Wraac, oes gwrath^ yn Kymery f 

Hold thy peace ! they haue no Wyues now. 

Tau son / neth os mor^ gicragath irrowan. 

Syr, wyll you lend me a horse to ryde to London % 

Sere, a rowhe imi margh euer hogeth klynden? 

You shall haue a horse. Wheh agewh ar margh. 

Syr, how far is it to London ? Sere, pabeWiter'^ klindent 

Syr, it is .ix. myle. Sere, now^ mylter. 

Is this the ryght way to the towne 1 

Ay hon yoo yr forth yr dre ? 

Wher is the best In & hest lodging ] 

Pie may I cletty gore ynei 

At lohn ap Dauy ap Ryse house. 

In hy Ioha.n ap Dauyth ap Rys. 

Hostes, god saue you ! 

Vey cleto wraac, Duw ah erosso^ why I 



Welsh Numerals. 



AtalkinWelBti 
and English. 



» Lat. benedicat D. 


2 ychy D. 


' sign. C .11. 


* Aroi ychy D. 


* IgTvragath D. 


^ ? mwy D. 


' pahellter D. 


* na/m D. 


^ crosso D. 


BOORDE. 


9 





130 A TALK IN WELSH AND ENGLISH. [CHAP. IL 

A talk in Welsh Syi, you be haityly welcome ! 

and English. j ^-l , 

Seray mae yn grosso duw loorthy ! 

Maystres, haue you any good meat and lodgyng ? 

Veymaistres, oesgennowh whe thin or hooyd ta a dettyda 7 

Syr, I haue good meate and good lodgyng. 

Sere, mae gennyf vid ta a cletty da. 

Hostes, what is it a clocke ? 

Veye cleto wraac, beth idioo hy ar i glowh ? 

Syr, it is .vi. a clock. 

Sere, me hy yn wheh ar y glowh. 

Hostes, when shall we go to supper ? 

Vey cleto vraacpamser i cawh^ ny in supper? 

By and by. Yn ynian. 

Gyue me some drynke ! Moes imi diod ! 

Gyue me some ale ! Moes imi currow ! 

Gyue me some bred I ^oes imi^ vara ! 

Gyue me some chese ! Moes imi gaws. 

Hostes, geue me a rekening ! 

Vey leto wraac moes^ imi gyfry. 

* Syr, ye shall pay thre pens for your supper. 

Sere, whe delowgh tair keinowh dio se^ ich sopper. 

Hostes, God thanke you ! 

Voy cleto wraac^ dew a thiolchahf^ 

Much good do it you ! Enwhyn thawen ! 

How do you fare ? Par hewiut charuoh^ whe ? 

Good morow ! Daws.^ 

Good nyght to you.^ Nos a dawh a whe. 

Farewell ! Yni awn ! ^^ 

Tary, tary, come hydder! Arow arow'^^ therdomma ! 

Hold thy peas, hold your peas ! I'au, tau son t 

Thus endeth of Wales. 

* rawn A. ' ima A. ^ mee A. * sign. C .ii. back. 

* ? dros for dio se D. " wraas A. "^ thiolphah A. 
' arnoch D. 

* Upcott's reprint of B leaves out these phrases, though B 
has them. '" Yn i awh A. " for Aros, aras D. 



CHAP. III.] INTRODUCTION. THE IRISHMAN AND IRELAND. 131 




f The thyrde Chapter 

treatethof Irland. And 

of the naturall dispo- 

sicion of an Irishe 

man, & of theyr 

money and 

speche. 



%^.. - 



I make frieze 
and aqua viUe. 



Lice bite me. 



IT ^ I am an Iryshe man, in Irland I was borne ; 

I loue to weare a saffron shert, all though it be to-tome. i wear a saffron 

shirt, and am 

My anger and my hastynes doth hurt me full sore ; hasty. 

I cannot leaue it, it creaseth more and more ; 4 

And although I be poore, I haue an angry hart. 

I can kepe a Hobby, a gardyn, and a cart ; 

I can make good mantyls, and good Irysh fryce ; 

I can make aqua vite, and good square dyce. 8 

Pediculus other whyle do byte me by the backe, 

Wherfore dyvers times I make theyr bones cracke. 

I do loue to eate my meate, syttyng vpon the ground, i squat on the 

ground, and 

And do lye in oten strawe, slepyng full sound. 12 sleep in straw. 

I (;are not for ryches, but for meate and drynke ; 

And dyuers tymes I wake, whan other men do wynke. 

I do vse no potte to seeth my meate in, 

Wherfore I do boyle it in a bestes skyn; 16 

* C .iii. not signed. 
9 • 



132 



IRELAND AND THE IRISH. 



[chap. III. 



I don't use cups ; 



and I live poor. 



Ireland is divided 
into the English 
Pale, and the 
wild Irish. 



Men of the Pale 
have English 
ways, 

but are testy. 



The wild Irish 
and Redshanks 



don't sow or 
till, or care 
for household 
goods. 



They are rude 
and wrathful : 



they boil their 
meat in a skin. 



Than after my meate, the brothe I do drynk vp, 
I care not for my master, neyther cruse nor cup. 
I am not new fangled, nor neuer wyll be; 
I do lyue in pouerty, in myne owne countre. 20 

% Irland is a kingdomship longing to the kyng of 
England. It is in the west parte of the world, & is 
deuyded in ii. partes, one is the Engly[sh] pale, & the 
other, the wyld Irysh. The English pale is a good coun- 
trey, plentye of fishe, flesh, wyldfoule, & corne. There 
be good townes & cities, as Du[b]lyn & Waterford, wher 
the English fashion is, as in meat, drinke, other fare & 
lodgi?ig. The people of the Englyshe pale be metely wel 
manerd, vsing the Englishe tunge ; but naturally they 
be testy, specially yf they be vexed ; Yet there be many 
well disposed people, as wel ^in the Englysh pale as in 
the wylde Iryshe, & vertuous creatures, whan grace 
worketh aboue nature. 51 The other parte of Irland is 
called the wilde Irysh ; and the Redshankes be ^ among 
them. That countrey is wylde, wast & vast, full of 
marcyces ^ & mouwtayns, & lytle corne ; but they haue 
flesh sufficient, & litle bread or none, and none ale. 
For the people there be slouthfuU, not regarding to sow 
& tille theyr landes, nor caryng for ryches. For in 
many places they care not for pot, pan, kettyl, nor for 
mattrys, fether bed, nor such implementes of hous- 
hold. Wherfore it is presuppose that they lak maners 
& honesty, & be vntaught & rude ; the which rudenes, 
with theyr melo?zcoly complexion, causeth them to be 
angry & testy wythout a cause. IT In those partyes 
they wyll eate theyr meat syttyng on the ground or 
erth. And they wyl sethe theyr meat in a beastes 
skyn. And the skyn shall be set on manye stakes of 
wood, & than they wyll put in the water and the 
fleshe. And than they wyl make a great fyre vnder the 
skyn betwyxt the stakes, & the skyn wyl not greatly 
* C .iii. back. ^ marryces B. 



CHAP. III.] INTRODUCTION. OP IRELAND AND THE IRISH. 133 

bren. And wha» the meate is eaten, they, for theyr 

drynke, wil drynk vp the brothe. In suche places men Men and women 

•' ' *^ ^ . ^ lie together in 

and womew wyll ly to-gether in mantles and straw, straw. 

There be many the which be swyft of fote, & can cast 

a dart perylouslv. I did neuer finde more amyte and i never knew 

^ '^ " "^ better men than 

loue than I haue found of Iryshe men the whyche was someofthePaie. 

borne within the English pale. And in my lyfe I dyd 

neuer know more faythfuller men & parfyt lyuers than 

I haue knowen of them. % In Irlond there is saynt st Patrick's Pur- 

gatory isn't mucU 

Partryckes ^ purgatory, the whych, as I haue lerned of good. 

men dwellyng there, and of them that hath be there, is 

not of that effycacyte as is spoken of, nor nothing lyke. 

Wh erf ore I do aduertise euery maw not haue affyaunce 

in such matters ; yet in lerland is stupe/zdyous thynges; 

for there is nevther Pyes nor venymus wormes. There There are no 

" Magpies, Snakes, 

is no Adder, nor Snake, nor Toode, nor Lyzerd, nor no Toads, or Efts, 

-111 "' Ireland. 

Euyt, nor none suche lyke. 

2 I haue sene stones the whiche haue had the forme I've seen there 

stones, said to 

and shap of a snake and other venimous wormes. And have been once 

snakes*. 

the people of the countre sayth that suche stones were 
wormes, and they were turned into stones by the power 
of God and the prayers of saynt Patryk. And Englysh Irish earth is 
marchauntes of England do fetch of the erth of Irlonde venomous worms, 
to caste in their gardens, to kepe out and to kyU venim- 
ous wormes. IT Englysh money goth in Irelond, for 
Irlowd belongeth to England, for the kynge of Englonde 
is kyng of Irlond. In Irlond they haue Irysh grotes. They have groats 
and harped grotes, & Irysh pens. % If there be any 
man the which wyll lerne some Irysh, Englysh and 
Irysh dothe folow^ here togyther. 
One. two. thre. foure. fyue. syx. seuen. eyght. The Irish 

, numerals. 

Heioen. doio. ire. kaar. quiek. seth. showght. howgtit 
nyne. ten. aleuyn. twelue. thirtene. fourtene. 
nygh. deli, hewnek. dowek. tredeek. kaardeek. 

' patriarkes B. ■* C .iv. not signed. ^ fololow A ; folowe B. 



134 



A TALK IN IRISH AND ENGLISH. 



[chap. III. 



Irish numerals. 



A talk in Irish 
and English. 



fyuetene. syxtene. seuentene. eyghtene. 
quiekdeek?- sehdeek. showghtdeek. Iiowghtdeek, 
nynetene. twenty, one & twenty, ii. & twew ty . thre & twenty 
nythdek, feh. hewn feet. doichfeet, trefeet 
Thirty, forty, fyfty. syxty. a hondred. 

Dehfeet eayfeet. dewhegesdayth.^ trefeet. keede. 

God spede you, syr ! Anoha dewh sor / 

You be welcome to the towne. De van wely. 

How do you fare % 

I do fare well, I thanke you. 

Tarn agoomawli gramahogood 

Syr, can you speke Iryshe ? 

^ IT I can speke a lytle. 

Mayden, come hether, and gyue me som meate ! 

KalyUy tarin cliowhj toor dewh ! 

IF Wyfe, haue you any good meate ? 

Benitee, wyl heemah hogoot ? 

IT Syr, I haue enough e. 



Kanys stato ? 



Sor, woll galoio oket ? 
Tasyn agomee. 



IT "Wyfe, gyue me bread ! 

IT Man, gyue me wine ! 

IT Mayden, gyue me chese ! 

IF Wyfe, gyue me fleshe ! 

Gyue me some fyshe ! 

IF Much good do it you ! 

IF How far is it to Waterford 1 

Gath haad o showh go part laarg. 



Sor, tha gwyler. 
Benytee, toor haran I 
Farate, toor f yen 1 
Kalyn, toor case I 
Benyte, toor foeule! 
Toor yeske! 
Teena go sowgh / 



It is one an twenty myle. 
IF What is it a clocke 1 
IF It is .vi. a clocke. 
IF Whan shal we go to supper 1 
Oahad rah moyd auer soper ? 
^ Giue me a rekenyng, wyfe. 
2'oor countes doyen, benitee 
^ Ye shall pay .iii. pens. 



Myle heivryht. 
Gaued howleh glog . 
She wylly a glog. 



Yeke ke to tre pyn Iny, 



* quiekdeek B. ' dewhegesnayth B. ' C .iv. back. 



CHAP. IV.J 



INTRO I)T 



HE SCOTCHMAN. 



U6 



IT Whan shal I go to slepe, wyfe 1 

Gah hon rah moyd holowh ? 

IT By an by. Nish feene. 

^ God night, sir ! Ih may sor ! 

Fare wel, fare wel ! Sor doyt^ sor doit t 

% Thus endeth the maner and speche of * 
Irland. 



•^ The fourth^ chapter treateth 

of Scotland, and the natural dis- 

posycion of a Scotyshe man. 

And of theyr money, and 

of theyr speche.* 




I Am a Scotyshe man, and trew I am to Fraunce ; 
In euery countrey, myselfe I do auaunce ; 
I wyll boost myselfe, I wyll crake and face ; 
I lone to be exalted, here and in euery place, 
an Englyshe man I cannot naturally loue, 
Wherfore I ojffend them, and my lorde aboue ; 
He that wyll double with any man. 
He may spede wel, but I cannot tell whan. 
I am a Scotyshe man, and haue dissymbled muche, 
and in my promyse I haue not kept touche. 



I always boast. 



I can't like 
Englishmen. 



I dissemble, and 
don't keep my 
promise. 



^ of of AB. 2 gjgQ J) J 3 f^^^ij ^ . fourth B. 

■• A note written here in Mr Christie-Miller's copy says, 
" vid. etiam Jo. Bruerinuw in suo lib. de re Cibaria." 



136 OF SCOTLAND AND ITS POVERTY. [CHAP. IV. 

Great morder and theft in tymes past I haue vsed ; 11 
I trust to God hereafter, such thynges shal be refused, 
wheneter I speak And what worde I do speake, be it in myrth or in borde, 

I swear by the 

Foul Evu " The foule euyll " shalbe at the end of my worde ; 

Yet wyl I not chaunge my apparell nor aray, 
although the French men go neuer so gay. 16 

Scotland is a kyngdome, the kynge of the whyche 
^hath in olde tyme come to the parliament of the 
kyng of England, and hath be subiect to England. 
Scotland is deuyded in two partes ; the one part, that is 
to say, nexte England, is Hayden, Edenborow, Lythko, 
Sterlynge, Glasco,^ saynt Androwes, saynt lohns towne, 
wyth the cou^^tres anexed, and adiacent to the aforesayd 

South Scotland cities and townes : [therein] is plenty of fysh and flesh, 

much oat cake, and cuell ale, excepte Leth ale ; there is plenty of hauer 
cakes, whiche is to say, oten cakes : this parte is the 
hart and the best of the realme. The other parte of 

The Highlands Scotlande is a baryn and a waste couwtrey, full of mores, 
lyke the lande of the wylde Ireshe. And the people 
of that parte of Scotland be very rude and vnmanered 
& vntaught ; yet that part is somwhat better than the 

The Southern North parte, but yet the Sowth parte wvU gnaw a bone, 

Scots will gnaw a .. iti . mi -n'l i-t-.ii 

bone, and put it and cast it luto the dish again. Theyr Fyshe and Fleshe, 

back in the dish. , ., , , , , •» n 

be it rosted or soden, is serued wyth a syrup or a sause 

in one disshe or platter : of al nacyons they do sethe 

theyr fysh moste beste. The borders of Scotland 

In the Borders toward England, — as they the which doeth dwell by 

penury, in huts; ITycoU forest, and SO vpward to Barwyke, by-yonde the 

water of Twede, — lyueth in much pouertie and penurye, 

hauynge no howses but suche as a man maye buylde 

man, wife, and wytliiu .iii. or .iiii. houres : he and his wyfe and his 

horse in one room. . j i ii n • t xi i. i 

horse standeth all m one rome. In these partyes be 
many out-lawes and stronge theues, for muche of theyr 

• D .i. back. 

' Boorde studied and practised in Glasgow. See the Ivre- 
wordSy p. 59. 



CHAP. IV.] INTRODUCTION. OP SCOTLAND AND THE SCOTCH. 137 

lyiiyng standeth by stelyng and robbyng. Also it is 

naturally geuen, or els it is of a deuyllyshe dysposicion Scotchmen don't 

of a Scotysh maw, not to loue nor fauour an Englyshe 

maw.^ And I, beyng there, and dwellynge amonge 

them, was hated ; but my scyences & other polyces dyd i was hated by 

kepe me m fauour, that I dyd know theyr secretes. ^ at their secrets. 

The people of the couwtrey be hardy men, and stronge 

men, and well fauored, & good musycyons ; in these They're good 

.iiii. qualytes they be mooste lyke, ^aboue all other 

nacions, to an Englyshe man ; but of al nacyons they but the wggest 

wyll face, crake, and boost themselfe, theyr frendes, and world; 

theyr cou?itrey, aboue reason ; for many wyll make they teii strong 

strong lyes. In Scotland a man shall haue good chere 

— ^he that can away wyth it after the countrey fashion — Living is che.ip. 

for litle money. The most parte of theyr money is 

bras. In bras they haue pens, and halfe plackes, & scotch piacka, 

pence, 

plackes : four Scotish pens is a placke, and a placke is 
almost worth an Englysh peny, for .xviii. Scotish pens 
is worthe an Englyshe grote : in Scotland they haue 
Scotysh grotes of syluer, but they be not so good, nor silver grotes, 

gold ^-face- 
so muche worth, as an Englysh grote. In golde they crowns, and 

crowns. 

haue halfe face crownes, worth of our money .ii. shyl- 

lynges and .iiii. pens. And they haue crownes of .iiii. 

shillinges & .viii. pens, if a Scotyshe man do pay .xx. 

crownes of golde, or a thousande crownes of golde, he 

doth say, " I haue payde .xx. pound, or a thousande 

pounde " 3 for euery crowne of .iiii. shillinges and .viii. *». sa. is a scotch 

pens is a pounde in Scotland. In Scotlande they haue 

two sondry speches. In the northe parte, and the part Northerners talk 

. 1 T 1 1 ^^^^ Irishmen. 

ioynyng to lerland, that speche is muche lyke the 
Iryshe speche. But the south parte of Scotland, and 
the vsuall speche of the Peeres of the Realme, is lyke southerners like 

^ North-English- 

the northen speche of England. Wherfore yf any man men. 

' See the note from The Complaynt of Scotland, p. 59 above. 
' See Boorde's Letter VI, to Secretary Cromwell, in the 
Forewords^ p. 59. " D .ii. not signed. 



138 



A TALK IN SCOTCH AND ENGLISH. 



[chap. IV. 



A talk in Scotch 
and English. 



wyl leame to speake some Scotysh, — Englysh & Scotish 
doth folow together. 

Scotch numerals. ^T One, two, three, foure, fyue, syx, seuyn, eyght, nyne, 
Ene, twey dre, foore^ feue, sax, sauen, awght, neen, 
ten, aleuen, twelue, thertene, fourtene, fyftene, syxtene. 
tane, alauefi, twalue, dertene, fortene, vyuetene, saxtene. 
seuentene, eyghtene, nyntene, twenty, one and twentye. 
sauentene, awghtene, nyntene, twante, ene and twanty. 
two & twenty, a hondred. 
twe an twanty, a hondryth. 

^ God morow, syr ! Geiod day, sher I 

Do you know me, good fellow 1 

Ken ye me, gewd fdlowh ? 

Ye syr, wel Inough ! Ye sher, in goodfayth! 

What countrey man be you % 

What contryth man he ye ? 

I am a good felow of the Scotyshe hloud. 

/ es a gewd falow of the Scotland blewd. 

Than haue you plenty of sowes and pygges. 

Than haue ye fell many of sewes and gryces. 

A pygge is good meate. A gryce is gewd sole.^ 

Syr, by my fayth you be welcome ! 

Sher, by my fayth but yows wel come ! 

For as muche as the Scotysh tongue and the 
northen Englyshe be lyke of speche, I passe ouer to 
wryte anye more of Scottyshe speche. 



Scotch is like 
Northern Eng' 
Ush. 



D .ii. back. 



2 soul, flavour. See p. 122, 1. 16. 



CHAP. V. 



INTRODUCTION. SHETLAND AND FRIESLAND. 



139 




^ The .V. chapytre treateth of 
^} Shetland and of Pryceland & 
of the naturall disposycion of 
the people of the countrey. 



' I Was borne in Shetland, my countrey is M colde ; 

And I was borne in Friceland, where mnche fyeh is sold; 

For corne and for shoes, our fyshe we do sell ; 

And symple rayment doth seme us full well ; 4 

Wyth dagswaynes and roudges ^ we be content ; 

And our chiefe fare, in the tyme of Lent, 

Fyshe, at any tyme seldome we do lacke. 7 

But I beshrew the louse that pyncheth vs by the back ! 

IT Shotland is a smale countrey or Ilande, the 
whyche is a colde countrey and baryn, for there is 
nothinge the whyche is commodious nor pleasaunt, ex- 
cept fyshe. 

IT Fryce is in maner of an Ylande, compassed 
aboute on the one syde with the occyan sea, hauyng 
hys begynnyng at the ende of the water of Reene, and 
doth end towarde Denmarkes sea. And although they 
be anexed to Germany, yet they do dyffer, for they do 
\'se contrary fashyons, as well in theyr apparel as in 
' D .iii. not signed. ' coarse cloths and rugs. 



In Friesland we 
sell fish for com 
and shoes. 



We live on fish. 



In Shetland, 



nothing: is nice 
but fish. 



Friesland is 
nearly an island. 



The Frisians 
differ from the 
Germans. 



140 



OP FRIESLAND. OP NORWAY. 



[chap. V, VI. 



Frisians have 
no firewood ; 



and no great 
Lords, but only 
Justices. 



Friesic is lik« 
Low German or 
Dutcli. 

Groningen. 

Frisian coins. 



theyr maners, for they be rurall and rusticall ; they 
haue no wood there, but turfes and dung of beastes, to 
make theyr fyre. They wolde not be subiect to no 
man, although they be vnder the Emperours dominion: 
they do loue no war, nor bate, nor strife, nor they loue 
not, nor wyl not haue no greate lordes amonge them; but 
there be admitted certayn Justices, And Justice that 
loueth, and prayseth, Chastyte. The countrey is could, 
baryn, and poore, lackyng riches ; yet there is plenty of 
pasture : theyr speche is lyke to base Germanyens spech ; 
it doth dyffer but lyttle. One of the chiefe townes of 
Fryce land is called Grunnyghen. In golde they haue 
Ryders, Gylders, and Clemers gylders. In syluer they 
haue lochymdalders. 



'^ The .vi. Chapter treateth of Norway & of Islonde, 

and of the natural disposicion of the people of the 

countrey, and of theyr money and speche. 




' D .iii. back. See p. 142 for 
note on the cuts. 




CHAP. VI.] INTRODUCTION, NORWAY AND ICELAND. 141 

I Am a poore man, borne in Norway ; 

Hawkes and fysh of me marchauntes do by all daye. in Norway we 

And I was borne in Islond, as brute as a beest ; iish. 

Whan I ete candels ends, I am at a feest. 4 i" Iceland we 

eat candle-ends 

Talow and raw stockfysh, I do loue to ete ; (see Notet) 

In my countrey it is right good meate ; 

Raw fysh and flesh I eate whan I haue nede : «»«* raw fish and 

•^ ' flesh. 

Upon such meates I do loue to feed. 8 

Lytle I do care for matyns or masse,^ 
And 2 for any good rayment, I do neuer passe ; 
Good beastes skyns I do loue for to were, we wear wolves* 

Be it the skins of a wolfe or of a beare, 12 

5 IT Norway is a great Ilond compassed abowt 
almost wyth the See ; the countre is very colde, where- Norway has 
fore they haue lytle come, and lytle bread and drynke ; 
the countre is wylde, and there be many rewde people. 
They do lyue by fysshyng and huntyng. Ther be 
many castours and whyte beares*, & other mo??sterous it has Beavers 

and White Bears, 

beastes : there be welles, the whyche doth tourne wood and Petrifying 

Wells. 

in to Irone. In somer there be many daies that the 
sunne doth neuer go downe, but is continuallye daye. 
And in many dayes in wynter it is styll nyght. In it's night aii 

winter 

Norwaye ther be good hawkes : ther is lytle money, for 

they do barter there fysh and hawkes for Mele, and 

shoes, and other marchaundies. 

IT Iselond is beyond Norway : It is a great Ilond 

compassed about wyth the Ise See ; the couwtre is won- Iceland is very 

derful cold, and in dyuers places the see is frosyn, and 

full of Ise. There is no come growynge there; nor and grows no 

they haue lytle bread, or none. In stede of bread they 

do eate stockefyshe ; and they wyll eate rawe fyshe and Icelanders eat 

fleshe ; they be beastly creatures, vnraanered and vn- beastly creatures. 

taughte. They haue no houses, but yet doth lye in 

' anye of gods seniasse B. This change implies that Mary's 
reign was over. Forewords, p. 19. 

^ And as B. ' D .iiii, not signed. 

* No white bears in Norway.— G. Vigf usson. 



142 



Icelanders lie in 
caves like swine; 
give away tlieir 
children, and 



are like the 
people of Calyco. 

They barter fish 
for meal, &c., 
and use no 
money. 



Priests, though 
beggars, have 
Concubines. 

No night in 
summer. 



I can't speak 
Icelandic. 



THE ICELANDERS. 



[OHAP. VI. 



caues^ al together, lyke swyne. They wyll sell there 
Iselond curres, & gyue a-way their chyldren. They 
wyll eate talowe candells, and candells endes, and olde 
grece, and restye tallowe, and other fylthy thinges. 
They do were wylde beastes skinnes^ and roudges. They 
be lyke the people of the newe founde land named 
Calyco. In Iselond there be many wylde beastes. 

The people be good fyshers ; muche of theyr fyshe 
they do barter wyth English men, for mele, lases, and 
shoes, & other pelfery. They do vse^ no mony in the 
couwtre, but they do barter or chaunge one thynge for 
another. There be som prestes the whych be beggers, 
yet they wyll haue concubynes. In Sommer tyme they 
haue, in maner, no nyghte. And in wynter tyme they 
haue, in lyke nmner, ^ fewe howres of dayelyghte. theyr 
language I can not speke, but here and there a worde 
or two, wherfore I do passe ouer to wryte of it. 

' In Iceland the subterranean dwelling is a standing 

-G. Vigfusson. 
' No wild beasts in Iceland.— G. V. Skins got from abroad. 
^ D .iiii. back. 



Instead of the two cuts at the head of chap, vi,, of the Rose-Garland edition 
(1547 or -8), the Lothbury edition of 1562 or -I substitutes the two below : 





CHAP. VII.] INTRODUCTION, ANDREW BOORDB. 



i43 



Baeto;i5oo;1ie. 




% The .vii. Chapytre shewetli howe the auctor of thys 
boke, how he had dwelt in Scotland and other Ilandes, 
did go thorowandrounde about Christendom, and oute 
of Christendome ; declarynge the properties of al the 
regions, conntreys, and prouynees, the whiche he 
did trauel thorow. 

* d^\P noble England, of Ireland and of Wales, 
V_>/ And also of Scotland, I haue tolde som tales ; 

* On this woodcut the late Mr Dyce remarks in his Skelton^s Works, i, " the 
portrait on the title-page of Dyuers Balettys and Byt'ies solacyous (evidently 
from the press of Pynson ; see Appendix II. to this Memoir) is given as a por- 
trait of * Doctor Boorde ' in the Boke of Knowledge (see reprint, sig. I)." 
The pinnacle over the Doctor's head is complete in A, broken in B as in our 
cut. The cut that Wyer used for Boorde is on the title-page of Barnes's* 
Treatyse on Beards below, p..306. ^ sign. E .i. 



1 



144 



1 write con- 
scientiously. 



The' my metre 
is doggrelj 



wise men will 
take my meaning. 



Our royal Realm 
of England has 
no equal. 



Were I a Jew or 
Turk, I yet must 
praise it. 



All nations flow 
to it. 



In all my travels 
I never knew 7 
Englishmen who 
lived permanently 
abroad. 



Yet how many 
aliens live here ! 



I shall now tell 
you of more lands 
I've travelled in. 



ANDREW BOORDE's PRAISE OF ENGLAND. [cHAP. VII. 

And of other Ilondes I haue shewed my mynd j 
He that wyl trauell, the truthe he shall fynd. 4 

After my conscyence I do wryte truly, 
Although that many men wyl say that I do lye ; 
But for that matter, I do greatly pas, 
But I am as I am, but not as I was. 8 

And where [as] my metre is ryme dogrell, 
The effect of the whych no wyse man wyll depell, 
For he wyll take the effect of my mynde, 
Although to make meter I am full blynde. 12 

For as muche as the most regall realme of England 
is cytuated in an angle of the worlde, hauing no region 
in Chrystendom nor out of Chrystendom equiualent to 
it, — ^The co?»modyties, the qualite, & the qua7ityte, wyth 
other and many thynges considered, within & aboute the 
sayd noble realme, — Wherefore^ yf I were a lewe, a 
Turke, or a Sarasyn, or any other infidele, I yet must 
prayse & laud it, and so wold euery man, yf they dyd 
know of other co?itrees as well as England. Wherfore, 
all nacyons aspyeng thys realme to be so commodyous 
and pleasaunt, they haue a confluence to it more than 
to anye other regyon. I haue trauayled rownd about 
Chrystendom, and out of Christendom, and I dyd neuer 
se nor know .vii. Englyshe men dwellynge in any towne 
or cyte in anye regyon byyond the see, excepte mar- 
chauntes, students, & brokers, not theyr beyng parma- 
nent ^ nor abydyng, but resorting thyther for a space. 
In Englande ho we manye alyons hath and doth dwell 
of all maner of nacyons ! let euery man ludge the 
cause why and wherfore, yf they haue reason to per- 
scrute the mater. I haue also shewed my mynde of the 
realme of lerlande,^ Wales, and Scotland, *and other 
londes; pretendyng to shew of regyons, kyngdoms, 
couwtreys, and prouinces, thorow and round about 



' wherof B. 



' permanent B. 
* E .i. back. 



England B. 



CHAP. VII.] INTRODUCTION. BOORDE*S ITINERARY. 145 

where that I haue traueylyd, specyally aboute Europ, 

and parte of AfFrycke : as for Asia, I was neuer in, yet I've never been 

I do wryte of it by auctours, cronycles, & by the 

wordes of credyble parsons, the whiche haue trauelled 

in those partyes. But concernyng my purpose, and for 

my trauellyng in, thorow, and round about Europ, 

whiche is all Chrystendom, I dyd wryte a booke of iwroteaffaw^- 

book of Europe, 

euery region, countre, and prouynce, shewynge the 

myles, the leeges, and the dystaunce from citye to cytie, with distances 

and descriptions 

and from towne to towne; And the cyties & townes of towns; 

names, wyth notable thynges within the precyncte [of], 

or about, the sayd cytyes or townes, wyth many other 

thynges longe to reherse at this tyme, the whiche boke 

at Byshops-Waltam — .viii. myle from Wynchester in butiientitto 

Hampshyre, — one Thomas Cromwell^ had it of me. weii at Bishop's- 

And bycause he had many matters of [state] to dyspache * '*™' 

for al England, my boke was loste,* the which myght at and it was lost. 

this presente tyme haue holpen me, and set me forward 

in this matter. But syth that I do lacke the aforesayde 

booke, humbly I desyre all men, of what nacyon soeuer 

they be of, not to be discontent wyth my playne wryt- do not be 

yng, & that I do tell the trewth ; for I do not wryte ony Jelling* the truth. 

thynge of a malycious nor of a peruerse mynde, nor i don't write 

for no euyll pretence, but to manyfest thinges the whiche 

be openly knowen, And the thynges that I dyd se in 

many Regyons, Cytyes, and Countryes, openly vsed. 

Pascall the playn dyd wryte and preach manifest paschai [? Pope 
thinges that were opera in the face of the world to in8,A.D.]'re- " 
rebuke sin ; wyth the which matter I haue nothyng to ^"^^^ ^^"" 
do, for I doo speke of many countryes & regions, and of 

' Compare this of the dead, " one Thomas Cromwell," with Boorde's letter 
to the living, "Right Honorable Lorde the Lord of the Pryue Seale," &c. 
Forewords, p. 62. 

^ Boorde's Itinerary of England— not Europe — was printed by Hearne in 
his edition of " Benedictus Abbas Petroburgensis de Vita et Gestis Henrici III. 
et Ricardi I.," &c., vol. 2, p, 777 (before and after). Hearne's account of 
Boorde, from Wood's Athenre, and his own knowledge, is in vol. i. of the same 
book, p. 36-56. Forewords, p. 23. 

BOORDE. 10 



14G 



ANDREW BOORDE's OBJECT AND MOTIVES. [CH. VII, VIII. 



I describe coun- 
tries and men. 



I wish to tell 
travellers what 
they're to do j 



the natural dysposicyon of the inhabitonrs of the same, 
with other necessary thynges to be knowen, specially 
for them the ' whiche doth pretende to trauayle the 
countrees, regions, and prouinces, that they may be in a 
redines to knowe what they should do whan they come 
and about foreign there: And also to know the money of the couTitre, 

money and 

speech. & to spckc parte of the language or speache that there 

is vsed, by the whiche^ a msin may com to a forder 
knowledge. Also I do not, nor shal not, dispraue no 
man in this booke perticulerly ; but manifest thinges I 
doo wryte openly, and generally of coniin vsages, for a 
generall co??imodite and welth. 

1 went from f And in beyng ouer sea at Calys, I went first 

Calais through 

Flanders. thorow Flaundcrs ; wherefore the Flewmyng confesseth 

him selfe, sayeng : — 





The .viii. Chapiter treateth of Plauiiders, 

And of the naturall disposieion of a 

Pleming, and of their 

money and of 

their speche. 

^ sign. E .ii. 



CHAP. VIII.] INTRODUCTION. OP FLANDERS. 147 

^ IT I Am a Flemyng, what for all that, 

Although I wyll he dronken other whyles as a rat ? i get as dmnk 

as a rat, and am 

" Buttermouth Flemyng," men doth me call j caUed "Butter- 

T^ • 1 • 1 1 -1 1 11 mouth Fleming." 

Butter IS good meate, it doth relent the gall. 4 

To my butter I take good hread and drynke ; 

To quaf to moch of it, it maketh me to wynk. 

Great studmares we bryng vp in Flaunders ; 7 we seii our 

brood-mares in 

We sell them into England, wher they get the glauwders. England. 

Out of England, and out of the aforsayd regyons to to go from 
come thorowe England, to fetche the course and cyrcuyt Christendom. 
of Europ or Chrystendom : — From Lowdon, that noble 
cyte, let a man take his lomey to Rochester, Cawn- Go from London 

by Dover or 

terbury and Doner, or to Sandwiche, to take shyppyng sandwich, 

to sayle to the welfauered towne of Calys, the which caiais 

doth stand commodyously for the welth and succor of 

all Englande ; In the whyche towne is good fare and 

good cheere, and there is good order, & polytike men, (which is weii 

fortified), 

great defence, & good ordynawnce for warre. The 

sayde towne hath anexed to it for defence, Gynes, 

Hammes, and Rysbanke, Newman ^ brydge, & a blocke- 

howse against Grauelyng, in Flaunders. . From Calys a 

man must goo thorowe Flaunders. Flau?iders is a and then go 

plentyfull countre of fyshe & fleshe & wyld fowle. (a rich country. 

There shall a man be clenly serued at his table, & well sandy). *" 

ordred and vsed for meat, and drynke,^ & lodgyng. 

The countre is playn, & somwhat sandy. The people 

be gentyl, but the men be great drynkers ; and many of Tiie Flemings are 

iT-ni great drinlcers. 

the women be vertuous and wel dysposyd. In FlauTZ- 

ders there be many fayre townes : as Gawnt, Burges, & (Ghent. Bruges.) 

Newport, and other. In Flauwders, and in Braban, 

and other prouinces anexed to the same, the people wil Tiiey eat 

frogs' loins and 

eate the hynder loynes of frogges,* & wyll eate tod- toadstools. 

' sign. E .ii. back. ' Newnam B. 

' meat, drinke B. 

* ISee an old recipe for cooking them, in Queene Eliza- 
betkcs Aclcademy, ^'c.^ Part ii. p. 152, E. E. T. Soc. 1869. 

1 ^. • 



148 



OF ZEALAND AND HOLLAND. 



[chap. IX. 



Flemish speech stooles. As foi the speche & the money of Plaunders, 

and money are -r-. * t 

like Low-Gei-man [they] doo not dyffei but lytle from Base-Almayne ; 
1. 7, 8). * ' wherfore loke in the chapiter of Base-Almayn. [Chap, 
xiii, p. 157-8.] 




^ The .ix. chapiter tretyth of Selond, 

and Holond/ and of the naturall 

dysposycyon of a Selondder, 

and Holawder, & of their money 

and of theyr^ speche. 

^ I Am a Selondder, and was borne in Selond ; 
My cuntre is good, it is a propre Ilond. 
Hollanders make And I am a Holander ; good cloth I do make ; 

To muche of Englyshe here, dyuers tymes I do take. 4 

' E .iii. not signed. See the cut again on p. 155. 
^ Selande, Holand, B. ^ & their B. 



Zealand is an 
island. 



clotli. 



CHAP. IX.] INTRODUCTION. ZEALAND AND HOLLAND. 149 

We lacke no butter that is vnsauery and salt, We sell batter, 

Therfore we quaf the beer ', that causeth vs to halt. 

We haue haruest heryng, and good hawkes, herrings, hawks. 

With ^ great elys, and also great walkes : 8 eeis, and wheiks, 

Wyth such thynges, other londes we help and fede ; to other lands. 

Suche marchaundise doth helpe vs at nede ; 

^ Yet to vs it shoulde be a great passyon "^^ ^o"'' c'lange 

^ ^ ^ our old fashions. 

To chaunge our rayment or our olde fashyon. 12 

IT Seland.and Holand be proper and fayre Hands, 
and there is plenty of barelled butter, the whych is we have butter, 
resty & salt ; and there is cheese, & hering, salmons, cheese, salmon, 
Elys, & lytle other fysh that I did se. ther be many 
goshawkes, and other hawkes, & wyld foule. Ther be goshawks, 
these good townes in Seland : Mydilborow, and Flossh- Middieburgh and 

° . Flushing. 

ing, & other mo. In Holand is a good towne called 
Amsterdame; and yet right many of the men of the Amsterdam, 
countres wyll quaf tyl they ben dronk, & wyl pysse Dutchmen drink 
vnder the table where as they sit. They be gentyll of them, 
people, but they do not fauer Skottysh men. The They don't like 

Scotchmen. 

women in the church be deuout,. & vsyth oft to be con- 
fessed in the church openly, laying theyr heades in the women confess 

openly in church; 

prestes lap ; for prestes there do sit whan they do here 
confessyons, awd so they do in many other prouynces 
anexed to the same. The women be modestyouse, & in they are modest, 

and wear mantles 

the townes & church they couer thewiself, & parte of over their heads, 
theyr face and hed, with theyr mantles of say, gadryd 
and pleted mouch like after nonnes fashyon. theyr 
language, theyr money, theyr maners and fashyons, is Dutch speech and 

, ways are like 

lyke Flaunders, Hanaway, and Braban, which be com- those of Flanders 

and Hainault. 

modyous and plentyfull countreys. 

' Lorde, how the Flemines bragged, and the Hollanders 
craked, that Calice should be wonne, and all the Englishemen 
slain ; swearyng, and staryng, that they would haue it within 
thre dales at the moste ; thynkyng verely that the toune of 
Calice could no more resist their puyssaunce then a potte of 
double heere^ when they fall to quaffyng. — Hall's Chronicle, p. 
181, ed. 1809. 

2 Whan A ; with B. ^ E .iii. back. 



150 



OF BRABANDER8 AND BRABANT. 



[chap. 




f The .X.' Chapiter treatyth of 

Braban, and of the natural 

disposicion of a Braband- 

er, of theyr^ speche 

and of theyr 

money. 



I hold marts 
often, and love 
good beer. 



and good meat. 



* IT I Was borne in Braban, that is both gentil and free ; 

All nacyons at all tymes be well-come to mee. 

I do vse martes, dyuers tymes in the yere ; 

And of all thynges, I do loue good Englysh beere. 4 

In Anwarpe and in Barow/ I do make my martes ; 

There doth Englysh marchauntes cut out theyr partes. 

I haue good sturgyon, and other good fyshe ; 

I loue euer to haue good meate in my dyshe ; 8 

I haue good lodgyng, and also good chere, 

I have good wine. I haue good wyne, and good Englyshe here ; 

Yet had I rather to be drowned in a beere barell 11 

Than I wolde chaunge the fashion of my olde apparel. 

IT Braban is a comodyous and a pleasaunt countrey, 

In the whyche is plentyfulnes of meat, drynke, & 

oorne ; there is plenty of fysh, and fleshe ; there is good 
♦ 

^ tenth B. ' the A ; theyr B. ^ E .iiii. not signed. 

* Bacow B. ? Breda. Under ' the .XXIII. yere of Kyng 
Henry the .VIIL' Hall says : *In this yere [a.d. 1531 J was an 
olde Tolle demaunded in Flaunders of Englyshmen, called the 
Tolle of the Hounde, which is a Kyuer and a passage : The 
Tolle is .xii. pence of a Fardell. This Tolle had been often 
tymes demaunded, but neuer payed : Insomoche that Kyng 
Henry the seuenth, for the demaunde of that Tolle, prohibited 
all his subiectes to Itepe any Marte at Antwerpe or Barow^ 
but caused the Martes to be kepte at Calyes.'— C7iro7itcZ6', p. 
786, ed. 1809. 



Brabant is a 
rich country, 



with plenty of 
fish. 



CHAP. X.] INTRODUCTION. OF BRABANT AND HATNAULT. 151 

Sturgyon, Tnnnej, and many other good fysh, and good 

chepe. The countrey is playn, and ful of fartylyte. 

God is well serued in theyr churches; and there be The folk are de- 
vout and loving, 
manye good and deuout people ; and the people be 

louyng ; & there be many good felowes the whyche wyll 
drynke all out ^ : there be many good craftes men, 
speciall, good makers of Ares clothe. There a man may They make good 
by all maner of lynen cloth, & silkes, & implimentes for 
howsholde, & plate and precious stones, and many other 
thynges, of a compytent pryce. The speche there is 
Base-Douche, and the money is the Emperours coine. They talk Dutch, 
that is to saye, Douche money, of the whyche I do wryte 
of whan that I do speke of Base-Almayne. In Brabant 
be many fayre and goodly townes : the fyrst is Hand- 
warp, a welfauered marchaunt towne ; the spyre of the Antwerp has a 
cliurche is a curyous and a ryght goodly lantren. There 
is the fayrest flesh shambles that is in Chri^stendome. »nci shamwes. 
There is also a goodly commyn place for marchauntes to 
stand and to walke, to dryue theyr bargyns, called " the also a Bourse. 
Burse." And Englyshe marchauntes haue there a fayre 
place. There is another towne called Louane, whiche is Louvain, 
a good vnyuersyte. There is also Brusels, and Mawgh- Mechiin.' 
lyn, and other mo. IT Here is to be noted that there is 
another countre ioynyng to Braban, the whych is called 
Hanawar or Hanago. The countre is like Braban and Hainauit is 

fertile ; 

Flaunders, as well in the fartylyte ^ and plentyfulnes of 
the countre, as of the money and the conuersacion of the 
people : howbeit, Hanaway and the Hanawayes do dyfi"er 
somwhat in the premysses ; for they do speke in diuers 
places, as well Frenche as Doche ; for it lyeth betwyxt* they speak 

French tliere as 

Braban, Flaunders, and Fraunce. Theyr money is the weii as Dutch. 
Emperours coyne, as the money of Flaunders & Biahan 
is, and all is one coyne: the chefe town of Hanago is st Thomas; 
saynt Thomas, and Bargen, and dyuers other. 

' gar aus. ' E .iiii. back. ^ fertilitie B. 

* betwene B. 



152 



GUELDERLAND AND CLEVELAND. 



[chap. XI. 




^ The .xi. Chapter treteth 

of Gelderlond & of Cleue 

londe, and of the naturall 

disposicio^z of the people 

of those cuntres, & of 

their money & their 

speehe. 



Few men believe 

me. 

I like fighting, 



and am always 
poor, and my 
children lack 
food. 



Cleveland is 
richer than 
Quelderland. 



^ IF I Am of Gelderlond, & brought vp in the lond of 

Cleue ; 
In many thynges few men wyl me heleue ; 
I loue brawlyng and war, and also fyghtyng ; 
Nyght and day do prouU, to get me a lyuyng ; 4 

Yet for all that, I am euer poore and hare, 
Therfore I do lyue styl in penury and care ; 
For lack of meat, my chyldren do wepe, 
Wherfore I do wake whan other men do slepe. 8 

The fashyon of my rayment, chaunge I wyll not ; 
I am well contented whan I am warm© and hot. 

Although that Gylderlond and Cleue-lond be two 
sondry countrees & dukedoms, yet nowe one duke hathe 
them both^. Cleuelond is better then Gelderlond, for 
Gelderlond is sandy, and [has] muche waaste and baryn 
grownd. The Gelders be hardy men, and vse moche 
fyghtynge, war, and robbyng. The countrees be poore, 

' sign. F .i. See the cut in B on the next page. 
* Hhe Duke of Gelders,' Hally p. 743, a.d. 1527. 



CH. XI.] 



INTRODUCTION. GUELDERLAND AND CLEVELAND. 



153 



for Gelderlond hath vsed moche wane. The chyefe chief to -vns: 
townes of Gelder lond is the towne of Gelder^, & another Geider, 
towne- called Nemigyn. And the chefe towne of J^*®™*^"m' ,^ 

o*' (on the Whaal., 

Cleuelond is tJie towne of Cleue. In Gelder londe and ^^^^^s. 
Cleue lond theyr money is base gold, syluer, & brasse. 
In gold they haue Clemers gylders, and golden gilders, ^J^j*^^^^*"'* 
and gelders arerys : a gelder areris is worth .xxiii. 
steuers : .xxiii. steuers is worth .iii. s. There is an- severs, a 
other peece of golde called a home sqnylyone: horne-squiyone. 
a home squylyone is worthe .xii. steuers 
.xii. steuers is worthe .xix. d. ob.^ In Syluer 
they haue a snappan ; a snappan is worth 
.vi. steuers : .vi. steuers is worth .ix. d. 
ob. In brasse they haue nor- 
kyns and halfe norkyns, 
& endewtkynge. their 
speche is Base 
Douche. 



A silver Snappan. 



A brass Nor1<vn 
{id. and id.) 



' Arnhem is the chief town of the present Guelderland, 
Gelder is now in Kleveberg, Prussia. ' ob = ^d. 



Instead of the cut of the first, or 
Rose-Garland edition (1547 or -8), at 
the head of this chapter, the second, 
or Lothbury one of 1562 or -3, substi- 
tutes the cut on the right here : 




154 OF GULYK (JULICH OR JULIERS) AND LEWKE (lIEGe). [cH. XII. 




^ The .xii. chapyter tretyth of 

the lond of Gulyk & of Lewke, 

and of the natural! dysposyeion 

of the people of the counties 

and of theyr money 

and of theyr 

speche. 



IF I Was borne in Gulyke ; In Luke I was brought vp ; 
Euer I loue to drynke of a full cup. 
I pluck my geese My geese ouBS a yere I do clyp and pull ; 

once a year, and 

sell their feathers. I do ssll my fathers as other men doth wuU; 4 

If my goos go naked, it is no great matter, 
She can shyft for her selfe yf she haue meat & water. 
The fashyon of my rayment, be it hot or cold, 
I wyl not leue in ony wyse, be it neuer so old. 8 

IT The lond of Gulyk ^ is a dewkedom, and the lond 
of Lewke is an Archebyshopryche, for Archebyshoppes 
in Doche lond hathe great lordshyps and domynyons ; 
yet they, and the aforesayd londes rehersed, from Calys, 
be vnder the domynyon of the Emperour. Gulyk is 
a fayre countre, not hylly nor watteryshe, but a playne 
countre. ^ Euery yeare they wyll clyp and pull theyr 
' sign. F .1. back. ^ Guylk AB. ^ F .ii. not signed. 



Julich is a 
dukedom, 



and is a fair 
flat land. 



CH. XII, XIII.] INTRODUCTION. JULICH (jULIERS) AND LIEGE. 155 

geese, and the geese shall go naked ; and they do sell 
the fethers to stiiffe fether beds. They hane lytle wyne 
growyng in the connive. The chief townes of Gulyk is, ciiief towns : 

Julich, Duren 

the towne of Gmyk, and a towne named Durynge. the (between Aix and 

people be poore of the countre ; townes men be ryche ; 

& a man for his money shalbe well orderyd & intreted, 

as well for meat & drynke as for lodging. The lond of 

Lewke is a pleasaunt couwtre. The cheefe towne is the i^i^g® (where 

/»Ti 1 'Ti iDiirt velvet and Arras 

cytie of Lewke ; there is Lewkcs veluet made, & cloth of are made). 
Arys. The speche of Gulyk a7?d Lewke is Base-Doche. The speecii is 

Dutch (Low- 

And theyr money is the Emperours coyne; but the German). 
Byshop of Lewke doth coyne both gold, syluer, and 
bras, the whiche is currant there, and in the londes or 
countres ther about. 




The .xiii. Chapiter 
doth speake of base 
Almayn, and of the 
disposicion of the 
people of the coun- 
trey; of theyr speche 
& of theyr money. 



m ■ m 

* H I Am a base Doche man, borne in the Nether-lond ; 
' F .ii. back. The cut has been used before, on p. 148. 



156 BASB-ALMAYNE OR LOW-GERMANY, THE NETHERLANDS. [CH. XIII. 



I often get drunk, 



can't speak a 
word, 



and leak. 



I Uke salt butter. 



Of Dase-Altnayne, 



(llaintz) 

the chief city is 
Cologne on the 
Rhine, on the 
banks of which 
Rhenisli wine 
is made. 



Bonn. 



The land is rich, 
and the people 
kind, but they 
get drunk, and 
make a mess. 



Diuerse times I am cupshoten,^ on my feet I eawnot 

stawd ; 
Dyuers tymes I do pysse vnderneth the horde ; 
My reason is suche, I can not speke a word ; 4 

Than am I tonge tayd, my fete doth me fayle, 
And than I am harneysed in a cote of mayle ; 
Than wyl I pysse in my felowes shoes and hose, 
Than I am as necessary as a waspe in ones nose. 8 

Now am I harnest, and redy, Doche for to speke ; 
Vppon the heere van in the cruse my anger I wyl 

wreck. 
A lomp of salt hutter for me is good meat ; 
My knees shall go hare to kepe me out of heat ; 12 
Yet my olde cote I wyl not leaue of. 
For if I should go naked, I may catche the cof. 14 
IF Base Almayne, or hase Doche londe, rechyth 
from the hydermost place of Flaunders and Hennago, 
to the cite of Mense, and to Argentyne, as some Doche 
men holdeth opynyon. The cheef Cyte of Doche land 
or Almayne is the nohle cyty of Colyn, to the whyche 
cometh the fayre water of Reene ; on bothe sydes of the 
whyche water of Reene doth growe the grapes of the 
whyche the good Renysh wyne is made of. There is a 
vyne of grapes at a towne called Bune, of the whyche 
reed Renysh wine is made of. al Base-Almayne is a 
ple/itiful countre of corne and Renysh wyne, and of 
meat and honest fare, and good lodgyng. The people 
be gentyll and kynd harted. The worst fawt that they 
haue : many wyl be dronken ; and whan they fall to 
quafFyng, they wyll haue in dyuerse places a tub or a 
great vessell standyng vnder the boord, to pysse in, or 
else they wyl defyle al the howse, for they wyl pysse as 

' Yvre : com. Drunken, cujJsJtottcn, tipsie, whitled, flusht, 
mellow, ouerseene, whose cap is set, that hath taken n pot too 
much, that hath scene the diuell. Forheu . . . mellow, line, cup- 
taken, pot-fihotten, whose fudling or barley Caji is ou. — Cot- 
grave. 



CHAP. XIII.] INTRODUCTION. THE NETHERLANDS. 15' 

they doo syt, and other whyle the one wyll pis in 

a nother* shoes. They do loue sault butter that is They love salt 

resty, and bareled butter. In Base Doche land be many 

2 vertuous people, and full of almes dedes. In Base 

Almayn or Doche lond theyr money is gold, tyn, and 

brasse. In gold they haue crownes, worth four .s. viii. 

d. of sterlyng money. They haue styuers of tyn and Their money is 

bras: two styuers and a halfe is worth an Englysh 

grote. they haue crocherdes : .iii. crocherds is les worth crocherds 

° '^ ' (kreutzers?) 

than a styuer. they haue mytes ; .xxvi. mytes is worthe mytes, 
an Englyshe peny. They haue Negyn manykens ; a manykens, 
manyken is worth a fardyng ; a Norkyng is worthe a norkyns, 
halfpeny. They haue bras pens ; a bras peny is .ii. d. and pence, 
fardynge of theyr money. "Who so that wyl lerne to 
speke some Base Doche, — Englysh fyrst, and Doche, 
doth folowe. 

One. two. thre. foure. fyue. syx. seuyn. eyght. nyne. Dutch numerals. 

JEne. twe. drie. vier. vie. ses. seuen. adit, nuglien. 

ten. aleuyn. twelue. thyrtene. fowrtene. fyftene. 

teene. elue. twaelue. dertyene. merteene. viefteene. 

syxtene. seuentene. eyghtene. nyntene. twenty. 

sestyene. seuentyene. achtyene. negentyene. twengtith, 

one and twenty, two and twenty, thre and twenty. 

en an twentyth. twe an twentyth. dre an twentith. 

thyrty. forty, fyfty. syxty. seuenty. eyghty. 

derteh. vierteh. vyntith. sesteh. zeuenteh. achtenteh. 

nynte. a hondred. a thowsand. 

negenteth. Iwndret. dowsent. 

God morow, brother ! Morgen, brore i a talk in Dutcii 

Syr ! God gyue you good day ! 

Heer 1 God geue v goeden dah 1 

Syr ! how do you fare 1 Heer ! hoe faerd ghy ? 

Ryght well, blessyd be God ! 

Seer well, God sy ghehenedyt f 

* another's. ' F .iii. not signed. 



158 A TALK IN DUTCH AND ENGLISH. [cHAP. XIII. 

A talk in Dutch Frend, whyche is the ryght way from hens to Colyn ? 
Vrijent, welk is den rethten weh van hoer te Colyn ? 
* Syr, hold the way on the ryght hand. 
HeeVf holden den weh aye drechlt J: and. 
Wyfe, God saue you ! Vrow, God gruet v ! 
My syr, yon be welcome ! 
Myn heer, yh Met you welecome ! 
Hane you any good lodgyng % 
Hah V eneh good herherk ? 
Ye, syr, I haue good lodgyng. 
yOy myn heevy I hah goed harherh. 
Wyfe of the house, gyue me some bread \^ 
Vroio 3 van de hewse, ghewfft ^ me hroot 1 
Mayd, gyue me one pot of beare ! 
Meskyn, ghewfft me en pot heere ! 
Brother, gyue me some egges ! 
Brore, ghewfft me eyeren ! 
Gyue me fyshe and fleshe ! 
Ghewft me fis an flees I 
What shall I pay, ostes, for my supper ? 
How veele is to be talen, warden, for meell tyd '{ 
My syr, .vi. d. Myn heer, ses phenys. 
Hoste, God thanke you ! Warden, God dank ye I 
God gyue you good nyght and good rest ! 
God ghewfft v goeden naght an goed rust ! 
God be wyth you ! God sy met v I 
Sonday, Sondah. Monday, Maendah, 

Tewsday, Dysdah. Wensday, Wensdah. 

Thursday, donnersdah. Fryday, Vrydah. 
Saterday, Saterdah. 

Can you speke Doche? Can ye Doch sprek ? 
T can not speke Doche ; I do vnderstond it. 
Ik can net Doch spreke ; He. for stow. 

' F .iii. back. "^ drynke A ; bread B. 

3 Brow A : Vrow B. " geflft B. 



CHAP. XIV.] INTRODUCTION. HIGH-GERMANY. 



159 




^ The .xiiii. Chapter treateth of hyghe Almayne or 

hyghe Doch lond, and of the dysposycyon of 

the people, and of theyr speche 

and of theyr money. 

I Am a hygh Almayne, sturdy and stout, 

I laboure but ly tie in the world about ; 

I am a yonker ^ ; a fether I wyll were ; 

Be it of gose or capon, it is ryght good gere. 

Wyth symple thynges I am well content ; 

I lacke good meat, specyally in Lent. 

My rayment is wouyn moche lyke a sacke ; 

Whan I were it, it hangeth lyke a lack. 

Euery man doth knowe my symple intencyon, 

That I wyll not chaunge my olde fathers fashyon*. 

' F .iiii. not signed. 

* Instead of the 3 cuts above, from the Rose-Garland edition, the Lothbury 
edition of 1562-3 gives only the centre one, which it has used before for the 
Norwegian, p. 142 at foot, and which both editions have used before for the 
Fleming, p. 146 above. 

^ G. ein juncker, a younker, younkster or youngster. — lAidwig. Dutch 
eeii lonck-heer or loncker^ A young Gentleman, or a Joncker. — Hexham,. 

'' In 1510, Henry VIII made some 'yong Gentelmen ' of his court fight to- 
gether with battle-axes in Greenwich Park, and then gave them 200 marks to 
have a banquet together : " The whiche banket was made at the Fishemongers 
Halle in Teames strete, where they all met, to the number of .xxiii, all ap- 



I'm a yonker 
. when I wear a 
* feather. 



My coat's like a 
sack. 



1 1 



160 



HIGH-ALMAYNE OR GERMANY. 



[chap. XIV. 



High-Almayne 
goes from Maintz 
to Trente in the 
Tyrol. 



High and Low- 
Germans differ 
much. 

The High-Ger- 
mans are rude, 
and badly drest. 



One sticks a fox- 
tail or feather in 
his cap, and is 
called a Yonker. 



IT Hyghe Almayne, or hyghe Dochelond, begynneth 
at Mens, and some say it begynneth at Wormes, & con- 
tayneth Swauerlond or Swechlond, and Barslond, and 
the hylles or mouwtayns of the most part of Alpes, 
stretching in length to a town called Trent by-yowde the 
mouwtayns : half the ^ towne is Doche, & the other 
halfe is Lombardy. ^ There is a greate dyfference be- 
twyxt Hyghe Almayne and Base Almayne, not only in 
theyr speche and maners, but also in theyr lodgynge, in 
theyr fare, and in theyr apparell. The people of Hygh 
Almayne, they be rude and rustycall, and very boystous 
in theyr speche, and humbly in their apparell ; yet yf 
some of them can get a fox tale or two, or thre fox 
tayles, standyng vp ryght vpon theyr cappe, set vp with 
styckes, or that he maye haue a capons feder, or a 
goose feder, or any long feder on his cap, than he is 
called a " yonker." they do fede grosly, and they wyll 
eate magots as fast as we wyll eate comfets. They 
haue a way to brede them in chese. Maydews there in 
certayne places shall drynke no other drynke but water, 
vnto the tyme she be maryed ; yf she do, she is taken 
for a comyn woman. Saruants also do drynke water 
to theyr meat, the countre is plentyfull of apples and 
walnuts ; the mountayns is very baryn of al maner of 
vytels ', howbeit the good townes be prouyded of vitels. 
Snowe dothe ly on the mountaynes, wynter and somer ; 
wherfore, the hotter the daye is, the greater is the 

pareyled in one sute or liuery, after Almmn fashion, that is to say, their vtter 
gannentes all of yealow Satyne, yealow hosen, yealow shoes, gyrdels, scaberdes, 
and bonettes with yealow fathers, their garmentes & hosen all cutte and lyned 
with whyte Satyn, and their scaberdes wounde abought with satyne . . After 
their banket ended, they went by torche light to the Towre, presentinge them 
selfes before the kynge, who toke pleasure to beholde them." — HalVs Chroni- 
cle, p. 516. "the kynge, with .xv. other, apparelled in Almayne lackettes of 
Crymosyne & purple Satyne, with lowg quartered sleues " . . . " and then 
folowed .xiiii. persones, Gentelmen, all appareyled in yealow Satyne, cut like 
Alinaynes, bearyng torches." ib., ed. 1809. 

The third daie of Maie [1512] a gentleman of Flaunders, called Guyot of 
Guy, came to the kyng [Henry VIII] with .v.C. Almaines all in white, whiche 
was cutte so small that it could scace hold together. — il., p. 527. 

* F .iiii. back. 



Girls drink only 
water. 



Snow lies on the 
mountains all 
the year. 



CHAP. XIV.] INTRODUCTION. HIGH-ALMAYNE OR GERMANY. 161 

flods, that they renne so ewyft that no man can passe 

for .V. or .vi. howres, and than it is drye agayne. 

Certayn mountaynes be so hygh that you shal se the On the mountains 

hyll tops aboue the cloudes. In the valy it is euer 

colde. I haue seen snowe in somer on saynct Peters I've seen snow on 

day and the Vysytacion of our Ladye. A man may see j^^^ ^^ 

the mouwtaynes fyftene myle of, at a cyte called Ulmes, uima, wiiere 

'holmes' is made. 

where fustyan vlmes is made, that we cal holmes. In 

Hyghe Almayn be good cities and townes, as Oxburdg, German towns, 

Wormes, Spyres, Gyppyng, Gestynge, and Memmyng. 

In Hygh Almayne theyr money is golde, alkemy, and bras. 

In gold they haue crownes of .iiii. s. & . viii. d. In alkemy ^ High-German 

and bras they haue rader Wyesephenyngs worthe ^ al- white'-pennies. 

most a styuer; they haue Morkyns^, Halardes, Phenyngs'*, 

Crocherds, Stiuers^, and halfe styuers. Who so wyl 

leme Hygh-Doch, — Englysh fyrst, & Doche, followeth. 

One. two. thre. foure. fyue. syx. seuyn. eyght. High-Dutch or 

T-» T /. /• -I . German 

Eyne. sway. are. jeer. vof. sys. zeuen. awght. numeraUj. 

nyne. ten. aleuyn. twelue. thyrtene. fowrtene. 

neegh. zen. elue. zwelue. dersheene. feersheene. 

fyftene. syxtene. seuentene. eyghtene. nyntene. 

fiftsheene. sissheene. zeulsli eene f. aughtsJieene. neeghsh eene. [t for zeebtkeene] 

twenty, one & twenty, two and twenty, thre and twenty. 

zwense. eyne en zwense. sway en zwense. ^dre en zioense^ Sfc. 

thyrty. forty. fyfty. syxty. seuenty. eyghty. 

dreshe. feertshe. vof she. sysshe. zeuenshe. aughtslie. 

nynte. a hondred. a thowsand. two thowsand, &c. 

neegshe. a liownder. a dowsand. sicay dowsand, ^c. 

IT God morow, my master ! Goed morgeuy myh § hern ! a talk in German 

■»«- I ii'i-i ..1 1. n *"d English. 

My master, whyche is the way to the next towne ? 
Mih lezier hern, wets me de reighten weg to de awnderstot? 
My brother, gyue me whyt bread and wyne ! 
my leuer broder, geue meh wyse hrod en wayne ! 

' ? tin. ' sign. G .1. ' read 'Norkyns,' hapence : p. 157, 153. 

^ Pfenning, the 12th part of a groschen and of a Sterling, Flemish and 
Liibish shilling, a penny or denier. — Ludrvig. 

* Stive?', a Dutch coin worth li Penny English, of which 20 make a 
Guilder, and G a Flemish Shilling. — Kersei/s Phillips. ^ ore AB. 

BOOUDE. 11 



162 



HIGH-GERMAN. OF DENMARK. [CHAP. XIV, XV. 



A talk in High- 
German and 
English. 



Hostes, haue you good meate 1 

Wertyn^ hah ye god eften ? 

ye, I haue enough. yOy Ik hah gonowgh. 

Hostes, gyue me egges, chese, and walnots ! 

Wertyn, geue meh ayer^ caase, en walshe nots ! 

mouch good do it you ! Goot go seken eyh esseu ! 

I thank yo[u], my mayster ! 

Ih dank ze, myJi^ leuer hern ! 

What tyme is it of the day ? What hast is gosloken ? 

Hostes, God be with you, wyth al my hert ! 

Wartyn, Goot go seJien for harteon ! 

my master, wyl ye drynk a pot of wyHe ? 

myh leuer hem, wylter drenke a mose wayiie ? 




The .XV. chapter 
treateth of Den- 
mark and of the 
natural dysposy- 
cion of the people, 
and of theyr mo- 
ny and speche. 



IT I Am a Dane, and do dwell in Denmarke, 
Seldom I do vse to set my selfe to^ warke 

" ? viyn. ^ sign. G .i. back. B puts the cuts on the right. ^ a B. 



OHAP. XV.] INTRODUCTION. OF DENMARK. 168 

I lyue at ese, and therfore I am content ; 

Of al tymes in the yere I fare best in Lent ; 4 

I wyl ete beenes, and good stock fysh — i eat beans and 

. BtOCk-fish, 

How say you, is not that a good dysh ? — 
In my apparel I was neuer nyce, 

I am content to were rough fryce ; 8 and wear rough 

I care not if euery man I do tel, 
Symple rayment shal serue me ful wel ; 
My old fashion I do vse to kepe, 

And in my clothes dyuers tymes I slepe ; 12 i often sleep m 

Thus I do passe the dayes of my lyfe, 
^ Other whyle in bate, and other whyle in stryfe ; 
Wysdome it war to lyue in peace and rest ; 
They that can so do, shal fynd it most best. 16 

IT By cause I do pretend to writ fyrst of all Europ 
and Christendome, & to fetch the cyrcuyte about Chris- 
tendome, I must returne from Hygh Almayn, & speke of 
De/imarke, the whiche is a very poore couTztre, bare, & Denmark's a very 

poor country, 

ful of penurite ^ ; yet ther doth grow goodly trees, of the but has fine trees, 
which be mastes for shyps made, & the marchauwtes of 
the couwtre do sell many masts, ores, & bowe staues. 
The Danes hath bene good warryers ; but for theyr The Danes 
pouerte I do marueyle how they dyd get ones Eng- 
londe ; they be subtyll wytted, & they do proll muche p^owi about 
about to get a pray. They haue fysh and wyldfoule suffi- 
cient. Theyr lodgyng and theyr apparel is very symple 
& bare. These be the best townes in Denmark : Ryp, Ribe and wiborg. 
& By borge. In Denmark, their mony is gold, and 
alkemy,^ and bras. In gold they haue crownes ; & al 
other good gold doth go there. In alkemy and bras 
they haue Dansk whyten. Theyr speche is Douche. Danish is Dutch. 

' G .ii. not signed. 

' Yet in the great Dearth of wheat in England in 1527, wheat was im- 
ported from Denmark, among other places : " the gentle marchauwtes of t?i,e 
Styliard brought from Danske, Breme, Hamborough, and other places, great 
plewtie ; & so did other marchau/ites from Flau?iders, Holand, and Frisland, 
so that wheat was better chepe in London then in all England ouer." — HalVs 
Chronicle^ p. 736, ed. 1809. ^ Alkani, tin. Howel (in Halliwell's Glossary). 

1 : • 



164 



OF SAXONY AND THE SAXONS. 



[chap. XVI. 




^ The .xvi. Chapter treateth of 
Saxsony, and of the natu- 
ral disposicion^ of the Sax- 
sons, and of their mo- 
ny, and of theyr 
speche. 



I'm a heretic. 

Romans cry 
vengeance on me. 
and curse me. 



IT I am a Saxson, serching out new thynges^ ; 
Of me many be glad to here new tidinges. 
I do persist in my matters and opinions dayly, 
The which maketh th^ Romayns vengians on me to cry; 
Yet my opinions I wyl neuer^ leue ; 5 

The cursyng that they gyne me, to them I do bequeue j 
The fashion of my rayment I wyl euer^ vse, 
And the Romayns fashion I vtterly refuse. 8 

IT Out of Denmarke a man may go in to Saxsony. 
Saxsony is [a]^ Dukedom-shyp, And holdeth of hym 
I wonder how the selfe. I do maruel greatly how the Saxsons should 

Saxons conquered -r-.T-./,.., 

England. couquere Englonde, for it is but a smalle countre to be 

compared to Englond ; for I think, if al the world were 
set against Englond, it might neuer be conquerid, they 
beyng treue within them selfe. And they that would 
be false, I praye God too manyfest them what they be. 

Siixonyfa fertile; The countre of Saxsony is a plentyful^ countre, and a 



dispocion A ; disposicion B, '^ G .ii. back. 
* euer A ; neuer B. * euer A ; neuer B. 
^ plentyfill A ; plentyful B. 



^ thynkes A. 
^ A omits 'a.' 



CHAP. 



XVI.] 



INTRODUCTION. OP SAXONY. 



165 



fartyll ; yet there is many greate mountaynes and 

woddes, in the whyche be Buckes and Does, Hartes, but has many 

and Hyndes, and Wylde Boores, Beares, and Wolfes, wUd leasts,' 

and other wylde beastes. In Saxsony is a greate ryuer 

called Weser ; And there be salte wels of the water, of the weser nvei, 

the whyche is made whyte salt. In the sayd countre 

doth grow copper. The people of the countre be bold and copper mines. 

and strong, and be good warriers. They do not regarde 

the byshoppe of Rome ^ nor the Romayns, for certaine The saxons don't 

,. ,-. T n 1 P-iPi • mind the Pope. 

abusions. Martyn Leuter & other oi hys lactours, m 
certayne thynges dyd take synistrall opinions, as con- Martin Luther 
cernynge prestes to haue wyues, wyth such like matters, opinions. 
The chefe cyte or town of Saxsony is called Witzeburg, wittenburg 

1 • 1 . . • T ri 1 • University. 

which IS a vniuersite. In Saxsony theyr monye is 

golde and brasse. In golde they haue crownes, In saxon money. 

brasse thei haue manye smal peces. There speche is 

Doch speche. 

' Andrew Boorde speaks, I suppose, as a Saxon heretic iiere (Pope = Bp 
of Rome), Romanist though he had been, and condemning Luther as he does 
in the next lines. 

The Lothbury edition, 1562-3, substitutes the cut below for the one at the 
head of this chapter. The Rose-Garland edition uses it for the man of 
Bayonne, p. 165, below, and both editions use it for the Egyptian, p. 217. 




166 



OF BOHEMIA AND THE BOHEMIANS. [CHAP. XVIL 




^ The .xvii. cha- 
pter treateth of 
the kyngdom of 
Boeme, and of the 
dysposycion of 
the people of the 
countre, of theyr 
monye, and 
speche. 



I haven't cared 
for the Pope's 
curse since 
Wj-clirs time. 



I'm content 
with frieze. 



Bohemia is 
circled with 
mountains. 



IT I Am of the kyngdome of Boeme, 

I do not tel al men what I do meane ; 

For the popes curse I do lytle care ; 

The more the fox is cursed, the hetter he doth fare. 4 

Euer sens Wyclif dyd dwel wyth me, 

I dyd neuer set hy the popes auctorite. 

In certayn articles Wyclif dyd not wel, 

To reherse them now I nede not to tell, 

For of other matters I do speke of nowe ; 

Yf we do not wel, God spede the plow ! 

Of our apparrel we were neuer nyce ; 

We be content yf our cotes be of fryce. 

^ The kyngdome of Boeme is compassed aboute 
wyth great hygh mountaynes and great thycke wods. 
In the ^whyche wods be many wylde beastes; amonges 



8 



12 



G .iii. not signed. 



G .iii. back. 



CHAP. XVII.] 



INTRODUCTION. OF BOHEMIA. 



167 



al other "beastes there be Bugles, that be as bigge as an Bugles, 
oxe ; and there is a beast called a Bouy, lyke a Bugle, Bovy. 
whyche is a vengeable beast. In dyuers places of 
Boeme there is good fartyl grownd, the whyche doth 
bryng forth good come, herbes, frutes, and metals. The 
people of Boeme be opinionatyue, standyng much in The Bohemians 
theyr owne conceits. And many of them do erre con- 
trary to vs in the ministracion of the .vii. sacraments, & ond err from 

"^ ' Holy Church. 

other approbated thynges, the which we do vse in holy 
churche. In Boeme is indifferent lodging, and com- 
petent of vitels, but they do loue no Duckes nor They don't like 

ducks. 

malardes. theyr condicions and maners be much lyke 
to the Hygh Almayns, & they do speke Duch. In Boeme 
is a goodly cyte called Prage, wher the king of Boeme Their chief city 

is Prague. 

doth ly much whan he is in the countre. In Boeme 
theyr monye is Golde, Tyn, and Bras. In Golde they 
haue crownes ; In Bras they haue smal peces as in Doch 
lond ; theyr speche is Doch. 



Instead of the right-hand cut 
of the Rose-Garland edition, at the 
head of this chapter, the Lothbury 
one has another, of a woman with- 
out a flower, and with differences 
in her skirt. It is given on the 
right here. 




1G8 



OP POLAND AND THE POLES. 



[chap. XVIIL 




The .xviii. chapter treateth of the 

kyngdome of Poll, and of the 

naturall dysposicion^ of the 

people, and of theyr 

mony and 

spech. 



I like bees ; 
I sell honey, 
pitch, and tar. 



In Poland are 
woods and wild 
beasts. 



pitch, tar, and 
flax. 



Cracow is their 
chief town. 

They're crafty 
dealers ; 
but badly off; 



* I Am a power man of the kyngdom of Pol ; 

Pyuers tymes I am troubled wytli a heuy nol. 

Bees I do loue to haue in enery place. 

The wex and the hony I do sel a pace ; 4 

I do sel flex, and also pyche and tar, 

Marehaunts cometh to me, fetchyng it a far. 

My rayment is not gorgious, but I am content 

To were such thynges as God hath me sent. 8 

IT The kyngdome of Poll is on the Northe syde of 
the kyngdom of Boeme, strechynge Estwarde to the 
kyngdom of Hungary. In Pol be great wods and 
wyldernes, in the whych be many bees, and wylde 
beastes of diuers sortes. In manye places the countre 
is full of fartillite, and there is much pych, and Tar, and 
Flex. There be many good townes ; the best towne 
named ^ Cracoue. The people of the countre of Poll be 
rewde, and homlye in theyr maners and fashions, and 
many of them haue learned craftines in theyr byeng and 
sellyng ; and in the countve is much pouerte and euyll 

* dysposion A ; dyspocicion B. ' G .iiii, 

^ anmed A ; named B. 



CHAP. XVIII.] 



INTRODUCTION. OF POLAND. 



fare in certayne places. The people do eat much hony 

in those parties, they be peasible men ; they loue no 

warre, but louyth to ^ rest in a hole skin. Theyr 

payment and apparel is made after the 

High Doche fashion wyth two wrynck- 

kles and a plyght ; theyr spech is 

corrupt Doche ; the mony of 

Poll is goulde and 

bras j all maner 

of gold goth 

there. 



169 



The Poles don't 
like war, 



and they speak 
bad Oerman. 



' too A ; to B. 



The Lothbury edition of 1562 or 1563 gives this woodcut of the Pole, or 
' power man of the kyngdom of Pol,' or rather the personage who does duty 
for him. 




170 



OF HUNGARY AND THE HUNGARIANS. [cHAP. XIX. 





^ The .xix. chapter treateth of the kyngdome 

of Hungary, and of the natural dysposision ^ 

of the people, and of theyr mony & spech. 

I do dwel in the kyngdome of Hungary ; 
I hate the Turks ; Bytwyxt the Tuikes and me is ly tie marcy ; 

And although they be strong, proud, and stout, 
Other whyle I rap them on the snowt ; 
Yet haue they gotten many of our towns, 
And haue won of our londs and of our bowns ; 
If we of other nacions might haue any helpe, 
We wold make them to fle lyke a dog or a whelp. 
Out of my countre I do syldome randge ; 
The fashion of my apparel I do ncuer chaunge. 



they've won 
much of our 
land. 



10 



' G .iiii. back. The right-hand cut is from B, and differs a 
little from that in A, which is the cut of Boorde on the title- 
page of Barnes, p. 305 below, with a different riband over tho 
head. * dysposion A ; dysposision B. 



CHAP. XIX, XX.] INTRODUCTION. OF HUNGARY. 



J 71 



Great Hunpari' 
and Less. 



Gold is found 
there. 

Many aliens 
dwell there. 



^ The kyngdom of Hungary is beyond the kyngdome 
of Poll, estward. The lond is deuided into two partes, 
the whych be called "great Hungary," and the "lesse^ 
Hungary." The counties be large & wyde; there is 
gret mountayns and wildernes, the whych be repleted 
with manye wylde beeastes. Ther is salte digged out of 
hyllea. And there is found certayne vaynes of gold. 
In Hungary ther be many Aliens of dyuers nacions, and 
they be of dyuerce fashions, as wel of maners as of lyu- 
yng, for the lond doth loyne to the lond of Grece at the 
south syde. The great Turke hath got much of Hungary, 
and hath it in peasable possession. And for as much 
as there is dyuerce people of diuerce nacions, ther is vsed 
diuerce speches, & ther is currant diuerce sortes of 
mony. ther be many good cytyes & townes the which be 
called "vouenj" Sculwelyng,^ Warden, Scamemanger, 
and a noble cytie called Cliprow, and a regal castyl called 
Neselburgh, And a gret citie called Malla vina, the 
whych is almost the vttermost cytie of Hungary, by the 
whych cite doth roune the regall flod of Danuby.^ The 
spech of Hungary is corrupt Italien, corrupt Greke, & 
Turkysh. Theyr mony is gold [&] bras^ : in gold thei 
haue duccates & sarafes. In bras thei haue myttes, 
duccates, & soldes, and other smal peses of brasse which 
I haue for-got. 

The .XX. chapter treateth of the 
lond of Grece, & of Constantine- 
nople, and of the naturall 
disposicion of the peo- 
ple, and of theyr 
mony and 
speche. 



The chief town* 
of Hungary : 
Stuhlweissenburg, 
Groswardein, 
Steinamanger. 

By Mostalarina 
runs the Danube. 



Hungarian speech 
and money. 




* sign. H .i. 
' Sculwelrng A ; SculwelyDg B. 



' lessee A ; lesse B. 

* daunby AB. * good bras B. 



172 



OP GREECE AND CONSTANTINOPLE. [cHAP. XX. 



The seven pro- 
vinces of Greece. 



Constantinople 
belongs to the 
Turks. 



St Sophia's is the 
fairest cathedral 
in the world. 



Constantinople 
is built with two 
Bides to the 6ea. 



By it is St 
George's Ann, or 
the Hellespont. 



' I Am a Greke, of noble spech and bloud, 

Yet the Romayns with me be mervellows wood ; 

For theyr wodnes and cursyng I do not care ; 

The more that I am cursyd, the better I do fare. 4 

Al nacions vnder them, they woulde fayne haue ; 

Yf they so had, yet would they more craue j 

Vnder their subiection I would not lyue, 

For all the pardons of Rome if they wold me geue.^ 8 

IT The lond of Grece^ is by-yonde Hungary ; it is a 

greate region and a large countre. For they haue .vii. 

prouinces, whyche be to saye : Dalmacye, Epirs, Eladas, 

Tessaly, Macydony, Acayra, Candy, and Ciclades. The 

lond of Grece is a ryche countre & a fartyll, and plenty of 

wine, breade, and other vytels. The chefe cyte of Grece 

is called Constantinople : in old time it was an Empyre, 

and ther was good lawes and trwe lustyce keepe* : but 

nowe the Turke hath it vnder his dominion, howbeit 

they be styl Chrysten men, and christened ; and there 

is at Constantinople^ a patriarke : And in Constantinople 

they haue the fairist cathedral churche in the Worlde : 

the church is called Saynte Sophyes Churche, in the 

whyche be a wonder-full syght of preistes : they say 

that there is a thowsande prestes that doth belowg to 

the church : before the funt of the church is a pycture 

of copper and gylt, of lustinian, that sytteth vpon a 

horse of coper. Constantinople is one of the greatyst 

cytes of® the world : the cyte is built lyke a triangle ; 

two partes stondeth and abutteth to the watter, and 

the other parte'' hath a respect of ^ the londe : the cyte is 

well walled, and there commeth to it an arme of the See, 

called Saynct Georges arme or Hellysponte, or the 

myghte of Constantinople : saynt Luke and saynt lohan 

' H .i. back. ' geue A ; gyue B. 

' Hidroforbia in englyshe is " abhorrynge of water," as I 
lemed in the partes of grece. Breuiary, fol. cxxii. Foreivords 
p. 74. * kepte B. ^ Constanople A ; Constantinople B. 



citie in, B. 



' partet A ; parte B. 



toB. 



CHAP. XX.] INTRODUCTION. OF GREECE, ETC. 173 

Erisemon lyeth there : and they say that there is the ReUcs. 

holy crosse, and lesu Chrystes cote that had no seeme. 

The v^niuersitie^ of Salerne, where physick [is] practysed university of 

Salerne. 

is not far from Constantinople, the Greciens do erre & 
swere in mani articles concerning our fayth, The Greek church 
whyche I do thinke better to obmyt, and to leue vn- 
wryten, than to wryte it. In Constantinople theyr 
money is gold, syluer, & Brasse : in gold they haue Greek money : 
sarafes ; a saraf is worth .v.s. sterlynge ; in syluer they sarafes, 
haue aspers ; an asper is worth an Englysh peny ; in aspers, 
Bras they haue soldes ; .v. sold is worth an Asper. they Boides, 
haue myttes ; .iiii. myttes is worth a sold. myites. 

a letter whiche the Greciens sent to the byshop of Grecians* letter 

•^ ^ to the Bp of 

Rome : Rome. 

Parotenciam tuam summam ci[r]ca^ tups subiectos 
lirmiter aredimus ; superbiam tuam summa?^* tollerare 
noil possumus ; Auariciam^ tuam saciare now intendimus. 
dominus tecum ! quia dominus nobiscum est. 

If any man wil learne to speke Greke, such Greke 
as they do speke at Constantynople and other places in 
Grece, — Englysh and Greke doth folow. 
One. two. thre. foure. fyue. syx. seuyn. eyght. Modem-oreek 

numerals. 

£na. dua. trea. tessera, penfe. exi. esta. oucto. 
nyne. ten. aleuyn. twelue. thyrtene. fowrtene. 
enea^. deca. edecaena. edecadna. decatrea. decatessera. 
fyftene. syxtene. seuentene. eyghtene. nyntene. 
decapente. decaexi. decaesta. decaoucfo. deca&nea. 
twenty, one and twenty, two and twenty, &c. 
coclii. ecocMena. ecochiduaj Sfc. 

thyrty. forty. fyfty. syxty. seuenty. eyghty. 
tnenda. serenda. penenda. exinmda. estiminda. outoinda. 
nynte. a hondred. 
eniminda.^ ekatlwi. 

* H .11. not signed. ^ vnluesitie A. A leaves out too the next 'is ' of B. 

* wiinam cica AB. * smna AB. ' Anriciam AB. •* enca AB. 

' dna AB. ' enlmida AB. 



174 MODERN-GREEK AND TRUE-GREEK. [cHAP. XX, 

A talk in Modern- God spede you, Sei ! Colaspes, of-ende ! 
English. Ser, you be welcome ! Ofendey calasurtis ! 

Syr, from whens do you come ] Offende^ apopoarkistis, 

I did come horn England. 

Ego napurpasse apo to anglia. 

How far is it to Co?istawtinople ] 

Post strat apo to Constantion, 

Ser, ye haue .xxti. myle. Ofende^ ekes ecochi mila. 

Mastres, good morow ! Chirac cala mera ! 

Mastres, haue you any good meate ? 

Chira^ ekes kepotes calonofy. 

Ser, I haue enough. Ofende, ego expolla. 

Mastres, geue me bread, wyne, and water ! 

Chira, moo dosso me psome, cresse apo to nero 1 

Com hyder, and geue me some flesh. 

Eila do dosso moo creas. 

Bryng hyder to me that dish of flesh ! 

Ferto to tut obsaria. creas. 

Good nyght ! Cale spira ! 

The trewe Grek foloweth. 
Another talk in Good morow ! Call Mm&ra I 
Greek. ' Good spede ! Calos echois I 

Good euyn ! Call hespera ! 

You be welcome ! Cocharitomenos hikis / 

Syr, whych is the way to Oxford 1 

Oton poi to Oxonionde ? 

Syr, you be in the right way. outtos orthodromeis. 

Hostiler, set vp my horse, and gyue him meate ! 

Ze7ie^, age ton hippon apon apothes, kae sitison avion. 

Mayd, haue you any good meate? Eta^ echis ti sition? 

Ye, master, enowgh. Echo dapsilos. 

Geue me some bread, drynke, and meate. 

Dos mi ton arton, poton, kae siton. 

What is it a clok ? Po sapi hi hora tis himeras ? 
» Zeue AB. 



CH. XX, XXI.] INTRODUCTION. SICILY AND CALABRIA. 



175 



Wyfe or woman, geue me a reckenyng ! 

Gyny\ eijpe moi ton Analogismon. 

I ame contentyd or plesed. Arescy moy. 

hostes, fare wel ! Zene 2, chere / or els, Errosa I 

Syr, you be hertely welcome ! 

^Kyrie, mala cocharitomenos ilthes. 

"Woulde to God that you woulde tary here styl ! 

EitJie ge to entautha men aei para hymas menois.* 

wyfe, I can not speake no Greke ! 

Ohe gyny^, ov dyname calos elinisci legin. 

Syr, by a lytel and a lytyle you shal lerne more. 

outes dia microu mafhois an ahlinisci lalein. 

hostes, there is no remidy but I must depart. 

Zeney anagaeos apieton esci moy I 

Syr, than God be your sped in your iorney ! 

Deosjyota, theos soi dixios esto metaxi procias ! 

Fare wel to you al ! Cherete apapapantes I 

God be with you ! Thos meth ymon t 



A talk in true- 
Greek and 
English. 




The .xxi. chapter treateth of 

the kyngdome of Sicell, 

and of Calabre, And of 

the naturall disposi- 

cion of the people, 

and of theyr 

mony and 

speche. 



I was borne in the kyngdome of Sycel ; 
I care for no man, so that I do wel. 
And I was borne in Calabry, 
Where they do pynche^ vs many a fly. 



In Calabria, 
fliee bite as. 



Gyuy AB. =^ Zeue AB. 
* meuois AB. 



^ H .iii. not signed. Kyrle AB. 
* theyr doth bynche B 



1 2 



176 SICILY, CALABRIA, NAPLES. [cHAP. XXI, XXII. 

We be nayboures to the Italyons, 
Wherfore we loue no newe fashions ; 
For wyth vs, except he be a lord or a Grecyon, 7 

* Hys rayment he wyl not tourne from the old fashyon. 
I shall now come IT I haue spokyn of Grece, one of the endes or 

back from Greece, , ^ 

towards Calais, poynts of Euro]j ; wherfore I pretend to returne, and to 
come rouTid about, & thorow other regyons of Europ 
vnto the tyme I do come to Galas agayne, — where that I 
dyd take my first iorney poynt out of Englond, — & other 
lawdes anexed to the same ; wherfore in my returnyng 

and speak first of I wyl speke fyrst of Sicel & Calabry. Sycel is an 

Sicily and ti-i/.'* 

Calabria. llond, for it IS compased wyth water oi the see. ther be 

In Sicily are many flyes, the whych wyl styng or byte lyke the flyes 

mosquitoes (?), ^ti 

like our English of Italy ; and loke, where that they do stynge, they wyll 
bryng the bloud after ; and they be such flyes as do set 
on our table & cup here in England. But they be so 
eger and so vewgeable that a man can not kepe hym selfe 
from them, specially if he slepe the day tyme. in Sycel 

and great storms, is much thondoryng and lyghtnyng, and great impiet- 
ouse^ wyndes. The countrey is fartyl, and there is 

Syracuse. much gold. The chefe towne is Ciracus. & there is a 

The river goodly ryucr called Artuse, where is found whyt corall. 

Arethusa. 

Calabria. IT Calabrc is a prouince ioyned to Italy ; & they do 

vse the Italion fashion ; and theyr mony and spech is 
muche lyke Italy money and speche. 



The .xxii.' chapter treateth of the kingdome of 

Naples, and of the naturall dysposicion of the people 

and of theyr speche and of there money. 

IT In the kyngdome of Naples I do dwel j 
I can nod* with my hed, thynkyng euel or well. 
I keep my own Whan other men do stond in great dout, 

counseL i n i t t a 

I know^ how my matters shalbe brought about ; 4 

H .iii. back. ' iupietouse A (impetuous) ; iupirtouse B. 
^ .XX. A. ■* not A ; nod B. * knew AB. 



CHAP. XXII, XXIII.] INTRODUCTION. NAPLES. 



177 



The fashyon of my rayment I wyl neuer leue ; 
Al new fashyons, to Englond I do bequeue ; 
I am content with my meane aray, 
' Although other nacions go neuer so gay. 4 

I must nedes go out of the cyrcuyt, and not dy- 
rectlye go round about Europ & Chrystendom ; for if- 
I should, I shold leue out kyngdomes, couwtres & pro- 
uinces; wherfor, as I went forward, so I wyl come 
bakeward, and wyll speke of the kyngdom of Naples.^ 
The cou?itre, & specially the citye of Naples, is a 
populus cytye & couwtre ; yet I dyd not se nor know 
that they were men of gret actiuite, for they do Hue in 
peace without warre. The couwtrey is ful of fartylite, 
& plentiful of oyle, wine, bread, come, fruit, and money. 
The Napulions do vse great ^ marchaundyse; & Naples is 
ioyned to Italy, wherfore they do vse the fashions and 
maner of Italyons and Romayns; and marchauntes 
passeth from both parties by the watter of Tiber, in 
Naples ther be welles of water the whych be euer hot, 
and they be mediscenable* for sycke people, the chefe 
cathedral churche of Naples is called Brunduse. Theyr 
spech is Italyan corrupted. In Naples theyr money is 
gold and brasse, lyke money of Italy and Lumberdy ; 
and they do vse the fashyons of the Italyans. 



I keep old 
fashions, and 
leave new ones 
to England. 



I (A. Boorde) 
can't go direct 
to Calais, but 
must turn off to 
Naples. 



Naples has many 
people, wlio are 
not active ; 



but they're great 
merchants. 



Hot wells in 
Maples. 



Brindlsi. 




The .xxiii. chapter treateth of 

Italy and Rome, and of the 

naturall dysposycyon 

of the people, and of 

theyr money & 

speche. 



' H .iiii. not signed. ' Napls AB. ' gerat A ; great B. 

* mediscenaple A ; mediscenable B. 

BOORDE. 12 



178 



My country is 
fertile. 



I waTit the world 
to be subject to 
me. 



I've let my 
clmrch fall down. 



OF ITALY AND ROME. 



[chap. XXIII. 



Tiber. 



Rome. 



St Peter's 
Church. 



Little virtue, 
and abominable 
vices in Rome. 



The Italians, &c,, 
reckon from one 
to 24 o'clock, 
which is mid- 
night. 



IT I am a Eomayne, in Italy I was borne ; 
I lacke no vytayles, nor wyne, breade, nor come ; 
All thynges I haue at pleasure and at wyll ; 
Yf I were wyse, I wolde kepe me so styl ; 4 

Yet all tbe worlde I wolde haue subiecte to me, 
' But I am a-frayd it wyll neuer be. 
Euery nacion haue spyed my fashions out ; 
To set nowght by me now they haue no dout. 8 

My church I do let fall ; prophanes your[?] is vsed j 
Vertu in my countre is greatly abused ; 
Yet in my apparel I am not mutable, 
Althowh in other theynges T am founde variable. 12 
IT Italy is a noble champion couTitre, plesaunt, & 
plentyfull of breade, wyne, and come. There be many 
good pastures & vinyerdes.^ The noble ^ water of Tyber 
doth make the countre rych. The people of the countie 
be homly and rude. The chefe cytye of Italy is called 
Kome, the whych is an old cyte, & is greatly decaide ; 
& saint Peters churche, whych is tlieyr head church & 
cathedral churche, is fal downe to the grounde, and so 
hath lyen many yeres wythout reedyfiyng.'* I dyd se 
lytle vertue in Rome, and much abhominable vyces, 
wherfore I dyde not lyke the fashion of the people ; 
such matters I do passe ouer. who so wyl se more of 
Rome and Italy, let hym loke in the second boke, the 
.Ixvii. chapter.^ The Latyns or the Italiows, the Lom- 
berdes & the^ Veneciens, wyth other prouynces anexed 
to the same, doth vary in dyuers numbriiige or rekan- 
ynge of theyr cloke.''' At mydnyght they doth^ be- 
gyn, and do reken vnto .xxiiii. a cloke,'^ & than^ it is 



' H .iiii. back. ' vniyerdes A j vinyardes B. 

* nople A ; noble B. * redyfiyng A ; reedifiyng B. 

* See I7ie Extrmiagantes^ or second Part of The Brevyary^ 
fol. V. back, and vi,, extracted in the Forewords above, p. 77-8, 
On 'the second boke,' see p. 21. ^ that A ; the B. 

' clocke B. After * cloke,' A wrongly inserts " and than it 
is mydnyghte and at one a cloke," which it repeats a line 
further on. ® doo B. ^ then B. 



CHAP. XXIII.] INTRODUCTION. ITALY. 179 

mydnyght ; and at one a clok^ thei do begyn agayne. 
also theyr myles be no longer ^ than^ our miles be, and 
they be called Latten miles. Doch myles and French i^atin mUes are 

the same as ours. 

leges ^ maketh .iii. of our myles, and of ^ Latyn myles. In 
Rome and Italy theyr monye is gold, syluer, & bras. 
In gold thei haue duccates, in syluer they haue lulys, — Ducats, juies 

(orjuliwses), 

a luly is worthe .v.d. sterlynge, — in bras they haue 
kateryns, and byokes, and denares. who that wyl learne kateryns, 

*' "^ '' baiocchi, denari. 

some Italien,^ — Englyshe and Italy en doth folow. 

' One. two. thre. foure. fyue. syx. seuyn. eyghte. nyne. Italian numerals. 

Una. Uoo. tre. qvxxt&r. siiwo. si. serto f . octo. none, tt for >etto. 
ten. aleuyn. twelue. thyrtene. fowrtene. fyftene. syxtene. 
dees. vnse. duose. trese. quaterse. kynse. sese. 
seuentyne. eyghtene. nyntene. twenty, one and twenty. 
dessetto. desotto. desnono. vincto. vinto vno. 
two and twenty, thre and twenty, foure and twenty. 
vincto duo. vincto tre. vincto quater. 

therty. forty. fyuete. sexte. seuente. 
trento. quaranto. sinquanto. sessento. settanto. 
eyghte. nynte. a honderd, a thowsande. 
octento. nonanto. cento. milya. 

Good morow, my syr ! Boniis dies, nusirt a talk in itauan 

and English. 

Good lyfe be to you, mastres ! Bona vita, ma dona I 

Ys thys, or that, the ryght way to go to Rome? 

Est kelaf vel kesta, via recta pre andare Borne 9 

(The true wry ting is thus : JEst quela vel questa via ; 

But, and 8 I shoulde so write as an Italy an doth, an i write phoneti- 

cally, to enable 

Englyshman, without teachyng, can not speake nor pre- EngUshmen to 
late the wordes of an Italyau.) itaUan. 

IT How farre is Rome hens 1 Sancta de ke est Boma ? 
Hit is .xl. myles hence. Est karenta milia.^ 
Brother, how farre is it to the nexte lodgyng ? 
Fradelf kanta de ke ad altera ostelaria ? 

* clocke B. ' long or A. ' then B. " leages B. 

^ or AB. " Italien and AB. '^ sign. I .i. 

" an' if. * nulla A ; milia B. 

1 2 • 



180 



ITALY. A TALK IN ITALIAN. 



[chap. XXIII. 



A talk in Italian 
and English. 



[♦ vn, uri] 



[t nome2 



r§ k^mto»^ 



Hit is .iiii. myle. Sunt hater^ milia. 

May we haue there this nyght good lodgyng 1 

Podemus auere honissima loga pro reposar ? 

My serre, there is good lodgyng. 

My ser, se aueryte honissima. 

You be welcome to thiscoiint[r]ye ! can youspeke Italian? 

Vene'^ venuta kesta terra! se parlare Italionna ? 

'Ye ser, I can speke a lytle. My ser, se vin* pauh 

I do thanke* you wyth al my hart ! JRegracia, ion corf 

"What tydynges is in your countre ? 

Auete nessona noua de vostra terra ? 

There is nothing but good, blessed be God ! 

Nessona nouaf salua tota bona, gracia none Deo I 

How do you fare 1 Quomodo stat cum vostro corps ? 

I do fare wel. Ge sta beene. 

Wyl you go eate some meate 1 volite mangare ? ^ 

What is it a cloke, brother? Tcantar^ horas, fardell ? 

Hyt is thre and twenty a clock, sunt vinccitres horas. 

Wyfe, geue me a pot of wyne ! 

Ma dona, dona^ me vn buccal de vyne I 

Much good do hit^ you I Mantingat vos Deus I 

Bryng vs a reckenyng, wyfe ! 

Far tu la counta, madona 1 

Hostes, pay to this man .iii. kateryng. 

Hostessa, paga kesto hominy tres katerinos. 

God be wyth you ! Va cum De ! 



' katet AB. 'It is Vene, not Bene in AB. ^ sign. I .1. back. 

* tanke A ; thanke B. * maugare A ; mangare B. 

• dona A. ' good hit A ; good do hit B. 



CHAP. XXIV.] 



INTBODUGTION. VENICE. 



181 




The .xxiiii. chapter treateth of Venys, and of the 

natural! dysposicyon of the people of the 

country, of ther mony and of theyr spech.^ 

2 1 am a Venesien both sober and sage ; 

In all myne actes and doynges I do not outrage ; 

Granite shal be founde euer in me, 



I am always 
grave. 



Mjr dress is rich. 



I have money to 
pacify my foee. 



SpeciaUy yf I be out of my countrey. 

My apparell is ryche, very good and fyue. 

All my possessyon is not fully myne, 

For part of my possession, I am come tributor ^ to the i pay tribute 

_, , to the Turk. 

Turke. 
To lyue in rest and peace, in my cytye I do lourke. 8 
Some men do saye I do smell of the smoke ; 
I passe not for that, I haue money in my pooke 
To pacyfye the Pope, the Turke, and the lue : 
I say no more, good felow, now adew I 12 

Yf I should not bryng in & speke of Venes here, I 
sholde not kepe the circuit of Europe, whosoeuer that 
hath not seene the noble citie of Venis,* he hath not Venice is the 

beauty of the 

sene the bewtye & ryches of thys worlde.* iher be world. 

' of theyr speche and of there money B. ^ sign. I .ii. 

' tribut B. * venus A ; venis B. 

* A rare poem in a paper MS of Mr Henry Huth's, about 
1500 A.D., — a poem of which part is printed in Wey's Pilgrimages 
for the lloxburghe Club — praises Venice as strongly as Andrew 
Boorde does : 



182 



Merchants flow 
to Venice. 



I started from 
Venice to 
Jerusalem. 



Venice is the 
king of all cities. 



Saints' corpses 
Ueinit: 



St George, 



John the Bap* 
tist's father. 



1000 Innocents, 



He who visits it 
twice in a year 
gets remission of 
his sins. 



The Isles of the 
sea belong to 
Venice. 



In Rhodes are 
many relics : 



a thorn of 
Christ's crown, 



St Loye's body, 
St Katherine's 
arm, &c. 



VENICE IS THE KING OP ALL CITIES. [cHAP. XXIV. 

ryche marcliauence and^ marchauntes ; for to Venys is a 

Here begynnyth the Pilgrymage and the 
wayes of Jerusalem. 

GOd pat made bothe heuen & helle, 
To the, lorde, I make my mone, 
And geue me grace Jjb sothe to telle 
Of jje pylgrymage pat I haue to gone. 
I toke my leue at Veynes towne, — 
And bade felowes for me to praye, — 
That is a cyte of grete Eenowne, 
And to lerusaleiD. I toke my waye ; 
But of alle pe Cetys pat I haue seyne, 
That maye Ueynes kynge been, 
That stondith in pe Grikys see alone : 
Hit is so stronge alle abowte, 
Of enemyes dare hit not drede ; 
Corsayntes lyen in pe touwe abowte ; 
Who so wylle hym seke, he ^hal haue mede. 
Saynt Marke, Saynt Nicholas, 
Thes two sayntes they loue & drede ; 
Saynt El3nie pat fonde pe Crosse, 
And Saynt lorge, oure ladyes knyghte, 
Amonge hem beryth grete voyis, 
And ly the in golde & syluere I-dyght ; 
Saynt Powle, pe fyrst Eremyght. 
And Saynt Symone iust, also 
Zachare, pe fadre of Ioh«n baptiste, 
Lyeth thense but a lytel therfro ; 
Saynt Luce and saynt Barbera 
That holy were, bothe olde & younge ; 
A M' Innocentys and moo 
Lythe there closyd ; 
Saynt Cristofer lythe in pe Cyte : 
Twyes in pe lere, who so theder wyll come, 
He shal haue playne Remysciou» 
Also wel as in the sere of grace. 
Than passyd we to pe lies of pe see, 
Corfe, Medon, and Candye ; 
And some of pe lies of pe see witA-owten dowte 
Ben sevyn houwdred myle abowte, 
And al longyth vnto Venes towne, 
Whiche is a Cyte of grete renowne. 
And in pe yle of Rodys, as we gone. 
We fynde Relikis many one : 
A Crosse made of a Basyn swete 
That Crist wysshe in his Aposteles feete, 
And A thome off pe Crowne 
That stake in his hede abouyn, 
That blowyth euery good Frydaye, 
A fajnre myracle hit is to saye. 
Ther is Saynt Loye, & seint Blase ; 
Ther is pe hande & pe Arme 
Of saint Kateryn, pe blessyd virgyn. . . . 

» of B. 



CHAP. XXIV.] INTRODUCTION. VENICE, THE DOGE. 183 

great confluence of marchanntes, as well Christians, as 
all sortes of infydels. The citie of Venis doth stande 
.vii. myle wythin the sea : the sea is called the gulf; it 
doth not eb nor flow. Thorow the stretes of Venys water in every 

street. 

ronnyth the water ; and euery marchaunt hath a fayre 
lytle barge standynge at his stayers to rowe thorow and Gondolas, 
aboute the citie ; and at bothe sydes of the water in 
euery strete a man maye go whyther he wyll in Venys ; 
but he must passe ouer many bredges. The mar- 
channtes of Venys goeth in longe gownes lyke preestes. Merchants wear 

long gowns. 

with close sleues. The Venyscyows wyll not haue no 

lordes nor knyghtes a-monges theym, but only the Venetians won't 

, have Lords. 

Duke. The Duke of Venys is chosen for terme of hys 
lyfe ; he shall not mary, by cause his sonne shall not The Duke of 
clayme no inheritaunce of the dukedomshyp, ^ the Duke mSly, buTmay 
may haue lemons & concubyns'^ as manye as he wyl. *^^^« <'0"*^^">«8. 

' sign. I .ii. back. 

^ Thomas does not notice this custom ; though he says that 
younger brothers in Venice do not marry. Of the Venetian 
young man he says : — 

" his greatest exercise is to go, amongest his companyons, to 
this good womans house and that. Of whiche in Venice are Many thousand 
many thousandes of ordinarye, lesse than honest. And no courtesans in 
meruaile of the multitude of theyr common women ; for amonge ^«'"C6' 
the gentilmen is a certeine vse, that if there be diuers brethern, 
lightlye but one of theim doeth marie : because the number of Only one brotbet 
gentilmen should not so encrease, that at length their common of a family 
wealth might waxe vile : wherfore the reste of the brethern doe [^^^"gf j^gg 
kepe Courtisanes, to the entent they may haue no lawful chil- courtesans, 
dren. And the bastardes that they begette, become most com- and make their 
monly monkes, friers, or nunnes, who by theyr friendes meanes dastards monks 
are preferred to the offices of most profite, as abbottes, priours, °^' """^' 
and so forth. But specially the Courtisanes are so riche, that 
in a maske, or at the feast of a mariage, or in the shrouynge 
tyme, you shal see theim decked with iewelles, as they were The courtesans 
Queenes. So that it is thought no one citee againe hable to a^e deckt out 
compare with Venice, for the number of gorgeouse dames. As ^'^® Queens, 
for theyr beaultie of face ; though they be fayre in deede, I 
woull not highlye commend theim, because there is maner none, but they paint 
old or yong, vnpeincted. In deede of theyr stature, they are of tlieir faces, 
the most parte veraie goodly and bigge women, wel made and They're well- 
stronge."— Thomas's History e of Italy e, fol. 84, back (1549 n^at^e* 
A.D., edit. 1561). 

In an earlier part of his book, Thomas speaks as follows of 
the Venetian women : — 



184 



THE DUKE OR DOGE OF VENICE. [cHAP. XXIV. 



The Doge mayn't the Duke shall neuei ryd, nor go, nor sayle out of the cyte 

IficiVG Vfinic© 

L_ as longe as he dothe lyue.* The Duke shall rule the 



The Venetian 
women are very 
gay. 



Some Venetian 
women beguile 
their husbands. 



All dress more 
gorgeously than 
any other women, 



Cliurchmen keep 
fine courtesans. 



The Venetian 
Doge seems 
grand, but 
is really an 
Iionourable slave. 

He can't go out 
without leave. 



But he can make 
the Council take 
a ballot on his 
opinions. 



" As for the women, 

Some be wonders gaie, 

And some goe as they maye. 

Some at libertee dooe swymme a flotc, 

And some woulde faine, but they cannot. 

Some be meerie, I wote wel why, 

And some begyle the housbande, with finger in the eie. 

Some be maryed agaynst theyr will, 

And therfore some abyde Maydens styll. 

In effect, they are women all, 

Euer haue been, and euer shall, 
— But in good earnest, the gentilwomen generally, for gorgeouse 
atyre, apparayle and lewelles, excede (I thynke) all other 
women of oure knowen worlde, I meane as well the courtisanes 
as the maryed women. For in some places of Italye, speciallie 
where churchemen doe reigne, you shall fynde of that sorte of 
women in riche apparaile, in furniture of household, in seruice, 
in horse and hackeney, and in all thinges that apperteyne to a 
delycate Lady, so well fumysshed, that to see one of theim vn- 
knowynglye, she should seeme rather of the qualitee of a prin- 
cesse, than of a common woman. But because I haue to speake 
hereafter in perticuler, I woull forbeare to treate anye further of 
theym in thys place." — Fol. 6. The History e of Italy e^ by W. 
Thomas, 1549, edit. 1561. 

' " They haue a duke called after theyr maner doge, who onely 
(amongest al the rest of the nobilitee) hath his office immutable 
for terme of Hfe, with a certaine yerely prouision of .4000. 
duckates, or theraboutes. But that is so appoincted vnto him 
for certaine ordinarie feastes, & other lyke charges, that hys 
owne aduauntage therof can be but sraal. And though in 
apparaunce he seemeth of great astate, yet in veray deede his 
power is but small. He kepeth no house, lyueth priuately, & 
is in so muche seruitude, that I haue hearde some of the Vene- 
tians theim selfes cal him an honourable slaue : For he cannot 
goe a mile out of the towne without the counsails licence, nor 
in the towne depart extraordinarily out of the palaice, but 
priuately and secretely : And in his apparaile he is prescribed 
an ordre : so that, in effect, he hath no maner of preeminence 
but the bare honour, the gift of a few smal offices, and the 
libertee Bi mettere vna porta, which is no more but to pro- 
pound vnto any of tJiQ counsailes his opinion, touching the 
ordre, reformacion, or correcion of anye thyng : and that 
opinion euery counsaile is bound taccept into a trial of theyr 
sentences by Ballot : (the maner of the whych ballotting shal 
hereafter appeare;) and this priuilege, to haue his onely oppin- 
ion ballotted, no man hath but he. And wheras many haue re- 
ported, that the Duke in ballottyng should haue two voices, it 
is nothinge so ; for in geuyng his voice, he hath but one ballot, 
as all others haue." — Thomas's Historye of Italye, fol. 77 
(1549, edit. 15G1). 



CHAP. XXIV.] INTRODUCTION. VENICE. 185 

senyorite, and the seniorite shall gouerne and rule the 
comynalte^, and depose and put to deth the Duke if 
thei do fynd a lawful cause. The Duke weryth a The Doge wears 

a coronet over his 

coronet ouer a cap of sylke, the whych stondeth vp lyke cap of suk. 
a podynge or a cokes come, bekyng forward, of .iii. 
handfoll longe. The Duke do not come to the butyful 
church of saint Marke but [on] certen hygh feastes in st Mark's, 
the yere, & the fyrst eyght daies after that he is made 
Duke, to shew hym selfe. I dyd neer^ se within the cyte No poverty in 
of Venis no pouerte, but al riches, ther be none in- 
habitours in the cite that is nede & pour, vitelles there victuals dear 

^ there, 

is dere. Venys is one of the chefest portes of all the 

world, the Venyscions hath great prouision of warre, for Great stores for 

war. (See Ifote$ 

they haue euer in a redynes tymber readye made to at the end.) 
make a hondred gales or more at [a] tyme.^ they haue 
all maner of artilery in a redynes. They haue gi-eate 
possessions ; and Candy, and Scio,* with other lies and ^^"fj^^i^'jlj „ 
portes, cites & landes, be vnder ther dominion. Whan ^ Venice, 
they do heare masse, & se the sacrament, they do in- ?"*;« Venetians* 

•^ ' 'J behaviour at 

clyne, & doth clap theyr hand on theyr mouth, and do Mass 
not knock them self on the brest. at hygh masse they 
do vse prycksong & playnsonge, the orgins & the trum- 



As our rulers are getting honest enough to give poor and 
squeezeable voters the protection of the Ballot, I add Thomas's 
further account of the Venetian system : 

"This maner of geuyng theyr [the great Council's] voices by The Venetian 
ballotte, is one of the laudablest thinges vsed amongest theim. Ba^ot. 
For there is no man can know what an other dooeth. — The 
boxes are made with an holow place at the top, that a man may How the vote by 
put in his hand ; and at the ende of that place hange .ii. or .iii. Fallot is taken 
boxes, into whiche, if he wyll, he may let fall his ballot, that no c^,u^^|*"*"'"' 
man can perceiue hym. If there be but two boxes (as commonly 
it is in election) the one saieth yea, and the other sayeth naye : 
And if there be .iii. boxes (whiche for the most parte hapneth 
in cases of iudgement) the one saieth yea, thother sayth naye, 
and the thyrde saieth nothynge: and they are all well enough 
knowen by theyr dyuers colours. By this order of ballottyng, 
they procede in iudgement thorough al offices, vpon all maner 
of causes : beynge reputed a soueraigne preseruation of iustice." It's a sovereign 
— iJiU fol. 79. jScT'"^ 

' coymnalte A ; comenalte B. ^ neuer B. 

^ at tyme A ; at a tim B. * sco AB. 



186 



OP LOMBARDY AND THE LOMBARDS. [cHAP. XXV. 



and when St 
Mark is named. 



The Venetians 
poll their heads. 



Bagantyns. 



pates, if ther be any gospel red, or song of saynt Marke, 
they wyl say "sequencia santy euangely secundum 
istum," poyntyng theyr fynger to s. Mark, the whych 
do ly in the church, the people do pol their heades, 
and do let ther berdes grow. Theyr spech is Italion, 
ther money is gold, that is to say, duccates ; & bagar^tins 
is brasse ; .xii. bagantyns is worth a galy halpeny ; & 
there is galy halpens. 




The. XXV. Chapter treateth of Lom- 
bardye, and of the natural 
dysposicion of the peo- 
ple, and of theyr 
speche and of 
theyr mo- 
nye. 



I am cratty, I am a Lombort, and subtyl crafft I haue, 

To deceyue a gentyl man, a yeman, or a knaue ; 
I werke by polyse,^ subtylyte, and craught, [craft] 
The whych, other whyle, doth bryng me to nought. 
I am the next neyghbour to the Italion ; 
We do bryng many thynges out of al fashyon ; 

and oare lor na We care for uo man, & no man caryth for vs ; 

man. 

Our proud hartes maketh vs to fare the worse. 
' I .iii. not signed. '^ poplyse AB. 



CHAP. XXV.] INTRODUCTION. OF LOMBi»ilDY. 187 

In our countre we eate Adders, snayles,^ and frogges, i eat snakes, 
And above al thyng we be sure of kur dogges ; Lombards have * 

_^ many cun 

For mens shyns they wyl ly in wayte ; 
It is a good sport to se them so to bayte. 12 

2 f Lombardy is a champion countrey & a fartyl, 
plentye of wyne and come. The Lomberd doe ^ set muche are proud of their 

beards; 

by his herd, & he is scorneful of hys speche ; he wyl 
geue an aunswer wyth wryeng his hed at the one side, 
displaysynge his handes abrode : yf he cast hys head 
at the one syde, and do^ shroge vp hys shoulders, speake shrug their 

shoulders; 

no more to hym, for you be answered. The Italyons, 
and some of the Venecyons, be of lyke dysposicion. In 
Lomberdy ther be many vengable cur dogges, the 
whyche wyll byte a man by the legges or he be ware, 
they^ wyll ete frogges, guttes and all. Adders^, snayles, eat frogs whole; 

and put rosemary 

and musheroms, be good meate there. In dyuerse places in wine. 

of Italy and Lombardy they wyll put rose-mary into 

theyr vessels of wine. Florance is the chefe towne of Florence. 

Lomberdy ; it is a pleasaunt towne, and a commodiouse , 

it standeth betwext two hylles. the Lomberdes be so 

crafty, that one of them in a countrey is enough (as I on® Lombard is 

^ enough to mar a 

haue heard many olde & wyse men say) to mar a whole whole country, 
countrey. the maner of the people and the speche be 
lyke the Italyons ; the people of the countrey be very 
rewde. In Lomberdy and Italy they go to plow but They cover oxen 
wyth two oxsone, and they be couered with 
canuas that the flyes shall not byte them, there 

money is brasse, called katerins and Lombord money i 

bagantyns ; in syluer they haue 
marketes : a market is a galy markets (mar- 

11 • n 1 cAeUi). 

halpeny : in gold they 
haue duccates. 

' See the recipe for dressing them in Q. Eliz. Acliademy^ 
^v., Part II. p. 153. M .iii. back. ^ j^th B. 

* to AB. (The prefix to is hardly applicable to shrug ^ 

* That is, the Lombards, not their curs. 
« See p. 273, 1. 13. 



188 



OF GENOA AND THE GENOESE. [cHAP. XXVI. 




The .xxvi. chapter treateth' of 
lene and of the lanuayes, and of 
theyr spech, and of their 
mony. 



[B puts this printer's ornament here.] 



^ia^^^^gsfflg^^Gfe^ 



I make Treacle 
and Fustian : 



and (?) take-in 
my customers. 



H I am a marchaunt ; borne I was in lene ; 
Whan I sell my ware, fewe men knoweth what I mene ; 
I make good treacle, and also fustyan ; 3 

Wyth such thynges I crauft wyth many a poer man ; 
Other of my marchaundes * I do set at a great pryce ; 
I counsel them be ware lest on them I set the dyce ; 
I do hyt dyuerce tymes ; som men on the thomes. 7 
Wher soeuer I ryde or go, I wyl not lese my cromes. 
I stick to my old In mv appercl, the old fashyon I do kepe: 

fashions in dress, J x r ? j i ^ 

Yf I should do other wyse, it would cause me to wepe. 
Better it is for a man to haue Ids rayment tore, 1 1 

Than to runne by-hynd-hande, and not to be before. 

' This cut is from B. A has the canopy complete, except 
a third of the top line, and the cape on the right shoulder is 
complete, as is the cut of Boorde on the title-page of Barnes's 
Treaty se below. 

^ I .iiii. not signed. ' trateth A ; tretcth B. 

* marchauntes A ; marchaundes B : merchandise. 



CHAP. XXVI. j INTRODUCTION. GENOA AND THE GENOESE. 189 

Gorgyouse apparell maketh a bare purse ; 
It bringeth a maw by-hynd, & maketh him worse & 
Worse. 14 

^ir The noble cyte of lene is a plesant and a com- Genoa is a weii- 

vlctualled city, 

modyose cyte, And well serued of all maner of vyttells, and makes velvet, 

«. 11 1 1^1- 11 1 '*'''^» fustian, &c. 

for it stondeth on the see syd. there is made veluet and 
other sylkes ; and ther is fustyane of lene mad[e], and 
triacle of lene. 

lene, Prouince, and Langwadock, lyeth on the cost it's opposite 

Barbary, where 

of Barbary, where the whyte and the blacke'' mores be^, the white and 
& so doth Catalony,* Aragon, and Cyuel, and parte of 
Portyngale; of the^ whych countres I wyl speke of after 
in this boke. the lanewayes be sutyl and crafty men in The Genoese are 

crafty dealers. 

theyr marchaundes ^ ; they lone clenlynes ; they be hyghe (See Notet.) 

in the instep, and stondeth in theyr owne consayte. to 

the fayre and commodiouse citie of lene be- 

longeth gret possessions, the whyche is 

ful of fartilite, and plentiful of fysh 

and frut. whan they do make theyr 

treacle, a man wyll take and 

eate poysen and than he Genoese treacle 

i* an antidote 

wyl swel redy to to poison, 

brost^ and to 
dye, and 



sone as he hath takyn trakle, he is hole 

agene. theyr spech is Italyon and 

French ; theyr mony is much 

lyke^ the Italy ons. 



' 1 .1111. back. ' placke B. 

' Who come over and rob the Genoese, &c. : see p. 213, 

* See Boorde's letter in the Forewords, p. 56. 

* of it of the AB. ^ merchandise, dealing. 
' borst B. " lyke to B. 



190 



OP PRANCE AND THE FRENCH. [CHAP. XXVII. 




The .xxvii. Chapter treateth of Eraunce, and of our 
prouences the whyche be vnder Fraunce, and of 
the natural dysposicyon of the peo- 
ple, and of ther money and 
of theyr 
speche. 



I am a French man, lusty and stout ; 
My payment is lagged, and kut round a-bout ; 
I am ful of new inuencions, 3 

And dayly I do make new toyes and fashions ; 
All nations follow Al nacious of me example do take, 

Whan any garment they go about to make. 6 

2 Fraunce is a noble countre, and plentiful of wyne, 
bread, corne, fysh, flesh, & whyld^ foule. there a maw 
' sign. K .i. ^ sign. K .i. back. ^ wild B. 



I jag and cut 
my clothes. 



my fashions. 



CHAP. XXVII.] INTRODUCTION. FRANCE AND THE FRENCH. 191 

shalbe honestly orderyd for his mony, and shal haue 

good chere and good lodging. Fraunce is a rych countre 

& a plesaunt. in Fraunce is many goodly tonnes, as ' 

Granople, Lyons, and Parys ; the which Panes ^ is de- Grenoble, Lyons, 

uyded in thre partes : — Fyrste is the^ towne ; the citie, & 

the vniuersite. in Fraunce is also'* Orlyance, and Put- Orleans, Poitiers, 

tyors, Tolose, and Mount Pylor, the which .iiii. townes be Montpeiier, &c 

vniuercites. beyond Fraunce be these great priuces, fyrst 

is Priuinces and Sauoy, Dolphemy & Burgundy: then is Provence, 

Dauphiny, 

the fayer prouynces of Langwhadock & good Aquytany. Languedoc, &c. 

The other prouynces I wil speke of whan I shal wryt 

in retornyng home to Calys, where that I toke my first 

iorny or vyage. the people of Fraunce doo delyte in New fashions 

gorgious apparell, and wyll haue euery daye a new 

fashion. They haue no greate fantasy to Englyshmen ; Dislike EngUsh- 

they do loue syngyng and dansyng, and musicall in- 

strumentes; and they be hyghe mynded and statly 

people. The money of Fraunce is gold, syluer, and French money: 

brasse. In gold they haue French crownes of .iiii. s. viiLd. ; gold crowns, 

in syluer they haue testons, which be worth halfe a silver testons, 

Frenche crowne ; it is worth .ii. s. iiii. d. sterlyng. in 

bras they haue mietes, halfe pens, pens, dobles, lierdes, 

halfe karalles & karales,^ halfe sowses & sowses ; a brass caroiuses, 

sowse is worth .xii. bras pens^; a karoll is worth .x. sous = 12 brass 

bras pens, a lier is worth three brasse pens, a double is iiers, doubles; 

worthe two brasse pens .xxiiii. Brasse halpens ys a 24 brass ha'pence 

sowese, [and] is almooste worthe thre halpens of our ITearfyMri^Eng- 

mony ; myttes be brasse fardinges : if any man wyll myites. 

lerne Fraunce^ and Englyshe, — Englyshe and Fraunce' 

doth folowe. 

One. two. thre. foure. fyue. syx. seuen. eyghte. nyne. French numerals. 

One. deus. trous. cater, cynk. sys. set. huyt. neyf. 

ten. aleuyn. twelue. thyrtene. fowrtene. fyftene. sixtene. 

^dix.vngse. deuse. treise. katorse. kynse. seise. 

' as a A. ^ partes A ; parres B. ^ that AB. 

* fraunce also AB. * from Upcott ; 'halfe karalles karalle ' AB. 
^ cp. * eyght shyllynges, huyt sous,' p. 193. ' frenche B. 

^ K .ii. not signed. 
1 5 



192 A TALK IN FRENCH AND IINGLISH. [CHAP. XXVII. 

French numerals, seuentyne. eyghteiie. nyntene. twenty, one and twenty. 

desett. deshuit desneuf. vind. vinct^ ung. 

therty. forty. fyuete. sexte. seuente. eyghte. 

trente. katrente. cynkante? sesante. sejptante. hytante, 

nynte. a honderd. a thowsand. x. thowsand. 

notante. Cent. mille. dix mille. 

A talk in French Good morow, mv svr ! hon iour. mon ser ! 

and English. ' ^ ^ 

God gene you a good day ! Dieu voiis dint oon tore / * 

God spede you, my brother ! Dieu voits gard, monfrerl* 

frend, God saue you ! Amyy Dieu vous salue ! 

Of whens be you ? Vnde etaf vou 9 

I am of England. Je sites \ de Angliater. 

You be welcome, gentyl companyon ! 

Vous etes Hen venu, gentyl companyon / 

Syr, how do you fare ] Sijrj comment vous portes f f 

I fare wel. Je porta bene-f. 

Howe doth my father and mother 1 

comment se porte mon peer et me mater jf ? 

Ryght wel, blessed be God ! Treshien, benoyst soyt Dieu 1 * 

I praye you that ye commend me to my father and to 

all my good frendes. 
le vous prie que me commendes a mon pere et a tovs mes 

hons amys.* 
Whyche is the right way for to go from hens to Parys 1 
Quele est la droyt\ voye pour alier dicy a Paris ? 
Syr, you must hold the way on the ryght hand. 
Syr, il vos fault teriyr le cliymin a la droits mayn. 
Tel me yf ther be any good lodgyng. 
Dictes sil y a poynt de bon logis. 
There is ryght good lodgyng. 
Hi en y a vng tresbon logis.-f 

My frend, God thanke you ! ^Mon amy, Dieu marces, 
Syr, God be wyth you ! I must depart. 

* ▼inci AB ; 1 for vingt et. * onkante AB. ^ K .ii. back. 

* These seem to me genuine French of Rabelais' time. — 
C. Cassal. 

f These must be by a travelling Brown, Jones, or Robin- 
son. — C. Casaal. 



CHAP. XXVII.] INTRODUCTION. FRENCH. AQUITAINE. 193 

Syre, Dieu soit auecques vous, car me fault departer.* a talk in French 

fare wel ! adewe ! 

dame, God saue^ you ! Dame, Dieu vous salu! 

You be welcome ! Vov^ estes Men veneul* 

Dame, shall I be here wel logyd 1 

Dame, seray ie icy hien loge ? 

ye, syr, ryght wel. Ouy, syr, tresbien. 

Now geue me som wyne. Or done may def uyru 

Geue me bred, done moy dej- pane. 

Dame, is al redy to supper ? 

[Dame, est tout pret a souper -f?] ^ 

Ye, syr, whan it pleaseth you. 

Ouy, syr, quant il vov^ plaira. 

Syr, much good do it you ! Syr, bon preu vous face / * 

I pray you, mak good chere ! 

Ie vous prye, fades bon chere / 

Now tell me what I shall pay. 

Or me dictes combien Ie ^ ^^ayera.f 

Ye haue in all eyght shyllynges. 

Vous aues en tout huyt sous.* 

Syr, God geue you a good i^yght, and good rest I 

Syr, Dieu vous doynt bon nuy et bon repose I * 

My frend, if you do speke, take hede to thy selfe ! 

Man amy, si tu paries, gard a toy I 

To speke to much is a dangerous * thynge. 

Le trop parler est danger eus.^ Aquitaine 

IT Here is to be noted, that I, in al the countres that 
euer I dyd trauyl in, Aquitany, — the whyche is wyth-in 
the precynt of Fraunce, and on of the vttermost prouinces 
of ^Fraunce, Langadok except, the which Aquytany isthemostpienti- 
pertainth by ryght to the crowne of Englond, as Gas- country for bread 
cony and Bion and Normandy doth, — whych is the most *° ^"*** 
plentifuUist couTitry for good bred & wyne, consideiyng 

* f See notes on last page. 
' same A. * not in A, but in B. ' ye AB. 

* dargerous A ; dangerous B. ' daugereus A ; dangereus B. 
** K .ill. not signed. 
BOORDE. 13 



194 



FRENCH UNIVERSITIES. CATALONIA. [CH. XXVII, XXVIII. 



A pen'orth of 
cakes lasted me 9 
days in Aquitaine. 



Languedoc is : 
noble country. 



Toulouse. 



Montpelier 
is the noblest 
Medical Uni- 
versity in the 
world. 



The Emperor of 
Austria dwells 
in Catalonia. 



the good chep,^ that I was euer in ; ^ a peny worth of 
whyte bread in Aquitany ^ may serue an honest man a 
hoole weke ; for he shall'* haue, whan I was ther, .ix. 
kakyg for a peny ; and a kake serued me a daye, & so 
it wyll any man, excepte he be a rauenner. the bred is 
not so good^ chepe, but the wyne & other vittels is in 
lyke maner good chepe. Aquytany ioynetli to Langwa- 
dock, the whych Langwadock is a noble country, and 
plentyful, as Aquytany is : ther is muche wode grow- 
yng, specially from Tolose to Mount-piliour. Tolose & 
Mount-pyliour be vniuersites. in Tolose regneth treue 
lustyce & equitie : of al the places that euer I dyd com 
in, MuTipilior is the most nobilist vniuersite of the 
world for phisicions and surgions. I can not geue to 
greate a prayse to Aquitane and Langwadock,^ to Tolose 
and Mountpiliour. 



The xxviii. chapter treateth of 

Catalony and of the kyngedome 

of Aragon, and of the natu- 

rall dysi30sycyon of the 

people, and of theyr 

money and^ 

of theyr 

spech. 



IF I am borne in Catalony ; the Emproure dwelleth 

wy th mee ; ^ 
Why he so doth, I can not tel the. 

' chepe B (bargain, cheapness). 

' Compare the end of Chapter xxxii. p. 206, " Aquitany 
hath no felow for good wj'ne & bred." 

^ Aquiany A ; aquiani B. * for " should." 

^ god A ; good B. ^ langadwoen AB. 

' B has for this cut, the king's head on p. 175. 
* and of A. ^ " mee " is not in A, but is in B. 




OHAP. XXVIII.] INTRODUCTION. ARAGON, CATALONIA. 195 

^ Whan I fayght^ with the Mors, I set al at sixt or seuyn; 
He that is in hel thynketh no other heuen. 4 

And I -was borne ' in Aragon, where that I do dwel. 
Masyl* baken, and sardyns, I do eate and sel, in Aragon we eat 

The whych doth make Englyshe mens chykes lene, sardines, to 
That neuer after to me they wyll come agene : 8 disgust!™^" ^ 

Thus may you know howe that we do fare, 
The countres next vs al be very bare ; 
We haue no chere but by the se syd, 
Although our countres be both large and wyde. 12 

Castyll, and Spane, and we, kepe on vse ; we're like castiiie 

They that leke not vs, let them vs refuce^ ; 
And playnly now I tell you my intencyon, 
My rayment I chaunge not from the olde fashion. 16 
IT Catalony, whych is a prouince, and Aragon whych 
is a kyngdome, be anexed to gider.® the Emproure doth The Emperor 
ly much in Catalony, for in those partes he hath not 
only Catalony vnder hys dominion, but also he hath the 
kyngdom of Aragon, the kyngdom of Spayne, the kyng- 
dome of Castil, and Biscay, and part of the kingdom of 
Nauer. The countres of Catalony and Aragon, except it and Aragon 
it be by the see syde and great townes, is poer & euyl muci» fruit, 
fare, & worse lodgyng ; yet ther is plenty of fruit, as ^'"«8''*"*'«»' 
fygges, Poudganades,^ Orenges, & such lyke. the chefe 
townes of Catalony is called Barsalone, and Tarragon, Barcelona, 
and Newe Cartage, in Aragon the chefe towne is called cartage^niu 
Cesor Augusta^; nowe it is called Sarragose. thorowe sarragossa. 
Aragon doth rone a noble ryuer called Iber. the spech Ebro nver. 
of Catalony & Aragon is Castilion; how be it they dyffer 
in certene wordes, theyr vsage, theyr maner & fashyons, 
is much after the Spainierdes fashions ; theyr mony is Folks' ways like 
diuerce coynes of the Emperour, for all maner coynes of 
the Emperour goeth ther. 

' K .ii. back. ' faught B. 

' brone A ; borne B. * Mesyl B. * refuse B. 

• gither B, ' pomgranates. * angusta A. 

1 ^ # 



196 



OF SEVILLE AND PORTUGAL. 



[chap. 



XXIX. 




The xxix. Chapter treateth of Andalase, of Cyuel, 

and of the kyngedome of Portyngale, and of the 

natural dysposicyon of the people, and of 

ther speche, and of theyr money. 



Andalasia. 



SevUle. 



Portugal sells 
fipices and wine. 



I was borne in Andalase 

Wher many marchantes commeth to me, 

Some to bay,2 and some to sel ; 

In our marchantes ^ we sped ful wel. 

And I was borne in Cyuel, lackyng nothyng ; 

Al nacions, marchauntes to me doth bryng. 

And I was borne in the kyngdome of Portyngale ; 

Of spices & of Wyne I do make great sale. 

By marchauntes, al my country doth stond 

Or els had I * very poer land. 

Yf any man for marchauntes ^ wyl come to vs. 

Let hym bryng with hym a good fat purse, 

Than shal they haue of vs theyr full intencion. 



12 



• K .iiii. not signed. ^ bey B. 

* I a B. * merchaundices B. 



' marchandes B. 



CHAP. XXIX.J 



INTRODUCTION. OP PORTUGAL. 



197 



^ And know that in our payment we kepe the olde 

fashion. 

Portyngale is a rych angle, specially by the See side, 

for the comon corse of marchaunte straungers. the 

kyng of Portyngale is a marchaunte, & doth vse mar- 

chauntes.2 Lustborne and Acobrynge be the chefe 

townes of Portyngale. The countre stondeth much by 

spyces, fruites, and wyne. The Portingales seketh theyr 

lyuynge fare by the see, theyr money is brasse and fyne 

golde. In bras theyhaue marinades ^ and myttesand other 

smale peces ; in gold they haue cursados worth 

.V. s. a pece; they haue also portingalus, 

the whych be worth .x. crownes a pece. the 

spech of Portingale is Castilyone ; how 

be it in some certen wordes they 

doth swerue from the true Cas- 

tilion speche. The men 

and the women and 

the maydens 

doth vse 

theyr 

rament after the fashion of the Spainierdes, the 

men hauyng pold hedes, or els her handgyng 

one there* shoulders; and the^ maydens 

be poled, hauynge a^ gar- 

lond about the lower 

part lyke a 

Barfote 

Frier. 



Portugal is used 
by merchants. 



Lisbon and 
Alcoutrin (?V 



Portuguese 
money : 
maravedies, 

gold crusados, 

and portingales. 



Portuguese 
speecli is nearly 
Castilian. 



The folk dress 
like Spaniards. 



Girls crop their 
crowns, and leave 
a rim like a 
friar's. 



' K .iiii. back. ' marchauwdes B. ' marmades AB. 
* out that A ; one there B. * that A ; ther B. 

• at A ; a B. 



198 



SPAIN, BISCAY, AND CASTILLE. 



[chap. XXX. 




The .XXX. chapter treateth of the 

natural disposicion ^ of Spanyardes, 

of the countrey, of the money, 

and of the speche. 



I wander about, 
to pick up a poor 
living. 



I have very 
I)oor fare. 



Spain inland is 
very poor. 



Biscay and Cas- 
tille are very 
barren. 



Sardines. 



I am a Spaynyard, and Castylyon T can speke ; 

In dyuers conntreys I do wander and peke ; 

I do take great labour, and also great payne ; 

To get a poore lyuyng I am glad and fayne ; 4 

In my countrey I haue very poore fare, 

And my house and my lodgyng is very bare. 

A Spanyshe cloke I do vse for to were, 8 

To hyde mine olde cote and myn other broken gere. 

IT Spayne is a very poore countrey within the 
realme, & plewtyful by the sea syde ; for al theyr riches 
& marchauntes ^ they bryng to the sea syde. I know 
nothing, wit/iin the countre, of ryches, but come. Bys- 
kay & Castyle is vnder Spayne; these countreys be 
baryn of wine and come, and skarse of vitels ; a ma/i 
shall not get mete in many places for no mony ; other 
whyle you shall get kyd, and mesell bakyn, and salt 
sardyns, which is a lytle fyshe as bydg^ as a pylcherd, 



* sign. L .i. 
^ merchandise. 



' dispocion A ; disposicion B. 
* bydge B. 



199 



Wine kept in 
goat skins. 



CH. XXX, XXXI.] INTRODUCTION, SPAIN, CASTILLE. 

& they be rosty. al your wyne shalbe kepte ^and 
caryed in gote skyns, & the here syde shalbe inwarde, 
and you shall draw your wyne^ out of one of the legges 
of the skyne. whan you go to dyner & to supper, you 
must fetch your bread in one place, and your wyne in a 
nother place, and your meate in a nother place; & 
hogges in many places shalbe vnder your feete at the 
table, and lice in your bed. The cheife cities and 
townes in Spayne is Burges & Compostel. many of the 
people doth go barlegged. the maydens be polyd lyke 
freers ; the women haue siluer ringes on theyr eres, & 
coppyd thinges standeth vpon theyr hed, within ther 
kerchers, lyke a codpece or a gose podynge.^ In Spayne 
there money is brasse, siluer, & gold ; in brasse they 
haue marivades *; .xxv. marivades * is worth an Eng- 
lyshe grote : they haue there styuers. In siluer they 
haue ryals & halfe ryalles ; a ryal is worth .v.d.ob. in 
golde they haue duccates and doble duccates. there 
speche is Castylyon. 



The .xxxi. chapter tretyth of the 
kyngdome of Castyle, & of Bys- 
cay^and of the natural disposicion 
of the people, and of there money 
& of theyr speche. 



Hogs under the 
table, and lice 
ill beds. 

Burgos. 
Compostella. 



Women's liead- 
dress. 



Spanish money ; 
maravedios, 
stivers, 
reals, 5^(7. 




IF In the kyngdome of Castell borne I was, 
And though I be poer, on it I do not passe ; 

' L .i. back. * wynde A ; wyne B. 

' Cp p. 185, and in chap, xxxiii. p. 207. * marmades AB. 
* B has for this cut, the king's head on p. 175. See too p. 
194. « by scat AB. 



1 am pfwir. 



200 BISCAY, CASTILLE : BURIAL-CUSTOMS. [OHAP. XXXI. 

Where so euer I do goe or ryde, 
but wear a skean. My cloke I wyl haue, and my skayne by my syde. 4 
Biscay is a poor And I was borno in the prouince of Byscay ^ ; 
My countrey is poer ; who can say nay 1 
And though we haue no pastor nor grandge, 
Yet our olde fashyon we do not chaunge. 8 

CastiUe is very 2 ^ Qastyle is a kyngdome lyinge by twyxte Spayne 

barren. , . 

and iiyscay ; it is a very baron couwtrey, ful of pouerte. 

Castles; there be many fayre and proper Castels, plenty of 

mills to forge aples & of sJder, and there be great water mylles to 

forge yrone, & theyr be great mountaynes & hilles, and 

euill fare, [and] lodgyng; the best fare is in prestes 

Priests keep houses, for they do kepe typlynge houses, and loke, 

tippling houses. 

how you be serued in Spayne and Neuer, shal you be 
serued in Castyle. the chief towne of Castile is called 

Toledo. Tolet. Palphans made the tables of astronimye. In 

all these countreys, yf any man, or woman, or chylde. 

When any one do dye j at thcyr burying, and many other tymes after 

dies, others cry 

out. that they be buryed, they wyl make an exclamacyon^ 

Why did you saving, " why dvdest thou dye 1 haddest not thou good 

die? Youhad ^ '^' ^ / ^*^, i-,i-,,T 

friends and gold.' frecndes ] myghtyst not thou haue had gold and syluer, 
& ryches and good clothynge? for why diddest thou 
die ] " crying and clatryng many suche folysh wordes ; 
and commonly euery day they wyll bryng to church a 

They put a cloth cloth, or a pilo carpit, and cast ouer the graue, and set 

and food over the . , •, o i n i i i x-l j-t. 

grave, and cry oucr it, bread, wyue & candyllyght ; and than tney 

wyll pray, and make suche a folyshe exclamacion, as I 

sayd afore, that al the churche shall rynge ; this wyll 

they doe although theyr freendes dyed .vii. y ere before; 

& thys folysh vse is vsyd in Bisca, Castyle, Spayne, 

castiiian money : Aragou & Naucrrc. their moncy is goldc and brassc I in 

ducats, golde they haue single and duble duccates ; and all 

maravediea, good gold gocth there, in brasse they haue marivades,* 

stivers. and stiuers, & other brasse money of the Emperours 

* vyscay A ; byscay B. ' L .ii. not signed. 
» Compare the Welsh, p. 126. 

* marmades or marinades A ; marmades B. 



CHAP. XXXI.] INTRODUCTION. CASTILIAN SPEECH. 201 

coyne. who so that will leame to speake some Casti- 
lion, — Englishe and Castilion doth folowe. 

One. two. thre. foure. fyue. syx. seuen. eyght. nyne. castiuan (or 

vna. das. tros. quarter, since, sisse. saeto. echo, naive, numerals. 

tene. aleuen. twelue. thertene. fouertene. fyftene. 

diece. onze. dose. treerse. qaartorse. quynse. 

syxtene. seuentene. eyghtene. nyntene. twenty. 

dezisys. dezisyeto. desyocho. desinoiie. veynto. 

therty. forty. fyfty. syxte. seuente. 

* trenta. quarenta. cynquenta. sesenta. setenta, 

eyghte. nynte. a hondred. a thousand. 

ochenta. noventa. cyento. mylyes. 

Syr, God geue you a good day ! 

senyor, Dies as be^ bonas diasl 

God saue you, syr ! Dies vos salue, senyor t a talk m cas- 

How do you fare 1 quomodo stat cum vostro corps^ ? ana Engiwu. 

I do well, thankes he to God ! 

le sta* ben, gracyas a Deos I 

What wold you^ haue, syr ? he heris, senyor t 

I would haue some meate. kero comer. 

Come wyth me, I am hungre. 

Veni connigo^y tengo appetito de comer. 

Much good do it you ! bona pro os haga. 

you be welcome, wyth all my harte 

Seas been venedo, com todo el corason. 

Wyll you drynke, syr ? kerys beuer, senyor ? 

It pleaseth me well, byen me pleze. 

Speke that I may vnderstand you. halla ke tu entende"^. 

I do not vnderstand you, syr ! non entiende, senyor. 

I do vnderstande Castylion, but I cannot speke it. 

lo lo entendo Castyliona ; lo no saue hablar. 

I do thank you ! mochos mecedo 1 

' L .11. back. * de.—E. H. Gibbs. 

' Dog- Latin, not Spanish. — F. W. Cosens. 

* For lo sto.—B. H. Gibbs. » ye B. 

^ For Ven or ben conmigo. — F. W. C. 

' For * hahla que tu entiende.'— F. W. C. 



202 



OP NAVARRE. THE COCK AND HEN OP ST DOMINGO. [CH. XXXII. 




We eat Sardines 
aud Bacon. 



We're now friends 
with our old foes 
tlie French. 



The people of 
Navarre are poor 
and thievish. 



Pampehma. 



St Domingo 
has a church with 
a white cock and 
hen. 



The .xxxii. chapter treteth of the 
kiwgdome of Nauer, and of the 
naturall disposicyow of the peo- 
ple, and of theyr mone^' 
and of theyr 
speche. 



2 In the kyn[g]dome of Nauer I was brought vp, 
Where there is lytle meate to dyne or suppe ; 
Sardyns and bacon shall fynde the Spanyard and me, 
Wyth suche meate we be contente in all our countre ; 
What wolde other men, other meate craue 1 
Such meate as we do eate, such shall they haue. 
In my apparell I do kepe the olde raate ; 
The Fraunch ^ men with me preforse be at baate, 
Not now, but in olde tymes past ; 
For now our amyte is full fast. 

The kyndome* of Nauer is ioynynge^ to Spayne 
and to Fraunce, & to Catalony, and to Castyle, for it 
dothe stand in the midle of these ^ iiii. countres. The 
people be rude and poore, and many theues, and they 
dothe Hue in much pouerte and penury ; the countrey 
is barayn, for it is ful of mountayns And weldernes ; 
yet haue they much corne. The chiefe towne is Pam- 
pilona, and there is a nother towne called saynt Do- 
myngo, in the whyche towne there is a churche, in the 
whyche is kept a whit cock and a bene. And euery 
pilgreme that goeth or commyth that way to saynct 

' The corner is not broken in A. ' L .iii. not signed. 
'^ frenche B. * kingdome B. * iunynge AB. ** the B. 



CH. XXXII.] INTRODUCTION. ST DOMINGO IN NAVARRE. 203 

lames in Compostell, hath a whit feder to set on hys hat. 

The cocke and the hen is kepte there for this intent ;^ — The story of the 

white Cock and 

There was a yonge man hanged in that towne that Henotst 

wolde haue gone to saynct lames in Co?7ipostell ; he was 

hanged vniustlv ; for ther ^ was a wenche the whych ^ ^ench wanted 

o •' ' *^ to have a young 

wolde haue had hym to medyll with her carnally ; the pilgrim, 
yonge man refraynyng from hyr desyre, and the whenche He refused her. 
repletyd with malyce for the sayd cause, of an euyll 
pretence conueyed a syluer peece into the bottom of the she put a silver 

■^ o t ^ coin m his scrip, 

yonge mans skrip. he, wyth his father & mother, & 
other pylgrems, going forthe in theyr lurney, the sayde 
whenche raysed offycers of the towne to pei'sew after and sent officers 

•^ "^ ^ after him. 

3 the pylgryms,'* and toke them, fyndynge the aforesayd 
peace in the younge mannes scryp : Wherfore they 
brought to the towne the yong man ; and [he] was con- 
demned to be hawged, and was hanged vppon a payre of The piignm was 

hanged for 

galowes, — Whosoeuer that is hanged by-yonde see, shall robbery, 

neuer be cutte nor pulled downe, but shall hange styll 

on the galowes or lebet. — the father and the mother of 

the younge manne, with other of the pylgryms, went 

forthe in theyr pilgrymage. And whan they returned 

agayne, they went to the sayd galows to pray for the ^^^' though on 

yong mans soule. whaw they dyd come to the place, 

The yonge man did speke, & sayd " I am not ded : God st james kept 

"^ ° r > J } him alive, and 

and his seruaunte saynt lames hathe here^ preserued me he sent for tiie 

. . Justice to let him 

a lyue. Therfore go you to the lustis of the towne, & down. 

byd him come liyther and let me down." vpow the 

which wordes they went to the Justice, he syttyng at 

supper, hauyng in his dyshe two greate chykens ; the 

one was a hen chik, and the other a cock chyk. the The justice, on 

hearing the 

messcTigers shewyng him this wonder, & what he story, said, 
should do, the iustice sayd to them, "This tale that you 'it's as true as 

' J ' -^ thatmy2cookt 

haue shewed me is as treue as these two chekenes before 

' intentent A ; intent B. ' that A ; ther B. ' L .lii. back. 

* A wrongly repeats *' goyonge forthe in theyr lorney, the 
sayde Wenche raysed offycers of the towne to persue after the 
pylgryms." ^ ther A ; here B. 



204 



NO HAIR OR BONE OP ST JAMES IN COMPOSTELLA. [CH. XXXII. 



chickens will 
crow.' 

On which the 
chickens did 
crow ; and the 
hanged pilgrim 
was taken off the 
gallows. 



This is why the 
white cock and 
hen &re kept. 



I dwelt in Com- 
postella to get at 
the truth of 
things; 

and there's no 
hair or bone of 
St James, in 
Compostella. 



I was shriven by 
an old blear-eyed 
Doctor of 
Divinity there. 



and he told me 
how the clergy 
deceived the 
people, as none 
of St James's 
hairs or bones 
were there. 



mee in thys dysshe doth stonde vp and crowe." & as 
sone as the wordes ware spoken, they stode in the 
platter, & dyd crowe; wher vpon the lustyce, wyth 
processyon, dyd fetche in, a lyue frome the galows, that 
sayd yong man. & for a remenibraunce of this stiipen- 
dyouse thynges, the prestes and other credyble persons 
shewed me that they do kepe styl in a kaig ^ in the 
churche a white cocke and a hen. I did se a cock and 
a hen ther in the churche, and do tell the fable as it 
was tolde me, not of three or .iiii. parsons, hut of 
many ; but for ^ all this, take thys tale folowyng for a 
suerte. I dyd dwel in Compostell, as I did dwell in 
many partes of the world, to se & to know the trewth 
of many thynges, & I assure you that there is not one 
heare nor one bone of saint lames in Spayne in Com- 
postell, but only, as they say, his stafe, and the chayne 
the whyche he was bounde wyth all in prison, and the 
syckel or hooke,^ the whyche doth lye vpow the myddell 
of the hyghe aulter, the whych (they sayd) dyd saw and 
cutte of the head of saint lames the more, for whome 
the confluence of pylgrims resorteth to the said place. 
I, beynge longe there, and illudyd, was shreuen of an 
auncyent doctor of dyuynite, the which was blear yed, — 
and, whether it was to haue my counsell in physycke or 
no, I passe ouer, but I was shreuen of hym, — and after 
my absolucion he sayd to me, ** I do maruaile greatly 
that our nation, specially our clergy and they, and the 
cardynalles of Compostell " (they be called ^cardynalles' 
there, the whyche be head prestes ; and there they haue 
a cardjmall that is called " cardinal[i]s maior," the great 
cardynal, and he but a prest, and goeth lyke a prest, 
and not lyke the cardinalles of Rome,) " doth illude, 
mocke, and skorne, the people, to do Idolatry, making 
ygnorant people to worship the thyng that is not here, 
we haue not one heare nor bone of saynct lames ; for 
' kaige B. ^ L .iiii. not signed. ^ booke A ; hooke B. 



en. XXXII.] INTRODUCTION^. BOOTIDE'S HELP TO PILGRIMS. 206 

Baynct lames the more, and saynct lames the lesse, 
sainct Bartilmew, & ' sainct Philyp, saynt Symond and 
lude, saynt Barnarde & sanct George, with dyuerse other 
saynctes, Carolus magnus brought theym to Tolose, P'^'"'^??^*^® 
prete7iding to haue had al tlie appostels bodies or bones to Toiouse, 
to be co?2gregated & brought together into one place in 
saynt Seuerins church in Tolose, a citie in Lawgawdocke." to st severin's 
therefor I did go to the citie & vniuersite of Tolose, & i went there to 

know the truth, 

2 there dwelt to knowe the trueth ; & there it is known and saw the 
by olde autentyck wryttinges & scales, the premyses to 
be of treuth ; but thes words can not be beleued of in- 
cipient parsons,^ specially of some Englyshe men and 
Skotyshe men; for whan I dyd dwell in the vniuersite when i was at 

. 1 T 1 . -I Orleans, I met 9 

of Orlyawce, casually going ouer the bredge into the English and 

towne, I dyd mete with .ix. Englyshe and Skotyshe to com^stefia!"^ 

parsons goyng to saynt Compostell, a pylgrymage to 

saynt lames. I, knowyng theyr pretence, aduertysed 

them to returne home to England, saying that " I had i toid them how 

hard a journey 

rather to goe .v. tymes out of England to Rome, — and it was, 

so I had in dede, — thaw ons* to go from Orlyance to 

Compostel;" saying also that "if I had byn worthy to 

be of the kyng of Englandes counsel, such parsons ^ as 

wolde take such iornes ^ on them wythout his lycences, 

I wold set them by the fete.^ And that I had rather 

thev^ should dye in England thorowe my industry, than and that it woiud 

•' JO J J) kill them. 

they^ to kyll them selfe by the way : " wyth other 
wordes I had to them of exasperacyon. They, not re- 
gardyng my wordes nor sayinges, sayd that they wolde But they would 

go; 

go forth in theyr iourney, and wolde dye by the way 
rather than to returne home. I, hauynge pitie they 
should be cast a way, poynted them to my hostage, and 
went to dispache my busines in the vniuersyte of Or- 
liaunce. And after that I went wyth them in theyr iur- so i went with 

them, 
> to AB. * L .iiii. back. 

' insipiewt (unwise, foolish) persons B. * then once B. 
* persons B. ^ iorneys B. ' In the stocks or prison ? 
» that thei B. then thei B. 



206 



HARDSHIPS OF TRAVEL IN SPAIN. [cil. XXXII, XXXIII. 



and, after nearly 
starving in 
Biscay, we got 
to Compostella, 



But, in their 
return, all 9 
Pilgrims died. 



I'd rather go 5 
times to Rome 
tlian once to 
Compostella l.y 
land. 



I kist the ground 
lor joy when I 
got back to 
Aquitaine 



Money of 
Navarre. 




ney thorow Fraunce, and so to Burdious & Byon ; & than 
we entred into the baryn countrey^ of Byskay and Cas- 
tyle, wher we coulde get no meate for money ; yet wyth 
great honger we dyd come to Compostell, where we had 
plentye of meate and wyne ; but in the retornyng 
thorow Spayn, for all the crafte of Physycke that I 
coulde do, they dyed, all by eatynge of frutes and 
drynkynge of water, the whych I dyd euer refrayne 
my selfe.2 And I assure all the worlde, that I had 
rather goe .v. times to Rome oute of ^Englond, than ons 
to Compostel : by water it is no pain, but by land it is 
the greatest iurney that an Englyshmaw may go. and 
whan I returnyd, and did come into Aquitany, I dyd 
kis the ground for ioy, surrendring thankes to God that 
I was deliuered out of greate daungers, as well from 
many theues, as from honger and colde, and thai I was 
come into a plentiful country ; for Aquitany hath no 
felow for good wyne & bred.^ in Nauerne theyr spech 
is Castilion : theyr money is gold and brasse ; in golde 
they haue crownes ; in brasse they haue Frenche money, 
and the Emprours money. 



^ The .xxxiii. chapter treateth of 

Bion, and of Gascony, and of Ly tie 

Briten, and of the natural dis- 

posicion of the people,^ and of 

theyr money and of 

theyr speche. 



' countres B. See pp. 199, 200, above. 

^ See Boorde's Brenyary, ch. C.xxii., extracted in 
the Forewords, p. 74, as to his hydrophobia, or dislike 
of water. 

^ sign. M .i. * See chapter xxvii. p. 193-4. 

* treateth of the natural disposicion of the people 
of Bion and of Gascony, and of lytle briten— B. 



CHAP. XXXIII.] INTRODUCTION. OP BATONNE AND GASCONY. 207 

I was borne in Bion : ens ' English I was : Bayonne, once 

° English. 

if I had be so styl, I wold not gretly pas. 

And I was brought vp in gentyl Gascony ; Gascony. 

For my good wyne I get money. 4 

And I was borne in Litle Britten ; Brittany. 

Of al nacions, I [hate] free Englyshe men : 

Whan they be angry, lyke bees they do swarme ; 

1 be-shromp them, they haue don me much harme. 8 
Although I iag my hosen & my garment rounde aboute, i jag my clothes 

2 Yet it is a vantage to pick pendiculus owt. 10 ^^^ °" '*^' 

IT As tochinge Byon, the towne is commodiouse, but 
the country is poer and barin, in the whiche be many 
theues. ther is a place calyd the hyue ; it is fyuete or The Hive. 
.Ix. myle ouer ; there is nothynge but heth, and there 
is no place to haue succour with-in vii. or eyght myles ; 
and than a man shal haue but a typling house. The 
women of Byon be dysgysed as players in enterludes women of 
be, with long raiment; the sayd clokes hath hodes their cloaks and 
sewed ^ to them, and on the toppe of the hod is a thyng 
like a poding bekyng forward.* 

Gascony is a commodiouse country, for ther is plenty Gascony. 
of wyne, bred, & come, and other vytells, and good 
lodgyng and good chere, and gentle people. The chefe 
towne of Gascony is Burdiouse, and in the cathedrall Bordeaux. 
Churche of saint Andreus is the fairist and the gretest Grand pair of 
payer of Orgyns in al Crystendome, in the whyche Andrew's church, 
Orgins be many instrumentes and vyces, as Giants^ wag thekjaws.* 
beds and sterres, the whych doth moue and wagge with 
their iawes and eyes as fast as the player playeth. Lytle 
Brytane is a " proper and a commodiouse countre, of Brittany is a 
Wyne, come, fysh, fleshe; & the people be hygh "^"^ " c^"" ^y- 
mynded & stubborne. These .iii. coimtres speketh 
French, and vseth euery thyng, as wel in ther mony & 

* once (before 1451-2). ^ sign. M .i. back. ' swed A : sewed B. 

* Compare the description of the Spanish women's heads in chapter xxx. 
p. 199, and the Venetian Doge's cap, p. 185. 

* Gians A ; Giants B. 

1 ^ 



208 

Rochelle, 
ilorlaix. 




OP NORMANDY AND PICARDY. [CHAP. XXXIV. 

fashions, as French men doth. Rochel & Moiies is 
praysed in Briten to be the best townes. 



^ The .xxxiiii. chapter treateth of 

Normandy & Picarde, and of 

the natural disposicioTz of 

the people, and of theyr 

spech and mony. 



we wish we were 
furtlier from 
Knglish in- 
vasions. 



2 IT I was borne and brougt vp in gentyl Normandy ; 
And I am a man dwellyng in Pycardy ; 
We border vpon England ; I wolde we war forder of ; 
For whan warre is, they maketh vs take the oof ; 4 
For than we do watche both nyght and day, 
To prepare ordynaunce to kepe them away. 
Yet we wyl kepe new fashyons of Fraunce, 
Much lyke to players that is redy to daunce. 8 

IT Normandy is a pleasaunt and a comodiouse 
coUTitrey, in the whiche be many good Cities & townes, 
specyallye be these, which is to say, Rone-^, Cane, and 
Seno, withe many other, in Cane and Seno is good 
Canuis made, the people be after a gentil sort. Nor- 
mawdy doth partaine to England, and so doth al 
Frauwce by right many wayes, amonge the whyche I 
wyll resyte one thynge, that yf Fraunce ware not Eng- 
land, king Henry the sixt should not haue ben crowned 
kinge of Fraunce in Parys, he being in his cunables*, 
and an infant. Pycardy is a good countrey ioynyng to 

' B has no wood-cut. The one above is the upper part of the right-hand 
cut that Wynkyn de Worde uses for Kobert the Devil in his Rolcrt the Deuylly 
sign. C .ij. back, and D .iv. back. ^ sign. M .ii. 

* Rome AB, for Rouen ; Caen and Sens. 

* tunables B. cunahlcs is cradle, no doubt. 



NormandT. 



Rouen; Caen 
and Sens, where 
canvas is made. 



All Prance be- 
longs to England, 
by rights. 



Picardy. 



CH. XXXIV, XXXV.] INTRODUCTION. PICARDT, ETC. 



209 



Calys. The countrey is plentyfull of wood, wyne, and Picardy. 

corne ; how be it naturally they be aduersaries to 

Cales. Bolyn, in my mynde, is the best town of Py- Boulogne is oaw. 

Henry VIII won 

cardy. * Boleyn is now ours by conquest of Eyall it. 
kyng Hewry the eyght.^ 

IT Here is to be noted, that in thys matter par- I've now treated 
trattyng of Europ, I shew at the begynnyng of this 
boke : If a man wolde go out of England, or other 
landes anexed to the same, he^ should go to Calis;^ and from Calais, 
from Calys I haue set the cyrcuyte or the cercumferens 
of Europ, whyche is al Chrystendome, and am come to and back to 

Calais. 

Calys agayn, wherfore I wyll speke no more of Europe, 
but only a chapter of Latyne, and than I wyll speke of 
other countreys of AfFryck and Asya. 






tbelatpnwatu 





This passage is omitted in the Lothbury edition of 1562 or 1563, 
Boulogne having been restored to France by Edward VI in 1550. See Fore- 
words, p. 18. ^ AB have no "he." 

•' See the end of Chapter vii, and Chapter viii above, p. 146. 
* sign. M .ii. back. 

BOORDE. 14 



210 THE LATIN MAN AND THE ENGLISH MAN. [cHAP. XXXV. 

^ The .XXXV. chapter treateth of the Latyn man and 
'the Englysh maw, & where Laten is most vsed. 

I can show my H I am a Latjii man, and do dwel in euery place ; 

Europe. Thoiow al Europ 1 I dare shew my face ; 

Italy has cor- Wvth the Romans and Italyon I haue dwelled longe ; 

rupted my speech, 

and I shall leave I wyl seke othei nacioijs, for they haue done wronge 

In corruptyng my tonge and my ryalte, 5 

Wherfore in other nacyons I loue to dwel and be, 
And wher I shalbe dayly accept and vsed, 
Regardyng not them where I am abused. 8 

A responcion of the Englysh man. 
To England I am I am an Englyshman ; Latyn, welcome to me ! 

welcome. 

They know Latin In thy tounge I am wel sped, & neuer was in thy 

couwtre ; 
2 For thou arte indyfferent here and in ^ euery place, 
If a man wyll study, and lerne the bokes a pace ; 12 
Wherfore bitwixt thee & me we wyl haue some altera- 

cion, 
That vnlerned men may know parte of our intencion. 

Englyshe, and some Latyne, doth folowe. 

A talk in English f Hclth be to the, now and euer ! 
Salus tibi, nunc et in euum ! ^ 
I thanke the hartly, and thou art welcome ! 
Immortalem haheo tihigraciam, Sf gratissimeaduenisti! 
What countrey man art thou ^ Cuias es ? 
I was borne in England, and brought vp at Oxforde. 
Natus eram in Anglia, et educatus Oxoni. 
Doest not thou know me % noscis ne me? 
I know thee not Minime te nosco.^ 
What is thy name 1 Cuius nominis es ? 
My name is Andrew Borde. 
Andreas parforatus est meum nomen, 

* Erop AB. ' M .iii. not signed. ^ A leaves out B's "in." 

* enum A ; et enum B. ' nosca AB. 



CHAP. XXXV.,] INTRODUCTION. A LATIN TALK. 211 

How haue you fared many a day 1 a talk in Latin 

Qita valitvdine fuisti longo iam tempore? "^ ^ " 

I haue faryd very wel, thankes be to God ! 

Optime me hahui; graciarum acciones sunt Deo . 

I am very glad of it. Plurimum gaudio inde. 

Whyther dost thou go now ? Quoits tendis mjodo f 

I go towerd London. Versus Londinum lustro. 

What hast thou to do ther 1 Quid illic tihi negoci est? 

I shal ease my mynd ther % 

Animx) meo morem gessero illic.^ 

Helth be to you al ! Salv^ sit omnibus ! 

Thou art welcome ! Saluum te aduenisse^ gaudeo I 

* I thanke you. Haheo vobis graciam.* 

Hostes, how do you fare ? Hospica, vt tecum est ? 

I haue fared wel, yf you haue bene welL 

Multa melius me haheo si bene vale. 

Hostes, haue you good meato ? 

Hospitaj est ne hie cibus tantus ? 

Ye, I haue many good dyshes of meate. 

Etiam, sana ^ multa que sunt mihi fercidcu 

Geue me drynke, and also bread. 

Potum da mihi, Insuper et panem. 

I drynke to you all ! propino vobis omnibus ! 

Much good do it you ! prosit vobis I 

Farewel, & God be vrith you al I 

Valetote, et Deu8 vobiscum ! 

Go[o]d night ! Optata requies I 

Farewel, & let them go thai wolde any stryfe be-twyxt vs ! 

Vale I et valeant qui inter nos dissidium volant ! 

' illis AB. ' aduinesse AB. ^ M .iii. back. 

* Habio vobis graoia A ; Habo vobis gracia B. * santa AB. 



1 ^ • 



212 



OF THE MOORS IN BARBARY. [CHAP. XXXVI. 



^ The .xxxvi. chapter treteth of 

the Mores whyche do 

dwel in Barbary. 



Christian men 
bay me as a 
slave. 



I gather figs. 



White Moors and 
Black Moors: 



are bought as 
slaves. 



some cheaper 
than others : 



are not buried 
when they die. 



unless they are 
christened. 



I Am a blake More "borne in Barbary ; ^ 
Chrysten men for money oft doth me bye ; 
Yf I be vnchristend, marchauntes do not care, 
They by me in markets, be I neuer so bare. 4 

Yet wyll I be a good dylygent slaue, 
Although I do stand in sted of a knaue; 
I do gather fygges, and with some I whype my tayle : 
To be angry wyth me, what shal it a-vayle 1 8 

IT Barbary is a great countrey, and plentyfull of 
fnite, wine, & come. The inhabytours be Called the 
Mores : ther be whyte mores and black moors ; they be 
Infydels and vnchristened. There be manye Moores 
brought into ^Christendome, in to great cytes & townes, 
to be sold; and Christenmen do by them, and they 
wilbe diligent, and wyll do al maner of seruice; but 
thei be set most comonli to vile thynges. they be called 
slaues; they do gader^ grapes and fygges, and with 
some of the fygges they wyl wyp ther tayle, & put 
them in the frayle. they haue gret lyppes, and nottyd * 
heare,^ black and curled ; there ^ skyn is soft ; and 
ther is nothing white but their teth and the white of 
the eye. Whan a Marchaunt or anye other man do by 
them, they be not al of one pryce, for some bee better 
cheepe then some; they be soldo after as they can 
werke and do there busines. whan they do dye, they 
be caste in to the watter, or on a dounge hyll, that 
dogges and pyes and crowes may eate them, except 
some of them that be christened ; they be buried, they 



' Barby A ; Barbary B. 
' gader do A ; do gader B. 
* heare is AB. 



' M .iiii. not signed. 

* polled, dipt. 

^ the there A ; there B. 



OHAP. XXXVI.] INTRODUCTION. A TALK IN MOORISH. 213 

do kepe muche of Macomites ^ lawe, as the Turkes do. are Mahometans; 

they haue now a gret captyn called Barbarerouse,^ areiedbyBar- 

whiche is a great warrier. thei doth harme, diuerce 

tyiues, to the lanues, & to Prouynce and Langewa- plunder the 

docke, and other couwtres that do border on them, & for (See p. i89.) 

they wyl come ouer the straytes, & ^ stele pygges, and 

gese, and other thynges. 

IT Who so wyl speke any Moryshe, Englyshe 
and Morysh* doth folow. 
One. two. thre. foure. fyue. syx. seuen. Moorish 

namerals. 

Wada. attenmn. talate. arha. camata. sette. saha. 

eyght. nyne. tene. aleuyn. twelue. thertene. 

tamene. tessa. asshera. hadasshe. atanasshe. telatasshe. 

fortene. fyuetene. syxtene. seuenten. 

arhatasshe. camatasshe. setatasshe. sahatashe. 

eyghtene.^ nyntene. twente. one and twenty, &c. 

tematasshe. tyssatasshe. essherte. wahadaesshertey ^c. 

Good morow ! sahalkyr I a talk in Moorish 

and English. 

Geue me some bread and mylke and chese. 
^Atteyne gohhis, lehen, iuben. 
Geue me wyne, water, flesh, fysh, and egges. 
Atteyne nebet, may, Iag?ie, seniek, heyet. 
Much good do it you ! aahagh! 
You be welcome ! Marrehahahack ! 
I thanke you ! Erthar lake heracke I 
Good nyght ! Mesalkyr! 

' Maconites A (Mahomet's). See next chapter. 

* Heyradin Barbarossa, a Corsair king of Algiers, born 
about 1467, died 1547. — Hale. See Forewords, p. 56. 

^ A has not B's " &." 

* This ' Moiysh ' is undoubted Arabic, but in a very corrupt 
state. . . For instance, * one ' in Arabic is aliad or wahid : what 
are we to do with Boorde's wada? 'Five' is khavisa or 
khamsat : how correct Boorde's camata ? I shall therefore 
correct only a few glaring errors, where one letter has been 
mistaken for another, attennin, arba, tmnetie, hadassfie, 
sabaXkyVy for Boorde's, or his printer's wrong m, a, c, b, s, iu 
these words. — Ch. Rieu. 

* eyghtent A. ^ M .iiii. back. 



214 



OF THE TURKS AIsD TURKEY. [cHAP. XXXVII. 




^ The .xxxvii. Chapter tretyth of the natural dispo- 

sicion of the Turkes, and of Turkey, and of 

theyr money and theyr spech. 

II I am a Turk, and Machamytes law do kepe ; 
I do proll for my pray whan other be a slepe ; 
My law wyllith me no swynes flesh to eate ; 
It shal not greatly forse, for I haue other meate. 
In vsyng my rayment' I am not varyable, 
"Not of promis I am not mutable. 

IT In Turky be many regions & prouynces, for the 
great Turke, whyche is an Emproure, hath, besyd hys 
owne ^possessyons, conqueryd the Sarsons londe, and 
hath obtayned the Sophyes lond, and the ylond of the 
Iloodes,^ with many other preuynces, hauyng it in pes- 

' On Shrove Sunday in Henry VIII's first year, 1509-10, at his banquet in 
the Parliament Chamber at Westminster, " his grace, with the Erie of Essex, 
came in appareled after Turliey fasskion, in long robes of Bawdkin, powdered 
with gold, hattes on their heddes of Crimosyn Veluet, with greate rolles of Gold, 
girded with two swordes called Cimeteries [scimetars], hangyng by greate 
bawderikes of gold." — ffalVs Chronicle, p. 513, ed. 1809. * sign. N .i. 

' See Hall's account of its siege and capture in 1522. — Chronicle, ed. 1809, 
p. 653-5. 



I keep Mahomet's 
laws. 



and don't eat 
pork. 



The Great Turk 
has conquered 
many lands. 



CH. XXXVII.] INTRODUCTION. OF MAHOMET's CRAFT. 215 

able possession, he doth conquere and snbdue, as wel 
by polyce and gentylnes, as by hys fettes of ware, in 
Turkey is cheppe of vittyls, & plenty of wyne & come. Turkey is a 

•^ ^^ J » r J J cheap and fertile 

The Turkes hath a law called Macomites law, and the country. 

booke that there lawe is wrytten in, is called the Al- 

karon. Macomyt, a false felow, made it ^ ; he sedused Aicoran. 

the people vnder thys maner : he dydbryng vp a done, Mahomet and wa 

and would put .ii. or thre pesen in his eare, & she his Dove, 

would euery day come to his eare and eate the peason, 

and then the people would thynke the holy goost, or an 

Angell, did come & teache him what the people should 

do. And then he made hys booke, and vsyd to feede a bis Koran and 

his Camel. 

tame Camel in his lappe ; and euery daye he wolde feede 
the Camel, the which he taught to set downe on his 
knees when he did eate his meate. And whan he had He taught his 

_ Camel to kneel 

broken the Camel to thys vsage, he monisshed the and feed out of 
people, saying, that God wolde sende them a law written the people ood 

,, 111 .I'll -I 11 would send their 

m a booke, and to whome soeuer the booke was brought Law to their 

vnto, he should be the prophit of God, & conductor of ruS"'''"^ 

the people. Then Macomit did poynt a day. And did 

conuocate the people together at a place where he was 

vsyd to feede a camel, by the whych place was a greate 

wood or wyldernes full of wylde beastes. The afore- O" » set day he 

sent his Camel 

sayd day appoynted, yerly in ^^e morninge, Macomit with his book 

round its neck 

sent one of hys seruauwtes to the wood with the Camel, to a wood. 

bindi^ig the booke a-boute the Camelles necke, the 

whych 2 he had made before, chargyng his seruaunte, that 

whan all the people war gathered about him, to heare «"'J ^^^^ ^'^ ™'*" 

*■ ^ '^ to let it go when 

him make an exortacion, that he should let the Camell the people were 

round him. 

go, and that he shoulde preuely thorow the wood get 
himselfe home. Macomyte & the people beyng gath- 
ered together at the aforesayde place ^ appoynted, and 
makyng an exortation of the people, had his face to the 

' See Sir John Mandeville's Voiage, ch. xii, on the Sara- 
sines and Machomete, p. 131, ed. 1839. 

^ which book, ^ sign. N .i. back. 



216 



Mahomet, seeing 
the camel, 
finisht his speech; 

the Camel came 
and knelt to him, 



and Mahomet 
took his book off 
its neck, as the 
people's Law. 



The Turks think 
him a prophet. 



Turkish money : 

Tomeys, 
Aspers, Souldes, 

SarafTea^. 



Languages in 
Turkey. 



The Turkish 
numerals. 



Mahomet's wiles. Turkish coin. [ch. xxxvil 

wood to looke whan the camel wolde come; and spyeng 
the camel, he dyd fynysh his exhortacion, and dyd couet 
of the prayse of the people, [and] stoude before the 
people, the Camel, seing his mayster, did come to him, 
and kneeled downe to haue eaten hys prouender. and 
Macomit sayd : " this Camell hath brought our law 
that we must keepe, to me ; " and tooke of the booke 
from the Camels neoke, and did reede it to the people ; 
the whiche they did, and dothe, take it for a law. And 
they do take Macomite for a prophit. by thys, euery 
man may perceyue many subtyll and crafty castes be 
played in certeyn regions, long to reherse at this time, 
as it appered by the mayde of Kent^, & other. The 
money the which is in Turke^ is Golds and Siluer and 
Brasse : there be so many coynes, that it war long to 
reherce. in brasse they haue Torneys. In syluer they 
haue Aspers and Souldes ; & ther be som Souldes that 
be brasse, that v. is worthe an Englishe peny. In golde 
they haue saraffes. A saraf is worth an Englysh 
crowne. In Turky is vsed diuers speches and lang- 
weges : some dothe speake Greeke, & some doth speake 
corrupt Caldy, and some dothe speake Moryske speche ; 
wherfore I do now shew but litle of Turkey speche, the 
whych doth folow. 

One. two. three, foure. fyue. syx. seuen. eyght. nyne. 
hir^. equi. vg. dort^. hex. altl. pdi. zaquis. dogus. 
tenne. aleuyne. twelue. thirten. fouertene. fyftene. 
on. onhir^, on equi. on vg. ovtdort^. on hex. 
sixtene. seuyntene. ayghtene. nynetene. twenty. 
on alti. on-^edi. onzaquis. on dogus^. on ygrimi. 
One and twenty, two and twenty, thre & twenty. &c. 
ygrimi bir^. ygrimi esqui. ygnm vg, ^c. 
Bellahay.T 

' Elizabeth Barton, the Holy Maid of Kent, executed April 
21, 1534. See Hall's Chronicle, p. 814, ed. 1809. 

* Turkye B. ^ bix A. ■• doit A. * doguc A. 
" big A. ' ? meaning. Both A and B have it. 



OIIAP. XXXVIII.] INTRODUCTION. OF EGYPT. 217 




^ The .xxxviii. Chapter treteth of 

Egypt, and of theyr mony 

and of theyr 

speche. 



IT Eijipt is a countrey ioyned to lury : Egypt is next to 

° ^ ^ *> " . Judaea, and has 

The countrey is plentyfuU of wine, come, and Hony. deserts where 

,, . , ,.1, ^oly Fathers 

Ther be many great wyldernes, in the which be uved. 
many great wylde beastes. In the which wildemes 
liuid many holy fathers, as it apperyth in vitas patrum.^ 
The people of the country be swarte, and doth go dis- 
gisyd in theyr apparel^, contrary to other nacyons : they 
be lyght fyngerd, and vse pyking*; they haue litle The Egyptian* 
maner, and euyl loggyng, & yet they be pleas[a]unt but dance well, 
daunsers. Ther be few or none of the Egipciows thai 
doth dwel in Egipt, for Egipt is repleted now yfith Few live in 

Egypt. 

infydele alyons. There mony is brasse and golde. yf 
there be any man thai wyl learne parte of theyr speche, 
Englyshe and Egipt speche foloweth. 

' sign. N .ii. See this cut before, p. 165, 206. 

' The great mediaBval storehouse of pious and lying legends. 

' The other two ladies [a.d. 1510] . . . Their heades roulded in pleasauntes 
and typpers, lylie the Egipcians, enbroudered with gold. Their faces, neckes, 
armes & handes, couered with fine pleasaunce blacke : Some call it Lumber- 
dynes ; which is merueylous thine ; so that the same ladies semed to be nygrost 
or blacke Mores. — HalVs Chronicle, p. 514 (see also p. 597), ed. 1809. 

* cp. ' picking and stealing.' 



218 



OP THE JEWS AND JUD^A. 



[chap. XXXIX. 



A talk in Egyp- 
tian and English. 



IF Good morow ! Lach ittur ydyues ! 

How farre is it to the next towne] Cater myla harforas? 

^ You be welcome to the towne Maysta ves harforaa 

Wyl you drynke some wine ? Mole pis lauena ? 

I wyl go wyth you. A vauatosa 

Sit you downe, and dryncke. Hyste len pee 

Drynke, drynke ! for God sake ! pe^ pe, deue lasse I 

Mayde, geue me bread and wyne ! 

Achaej da mai manor la veue ! 

Geue me fleshe ! Da mai masse I 

Mayde, come hyther, harke a worde ! 

Achaej a wordey snsse ! 

Geue me aples and peeres ! Da mai paha la amhrell I 

Much good do it you ! Iche misto ! 

Good nyght ! Lachira tut t 



The .xxxix. Chapter treateth of 

the naturall disposicion of the 

lues, and of lury, and of 

theyr mony and of 

theyr speche. 



I m a Hebrew ^ I am an Hebrycyon ; some call me a lew ; 

or Jew, 

To lesu Chryst I was neuer trew. 
I should kepe Moyses olde lawe; 

I feare at length I shall proue a daw ; 4 

Many thynges of Moyses lawes do I not keepe ; 
and don't believe I bcleue not the piophetcs : I lye to longe a sleepe. 6 

the prophets. xr xr j j o 

2 lury is called the lande of lude; it is a noble 

judffia is a noble countre of ryches, plenty of wine and Come, Olyues, 

*^"" ^^' ponegarnardes, Milke & Hony, Figges and Raysins, and 

all other fruites : ther be great trees of Cipres, palme 

' sign. N .ii. back. ^ sign. N .iii. 




CH. XXXIX.] INTRODUCTION. A JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM. 219 

trees, & Ceders. the chief towne of ^ lury is lerusalem, 
which was a noble citie, but now it is destroyed, and there 
doth neuer a lue dwell in al Jury ; for it was prophised No Jews dweii 

in Judseat 

to theym by theyr lawe, that yf they woulde not beleue 
in Messias, whych is Chryst, they should be expelled 
out of their couwtrey ; & so they were, and theyr citie 
destroyed by Vaspaciow and Tytus : and the lewes do but au among 

/-,! . . 1 . T . • o ChriBtian folk. 

dwell amonge Christian people m diuers cities & townes, 
as in Rome, Naples, Yenis, and diuerce other places, 
and forasmuche as our Lorde did suffer death at leru- 
salem, And that there is a great confluence of pylgrims As pilgrims go to 

Tiini 1 ^ ^ ^ ti*^* ^^^^ Places, 

to the holy Sepulcre and to many holy places, I wyl I'u teii you what 
wryte ^ somwhat that I doo know and haue sene in that 
place. Who so euer that dothe pretende to go to leru- 
salem, let him prepare himselfe to set forth of England to make a pu- 
after Ester .vii. or .viii. dayes, and let him take his waye miem, 
to London, to make his banke, or exchaunge of his 
mony, with some marchaunt, to be payd at Venis ; and 
than let him go or ride to Doner or Sandwich, to take stftrt from Dover 
shypping to Calys ; from Calls let him goe to Grauelyng, 
to Nuporte, to Burges, to Anwarpe, to Mastryt, to go through 

Antwerp, 

A.C092, to During, to Colyn, to Boune, to Coualence, to cobientz, 

Mense, to Wormes, to Spyres, to Gypping, to Geslyng, Spiers, 

to Memmyng, to Kempton, to the .vii. Kirkes, to Kempten, 

Trent, to Venis. Whan you be there, you must make to Venice, 

your bargen wyth the patrone of the Galy that you shall Get the gaiiey- 

•^ tj J r J J captain to supply 

go with-all, for your meate and drinke, & other costes. you with food, 
you must bye a bed, to haue into the Galy : you must buy a bed, and a 

^ J > J } J ^ chest to keep 

bye a bygge cheste with a locke and kaye to kepe-in wine, &c.. in. 
wyne, and water, and spices, and other necessary 
thynges. ^ one Corp[u]s Christy daye* you shal be hous- Be shriven on 
elled, and within two or three dayes you shall take your 
shyppyng, and you shaU come to many fayrer portes, as 

* A puts " of " after " is." ^ wyshe A ; wishe B. ^ sign. N .ill. back. 

* Corpus Christi is a festival of the Church of Rome, kept on the next 
Thursday after Trinity Sunday [a moveable summer feast-day] in honour of the 
eucharist. — Webster. 



220 



OP JERUSALEM AND THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. [CH. XXXIX. 



The Holy 
Sepulchre 



is railed round 
with iron. 



but few are 
allowed to go 
into it. 



Candy, the Rodes, and dyuers other, longe to wryte ; 
Joppa. than, when you come to ports laffe, you shal go a foote 

to lerusalem, except you be sycke, for at port laffe you 
At Jerusalem the enter in to the Holy Land, when you come to lerusalem, 

Cordaline Friars 

will lodge you. the friers which be called Cordaline,^ — they be of saynct 
^rau7^ces order, — they wyl receaue you with deuocion, 
&> brynge you to the sepulcre. the holy sepulcre is 
wythin the church, and so is the mount of Caluery, 
where lesu Chryst did suffer his passions. The churche 
is rouwde, lyke a temple ; it is more larger then anye 
temple that I haue sene amonges the lues. The sepul- 
cre is grated rounde about Avyth yrone, that no man 
shall graet ^ or pycke out any stones. The sepulcre is 
lyke a lytle house, tJiQ which by masons was dydgyd * 
out of a rocke of stone. There maye stonde wythin 
the sepulcre a .x. or a .xii. parsons ; but few or none 
dothe go into the sepulcre, except they be singulerly 
beloued, & than they go in by night, wyth great feare 
and reuerence. And forasmuch as ther be many '* that 
hath wryttew of the Holy Lande, of the stacyons, & of 
the lurney or way, I doo passe ouer to speake forther of 
this matter, wh erf ore yf any man wyll learne to speake 
some Hebrew, — Englyshe and Hebrew foloweth. 
IT One. two. thre. fouer. fyue. syx. 
Aleph. hetli. gymel. daleth. he. vauf. 
seuyn. eyght. nyne. tenne. aleuyne. 
zain, hetli. tlietli. lod. lod aleph 
twelue. thertene. fouertene. fyftene. sixtene. 
lod beth. lodgymcl. lod daleth. lod he. lod vauf. 
seuentene. eyghtene. nintene. twenty, therty. 
lod zain. lod heth. lod teth. Chaph. lamed. 

' Cordeliers, from the rope they wore as a girdle. ^ grate B. ' diggyd B. 

* It is curious how few early writers in English there are on Jerusalem and 
its Stations, &c. Except Sir John Maundevile ( Voiage, eh. 7—11, p. 73—130, 
ed. 1839), Mr Huth's late MS poem quoted above, p. 182, of which the hand- 
writing is about 1500 A.D,, the less complete copy, &c., in Wey's Pilgrimages, 
the old printed tract reprinted for the Roxburghe Club, and I do not know 
any. 



The Hebrew 
numerals 



OH. XXXIX.] INTRODUCTION. BAD AND GOOD HEBREW. 221 

forty, fyfty. sixte. seuynte. eyglite. nynte. a hunderd. 
^mem. vn. sametli. yami. pee.^ phe. zade. 

IT The Hebrew the whych the lues doth speak now, Modem Hebrew 
these dayes, doth alter from that ^ trew Hebrew tongue, 
(except the lues be clerkes,) as barbarouse Latin doth 
alter from trew Latins, as I haue knowen the trueth 
whan thai I dyd dwel amonges them, as it shall appere 
to them that doth vnderstande the tounge or speche 
folowynge. 

God speede, god speed, syr ! Hosca, hosca, adonai ! a. talk in corrupt 
You be welcome, master ! Bar oh haha^ rabbi ! 

Thys aforesayde Hebrew is corrupt, and not good 
Hebrew ; but thys Hebrew that foloweth, is perfyt : 
You be welcome, syr ! Eth borachah. adonai I ^ talk in good 

' '' ' Hebrew and 

(Or els you may say) Im borachah^ adonai I EngUsh. 

Wenche, or gyrle, geue me meate ! 

Alma, ten lit schaar ! 

Mayde^ geue me drynke ! Bethela, ten Hi mashkeh / 

Woman, geue me bread ! Nekeua, ten Hi hdllechem I 

"Woman, geue me* egges ! Ischa, ten Hi baet simi 

Man,^ geue me wyne ! Isch, ten lii iaiiu I 

Master, geue me flesh ! Rauf, ten lii basar / 

Geue me fyshe ! Ten lii daga ! 

Fare wel, wife ! Schasom lecha nekeua J 

God nyght, syr ! lailah tof^ adonail 

God be wyth you, master ! Leschalom rauff 

lesus of Nazareth, kyng of lues ! The son of God haue 

mercy on me ! Amen. 
lemch Natzori, melech luedim. Ben Elohim conueni I 
Amen^I 

' M .iiii. not signed. 

' A little bit of the last leaf of A, with i, pee, and part of 
phe on it, has been torn out. 

' ye B. * mo A. * Mam A ; man B. 

^ In B, the colophon follows, and is : " ^ Imprented at 
London in Lothbury ouer agaynste Sainct Margarytes church, 
by me Wyllyam Copland." Upcott's reprint was printed by 
Kichard and Arthur Taylor, Shoe Lane. 



222 ANDREW boorde's fyrst boke of the introduction 

OF KNOWLEDGE. 



ol tfje lost (^arlattb, ba w^ 
^mUliam Coplattb. 




C!|ereafterfofo 

vxmt ox a tigetarg of ^eltlj, mabe 

itt il0uwt}jglliet, compgUii tig ^ti* 

breiu BoDtbt of ^ligsscke 

trottour, irtbgcateb to 

t|je armgpotmt 

^rgttce, anir balgaunt loriie 

€\}omm ©uke of 

i^ortijfijlcljt 




1 



[Beside the Preface of the first edition of 1542 is set that of 
PowelVs edition of 1547, in order that readers may see the differ- 
ences between the two, and Judge whether any one hut Andrew Booi^de 
himself could have made the alterations,'] 



DYETARY: THE PREFACES OF 1542 AND 1547. 



225 




[ed. 1547.] 
IT The preface or the proheme. 
J):^ To the armypotent Prynce 
and valyent lorde Thomas Duke 
of Northfolke Andre we Boorde 
of physy eke doctor: dothe sur- 
render humyle commendacyon 
with immortall thankes. 

AFter the tyme that I 
had trauelled for to 
haue the notycyon& 
practes of Physy eke 
in diuers regyons & 
countres, & returned into Eng- 
lande, and [was] requyred to 
tary and to remayne and to 
contynue with syr Robert 
Drewry, knyght, for many 
vvgent causes, Your grace, 
heryng of me, dyd sonde syr 
lohan Garnyngham — nowe 
beynge knyght '^ — to me, to 
come to youre grace, to haue 
my counsell in physycke for 
your infyrmytes. The mesage 
done, I with festynacyon & 
dylygence dyd nat prolonge 
the tyme, but dyd come to 
your grace accordynge to my 
deuty. The whiche was in the 
tyme whan lorde Thomas Car- 
dynall Archebysshop of Yorke 
was co??tmau/ided to go to his 

' No doubt Sir R. Drury's son-in-law. " Edward Jernegan, Esq., his son 
and heir, who was afterwards knighted. He had two wives, first, Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Edmund Bedingfield, of Oxborough, in Norfolk, Knt., by whom 
he had Sir John Jernegan, of Somerleytown, in Suffolk, Kut., wito inarrled, 
first, Bridget, danghter of Sir Robert Drury, of Hawsted, in Suffolk, Knt., 
from whom the Jernegans of Somerleytown, in Suffolk, descended." — The 
English Baronetage, 1741, vol. i. p. 455, 'Jernegan or Jerningham, of Cossey, 
Norfolk.' • From this house (Drury) branched off the Drurys of Hawsted, 
Suffolk, who built Druiy house in London, temp. Elizabeth, the road leading 
to which has ever since retained the name of Drury Lane. It stood a little 
behind the site of the present Olympic Theatre.' 
BOORDE. 15 



[ed. 1542.] 
H The preface. 
% To the precellerit and 
armypotent prynce, lorde 
ITiomas, duke of Northfolch,* 
Andrew Borde, of Physycke 
doctour, doth surrender hum- 
yle commendacyon. 

Orasmoch as 
it pleased 
your grace 
to send for 
me (to syr 
Robert 
Drewry, 
knyght,) — whiche was the 
yeare in the whiche lorde 
Thomas, cardynal, bishop of 
york, was commaunded to go 
to his see of york,^ — to haue 
my cou^iceyll in Physycke, in 
certayne vrgent causes re- 
quyryng to iJiQ sauyte of your 
body : at that tyme I, beyng 
but a yonge doctour in my 
scyence or faculte, durst not 

• Thomas Howard, 8th Duke, in- 
herited the dukedom on his father's 
death in 1524, was attainted in 1546, 
when his honours became forfeited ; 
they were restored in 1553, and the 
Duicedied in 1554. — Nicolas' s English 
Peerage, ii. 473. 

=* A.D. 1530. 



226 



PREFACE, 1542. 



PREFACE, 1547. 



to presume to mynyster any 
medysone to you wzt/i-out the 
counceyl of mayster doctour 
Butte, whiclie had a longe 
continuaunce with you_, & a 
[} sign. A .ij,] great cognys^cyon, 
iuot onely of your infyrmyte, 
but also d your complexyon 
& dyet. But he not com- 
myng to your grace, thank es 
be to God, your grace re- 
cuperatyng your helth, And 
conuocated thorowe the 
kynges goodnes to wayte on 
his prepotent mageste, I than 



dyd passe ouer the sees 
agayne. And dyd go to all 
the vnyuersyties and scoles 
approbated, and beynge with- 
in the precinct of chrysten- 
dome. And all was done for 
to haue a trewe cognyscyon 
of the practis of Physycke ; 
the whiche obtayned, I than, 
cotydyally remembryng your 
bountyfull goodnes shewed to 
me, & also beynge at the 
well-hed of Physycke, dyd 
consult with many egregyous 
Doctours of Physycke / what 
matter I shuld wryte, the 
whiche myght be acceptable, 
and profitable for the sauyte 
of your body. The sayde 



see of Yorke. And after my 
commynge to you, and felynge 
the pulses of your herte, the 
pulses of your brayne, and 
the pulses of your lyuer, and 
that I had sene your vryne & 
your egestyon, I durste nat 
to enterpryse or medyll with 
out the counsell of Mayster 
doctor [Sign.tii.] Buttes, the 
which dyd know, nat onely 
your complexcion & infyrmite, 
but also he dyd know the 
vsage of your dyete. And 
the imbecyllyte and strength 
of your body, with other 
qualytes expedyent & neces- 
sary to be know en : but brefely 
to conclude, [for] your recu- 
peratyng or recouering your 
health. And for synguler trust 
and hygh fauour, the which 
the kyng had to you, [I] 
was compocated^ to be in the 
presence of his magesty. I 
than dyd passe ouer the sees 
agayne, and dyd go to all the 
vnyuersytes and great Scloles,^ 
the whiche be approbated 
with in the precynct of 
Chrystendome, for to haue the 
practes of physycke. I seynge 
many expedyent thynges in 
dyuers regyons, at the last I 
dyd staye my selfe at Mount- 
p[y]llyoure, which is the hed 
vniuersite in al Europe for 
the practes of physycke & 
surgery or chyrming. Ibeinge 
there. And hauyng a cotydyal 
remembrance vpon youre 
bountyfull goodnes, dyd con- 
suite with many egregyous 
^ 80 in the original. 



dyetary: preface, 1642. 



PREFACE, 1547 



227 



doc tours, knowynge my trewe 
intencyon, dyd aduertyse me 
to compyle and make some 
boke of dyete, the whicli, not 
onely shuld do your grace 
pleasure, but also it ^sliuld 
1 [sign. A .ij. back] be ncccssary & 
profytable for your noble pos- 
terite, & for many other men 
the whiche wolde folowe the 
effycayte of this boke / the 
whiche is called the Regy- 
ment or dietary of helth. 
And where that I do speake 
in this boke but of dietes, 
and other thynges concern- 
ynge the samb. If any man 
therfore wolde haue remedy 
for any syckenes or dyseases, 
let hym loke in a boke of my 
makynge, named the Breuyare 
of helth. But yf it shall please 
your grace to loke on a boke, 
the which I dyd make in 
Mountpyller, named IKq In- 
troductory of knowlege, there 
shall you se many new mat- 
ters / the whiche I haue no 
doubte but that your grace 
wyl accept and lyke the boke, 
the whiche is a pryntynge be- 
syde saynt Dunstons churche 
within Temple barre ouer 
agaynst the Temple.^ And 
where I haue dedycated this 



Doctours of physycke what 
manor that I myghte wryte 
the whiche myght be accept- 
able for the conseruacyon of 
the health of youre body. The 
sayde doctors, knowynge my 
zele and true intencyon had 
to you, dyd aduertyse me to 
make a boke of dyete, nat 
only for your grace, but also 
for your noble posteryte, and 
for all men lyuynge : wherfore 
I do noniynate thys boke The 
Dyetary of health, the which 
doth pertract howe a man 
shuld order him selfe in all 
[Sign, f .ii. back.] mauer of causes 
partenynge to the health of 
his body: yf your grace or 
any man wyl haue forther 
knowledge for dyuers infyrm- 
ites, let him loke in a boke of 
my makynge named tliQ Bre- 
uyary of health. And where 



I haue dedycated this boke 



' There is no early edition of this book in the British Museum. The re- 
print of 1814 says, 'The rarity of this Tract is such, that Mr West was induced 
to believe that no other copy existed than the one in his collection ; after his 
death it passed into the hands of Major Pearson ; and at the sale of his library, 
in 1788, Mr Bindley became the possessor.' This is the only copy 'known of 
the edition printed by Copland in Fleteatrete, at the signe of the Rose Garland. 
Of the edition printed hy him in Loihiniry a copy is in the Bodleian Library, 
among Selden's books, B. 5, 6, [another in the Chetham Library at Manchester,] 
and from one in the publishers' hands [? now Mr Christie-Miller's copy] the 
present reprint has been executed.' 



1 S* 



228 



PREFACE, 1642. 



PREFACE, 1547. 



boke to your grace, and haue 
not omated and florysshed it 
with eloquent speche and 
rethorycke termes, the which 
1 [sign, A .iij.] in all wryHynges is 
vsed these modernall dayes, 
I do submyt me to your 
bountyful goodnes. And also 
dyuers tymes in my wryt- 
ynges I do wryte wordes of 
myrth / truely it is for no other 
intencyon but to make your 
grace mery, — for myrth is 
one of the chefest thynges of 
Physycke, the which doth 
aduertyse euery man to be 
mery, and to beware of pen- 
cyfulnes, — trustynge to your 
affluent goodnesse to take no 
displeasure with any contentes 
of this boke, but to accept 
my good wyl and dylygent 
labour. And furthermore I 
do trust to your superabund- 
aunt gracyousnes, that you 
wyll consydre the loue and 
zeale, the which I haue to 
your prosperyte, and that I 
do it for a common weele, the 
whiche I beseche lesu chryst 
longe to contynew, to his wyll 
and pleasure in this lyfe, And 
after this transytory lyfe re- 
munerate you with celestyal 
ioy and etemall glorye. From 
Mountpyllier. The .v. day of 
May. The yere of our Lorde 
lesu Chryste .M.v.C.xlij. 



to your grace, And haue nat 
ornated hit with eloquence & 
retorycke termes, the whiche 
in all manor of bokes and 
wryttynges is vsed these mo- 
dernall dayes, I do submytte 
me to your bountefuU good- 
nes. And also dyuers tymes 
in my wrytynges I do wryte 
wordes of myrth : truely it is 
for no other intewcion, but to 
make your grace mery; — for 
myrth is one of the chefest 
thynges of physycke,^ the 
which doth aduertise euery 
man to be meiy, and to be- 
ware of pencyfulnes ; — trust- 
ynge to youre affluent goodnes 
to take no displeasure with 
any of the coTitentes of this 
boke, but to accept my good 
wyll & dylygent labour. And, 
forthermore, I do truste to 
your superabundaunt gra- 
cyousnes, that you wyll con- 
syder the loue and zele, thel 
which I haue to your prosper- 
yte, and that I do it for a com- 
mon weale; the which I be- 
seche lesu chryst longe to con- 
tinue, to his wyll and pleasure 
in this lyfe; And after this 
transytory lyfe, to remunerate 
you with celestyall ioye and 
eternal glorye. '^From Mount- 
pyller. The fyft daye of 
Maye. The yere of our 
Lorde lesu Chryste. M. 



CCCCC.XLVII.3 

* See Forewords, p. 89, and Byetary, p. 244. 

' Powell's title is : "A com-/pendyou8 Regyment or a Dyetary of healthe 
made in Mount-pyllyer by Andrewe Boorde of phy-/8ycke Doctour newly cor- 
rected / and imprynted with dyuers ad-/dycyon8 Dedycated to the / Army- 
potent Prynce and / valyent Lorde Tho-/ma8 Duke of / Northfolke. (^ : 4^ " 
•i« ABCDEFGH in fours, I in six. For Colophon, see p. 304. 



DYETARY. THE TABLE OF CONTENT* 229 

^ f Here foloweth ^ the Table 
of the Chapytres. 

THe fyrste Chapytre doth shewe where a man shuld cytuat or set 
his mancyon place or howse, for the helth of his body. (p. 232) 

IT The seconde Chapytre doth shewe a man howe he shulde 
"buylde his howse, and that the prospect be good for the conseruacion 
of helth. (p. 234) 

IT The thyrde Chapitre doth shewe a man to buylde his howse in 
a pure and^ fresshe ayre, for to lengthen his lyfe. (p. 235) 

If The .iiii. Chapytre doth shewe vnder what maner a man shuld 
buylde his howse or mansyon, in eschewynge thynges that shuld 
shorten his^ lyfe. (p. 237) 

IF The .V. Chapytre doth shewe howe a man shuld ordre his 
howse concernyng the implementes to comforte the spyrytes of 
man. (p. 240) 

IT The .vi. Chapytre doth shewe a man howe he shulde ordre 
his howse and howsholde. and^ to lyue in quyetnes. (p. 241) 

IT The .vii. Chapytre doth shew howe the hed of a^ howse, or a 
howseholder,*^ shulde exercyse hym selfe for the helth of the^ soule 
and body. (p. 242) 

If The .viii. Chapytre doth show howe a man shulde order 
hym selfe in slepynge, and wat^chynge,*® and in his apparell wear- 
ynge. (p. 244) 

IF The .ix. Chapitre doth shew that replecion or surfetynge doth 
moche harme to nature, and that abstynence is the chyfest medyson 
of all modysons.^^ (p. 250) 

IT The .X. Chapytre treateth of all maner of drynkes, as of 
water, of wyne, of ale, of here, of cyder, of meade, of metheglyn, & 
of whay.i2 (p. 252) 

' sign. A .lij. back. 

"" Wyer'8 undated edition (A), and Colwel's of 1562 (B) read : ""f The 
Table, t The Table of the Chapters foloweth." Powell's edition of 1547 
(P) has : " Here foloweth the Table of the Chapiters." 

=* and a P. * the AB. * AB omit ' and.' 

^ the B ; A reads *of house.' ' householde P. ® his AB. 

^ leaf A. 4, not signed. ^^ watche AB. " medyson P. '=* AB add ' &;c.' 



230 



DYETARY. THE TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



IF The .xi. Chapytre treateth of breade. (p. 258) 

IT The .xii. Chapytre of potage, of sewe, of stew pottes, of 
grewell, of fyrmente, of pease potage, of almond mylke, of ryce pot- 
age, of cawdels, of culleses, of alebrues, of hony soppes, and of all 
other maner of hrothes. (p. 262) 

IT The .xiii. Chapitre treateth of whyt meate, as of egges, butter, 
chese, mylke, crayme, posettes ; of almon ^ butter, and of beane 
butter. (p. 264) 

IT The .xiiii. Chapytre treateth of fysshe. (p. 268) 

IT The .XV. Chapytre treateth of wyld fowle, of ^ tame fowle, and 
of byrd38.3 (p. 269) 

^ The .xvi. Chapytre treateth of flesshe, wylde and domestycall. 

(p. 271) 
The .xvii. Chapytre treateth of partyculer thynges of fysshe and 
flesshe. (p. 276) 

If The .xviii. Chapitre treateth of rost meate, of fryde meate, of 
soden or boy led meate, of bruled meate, and of baken meate. (p. 277) 
*5r The .xix. Chapytre treateth of rootes. (p. 278) 

IT The .XX. Chapytre treateth of certayne vsuall herbes.^ (p. 280) 
IF The .xxi. Chapytre treateth of fruytes. (p. 282) 

IT The .xxii. Chapytre treateth of spyces. (p. 286) 

IT 'The .xxiii. Chapytre sheweth a dyate for sanguyne men. (p. 287) 
^ The .xxiiii. Chapytre sheweth a dyate for flematycke men. 

(p. 288) 

IT The .XXV. Chapytre sheweth a dyate for colorycke men. (p. 288) 

IT The .xxvi. Chapytre doth shewe a dyate for melancoly 

men. (p. 289) 

IT The .xxvii. Chapytre treateth of a dyate and of an order to 

be vsed in the pestyferous tyme of the pestilence & the swetyng 

syckenes. (p. 289) 

If The .xxviii. Chapytre treateth of a dyate for them the 

whiche be in an agew or a feuer. (p. 291) 

IT The .xxix. Chapitre treateth of a dyate for them the whiche 

haue the Ilyacke, or the colycke, and the stone. (p. 292) 

' almonde AB. * and AB. ' and byrdes AB. 

* A 4. back. * of herbs P. 



DYETARY. THE TABLE OF CONTENTS. 231 

IT The .XXX. Chapytre treateth of a dyate for theym the which o 
haue any of the kyndes of the gowtes. (p. 293) 

IF .The .xxxi. Chapitre treateth of a dyate for them the which 
haue ^any kyndes of ^ lepored. (p, 293) 

IF The .xxxii. Chapytre treateth of a dyate ^for theym the whiche 
haue any of the kyndes of the fallynge syckenes. (p. 294) 

IT The .xxxiii. Chapytre treateth of a dyate for them^ whiche 
haue any payne in theyr hed. (p. 295) 

IT The .xxxiiii. Chapytre treateth of a dyate for them the 
whiche be in a consumpcyon. (p. 296) 

IT The .XXXV. Chapytre treatheth of a dyate for them the which be 
asmatycke men, beynge short-wynded, or lackynge breath, (p. 296) 

IT The .xxxvi. Chapytre doth shewe a dyate for them the whiche 
hath* the palsy. (p. 297) 

IT The .xxxvii. Chapitre doth shew an order & a dyate for them 
that^ be mad & out of their wyt. (p. 298) 

IT The .xxxviii. Chapytre treateth of a dyate for them^ which 
haue any^ kynde of the dropsy.'' (p. 299) 

IT The .xxxix. Chapytre treateth of a general dyate for all maner 
of men or^ women^ beynge sycke or whole. (p. 300) 

IT The .xl. Chapytre doth shew an order or a fasshyon, howe a 
sycke man shall ^® be ordered in his syckenes. And how a sycke 
man shuld be vsed that is lykly to dye. (p. 301) 

f Here endeth^^ the Table. 

% Here foloweth the dyetary or 
the^^ regyment^^ of helth. 

'"' any of the kj-^ndes of the AB. ^ sign. B .1. ' them the AB, 

* haue AB. * the whiche AB. ^ any of the AB. '' of dropsy P. 

^ and AB, ^ woman B. '" shulde A ; shoulde B. 

•' The ende of AB. ^'^ "or the " is repeated in B, the 1662 edition. 

" And here foloweth the Dyetaiy.. 

[7w tJi^ Text, the small initials of some proper names hate teen made 
Capitals ; and the stops have been often altered. 

In the Notes, "A " stands for Wyer's undated edition (Forewords, p. 13) ; 
B for ColweVs edition with the Dedication dated 5 Map, 1562; and I* for 
PowelVs edition, dated 5 Maij, 1547, m the Dedication, and 1567 in the Colo- 
plion. Powell prints na.t for not. Differences of spelling, and printers' mis- 
takes, are seldom noted. 

In Wyer's original fl/1542, the Galien cut on tlie necst page stands by it' 
selfy and Hliefyrst Cltapytre ' begins on the page after.'] 



232 



THE CITE OF A HOUSE. 



fcHAP. I. 



Whoever means 
to build 



or alter a li»use. 



GALIEN 



^ i 


^^^ 


^C 


^S: vSS 


W| 


IWil^mM 


O 


r/ ' \. ^-^S^yife^ j^y f III iJi^ 1^ 


> 




CO 




1 


2 


^ V 


1 


Ph| 


IliJIJI 


w 


C: 


^^ cs^;^ 1 




'f The fyrsl Chapytre doth shew whe- 
re a man shulde cytuate or^ sette his 
mancyon place or howse for the 
health of his body. 

Hat man of honour or worshyp, 
or other estate, the whiche doth 
pretende to buylde a howse or 
any mancyon place to inhabyte 
hym selfe, Or elles doth pre- 
tende to alter his howse, or to 

' sign. B .i. back. No cut in ABP. ' sign. B .ii. 

'' for P. 




CHAP. I.] DYETARY. GET WATER, WOOD, AND ELBOW-ROOM. 233 

alter olde buyldyng in-to co?wmodyous and pleasaunt 
buyldynge, not onely for his owne proper co?Hmodite, 
welth,.& helth, but also for other men the whiche wyll 
resort to hym, hauyng also a respect to his posterite, — 

IF Fyrste, it is necessarye and expedyent for hym to must first heat 
take hede what counceyll God dyd gyue to Abraham ; Abraham 
and after that to take hede what counceyll God dyd 
gyue to Moyses, and to the chyldren of Israeli, as it 
appereth in the .xiii. chapytre of Exodi, and the .xx. 
chapytre of Numeri, & the .vi. chapytre of Deut- 
ronomii' ] and also in the boke of Leuites, saying 
fyrste to Abraham : " Go thou forth of ^thy countre, & 
from thy cognacion or kynred, And come thou in to to go to a country 
the countrey the whiche I wyll shew to the, a countrey honey; 
abundynge, or plentyfuU, of my Ike and huwny." H Here 
is to be noted, that where there is plenty of mylke 
there is plenty of pasture, and no skarsyte of water ; one with pasture, 

. . water, woods, and 

& where there is plenty of huwny there is no skarsyte, 

but plentyfulnesse, of woddes, for there be mo bees 

in woddes (and so consequently abundaunce of hu?my,) 

than there be bees, or huwny, or waxe, in the, hyues in 

gardyns or orchardes ; wherfore it appereth that whoso- gardens. 

euer^ wyl buylde a mancyon place or a house, he must 

cytuat and set it there where he must be sure to haue 

both water and woode, except for pleasure he wyll 

buylde a howse in or by some cytie or great towiie, the 

whiche be not destitude of such commodytes. But he 

the whiche wyll dwell at pleasure, and for profFyte a man must 

and helth of his body, he must dwell at elbowe-rome, room, 

hauyng water and woode anexed to his place or howse ; 

for yf he be destytuted of any of the pryncypalles, 

that is fo say, fyrst, of water for to wasshe and to and look i.ror 

wrynge, to bake and to brewe, and dyuers other causes, 

specyally for parrell'', the whiche myghte fall by fyre, [it]^ 

* Deutro. P. ' sign. B .ii. back. ' euer that AB. 
^ peryll AB. * it AB. 



234 



THE PROSPECT FROM A HOUSE. 



[oh. I, II. 



were a great dyscommodyous thynge. And better it 
^ were to lacke woode than to lacke water, the premysses 
2. for woo<i. consydered, althoughe that woode is a necessarye thynge, 

not onely for fewell, but also for other vrgewt causes, 
specyally concernynge buyldynge and reperacyons. 



Next to the soil 
and place, 



yott must see that 
the prospect be 
good. 



so tliat it may 
please people far 
off. 



The sight of a 
well-placed 
house rejoices a 
man's heart. 




% The seconde Chapytre doth shewe a 

man ho we he shuld buylde his house 

or mansyon, that the prospect be 

fayre & good for the eon- 

seruacyon of helth.^ 

Fter that a man haue chosen a con- 
uenyent soyle and place accordynge 
to his mynde and purpose to buylde 
his howse or mansyon on, he must 
haue afore cast in his mynde, that 
B the prospect to and fro the place b6 
pleasauwt, fayre, and good to the eye, to beholde the 
woodes, the waters, the feldes, the vales, the hylles, 
& the playne grouwde, And that euery thynge be desent 
and fayre to the eye, not onely within the precyncte 
of the place appoynted to buylde a mansyon or a howse, 
to se the commodyties aboute it, but also [that] it 
may be placable to the eyes of all men to ^se & to beholde 
whan they be a good dystaunce of* from the place, that 
it do^ stande commodyously. For the commodyous 
buyldyng of a place doth not onely satysfye the mynde 
of the inhabytonr, but also it doth comforte and re- 
ioyseth a mawnes herte to se it, specyally the pulcruso 
prospect. For my consayte is suche, that I had rather 
not to buy Id a mansyon or a howse, than to buylde one 

' sign. B .iii. 

'^ As to the building and pitching of houses, see Burton's 
Anatomy, Part ii., sect 2. — W. C, H. 

3 Ti iij Ko»ir 4 ^>f — ,.fe 5 Joth A ; doeth B. 



B .ill. back. 



of = off. 




CIL II, III.] DYETARY. HAVE GOOD AIR ABOUT YOUR HOUSE. 235 

without a good respecte ^ in it, to it, & from it. For 

and the eye be not satysfyed, thQ myiide can not be The eye must be 

•^ J .1 7 J satisfied, or the 

contented. And the mynde can not be contented, the heart 'u not be 
herte can not be ^ pleased : yf the herte & mynde be ^ ^*** * 
not pleased, nature doth abhorre. And yf nature do 
abhorre, mortyfycacyon of the vytall, and anymall, and 
spyrytuall powers, do consequently folowe. 



f The thyrde Chapytre doth shewe a 

man to buylde his howse in a pure & 

a fresshe ayre, to lengthen his lyfe. 

Here is nothynge, except poyson, that Bad air corrupts 
doth putryfye or doth corrupt the blode spirits of man. 
of man, and also doth mortyfye the 
spyrytes of man, as doth a corrupt and a 
conta^gyous ayre. For Galyen, terapentice^ nonOj sayeth, 
" whyther we wyll or wyll not, we must grauwt vnto 
euery man ayre ; for without the ayre, no man can lyue." 
The ayre can not be to clene and pure : consyderynge Air oon't be too 

pure. 

it doth^ compasse vs rounde aboute, and we do receyue 
it in to vs, we can not be without it, for we lyue by it 
as the fysshe lyueth by the water. Good ayre, ther- 
fore, is to be praysed. For yf the ayre be fryske,® 
pure, and clene, about the mansyon or howse, it doth Bright air 

comforts the 

conserue the lyfe of man, it doth comfort the brayne, brain, and 
And the powers naturall, anymall, and spyrytuall, in- 
gendrynge and makynge good blode, in the whiche makes good 
consysteth the lyfe of man. And contraryly, euyl and 
corrupt ayres doth infecte the blode, and doth ingendre Bad air 

corrupts tlie 

many corrupte humours, and doth putryfye the brayne, heart, and 
and doth corrupte the herte ; & therfore it doth brede 
many dyseases & infyrmytyes, thorowe the which, mans 

' prospeote AP ; prospect B. ^ A omits " be." 

^ B .iv. not signed. * terapentico AB. 

* close and doth AB. *" f ressbe AB. 



236 



shortens man's 
life. 

As standing 
waters, &c., 
putrefy the air, 



take care that you 
don't build your 
house near 
stinking punds, 
&c.; 



or near any 
stinking ditches, 
eliannels, or 
sinks, 



or where flax is 
steept ; 



and don t have 
a urinal or 
privy near your 
house. 



HAVE PURE AIR ABOUT THE HOUSE. [CHAP. III. 

lyfe is abreuyated and shortned. Many thynge^; doth 
infect, putryfye, and corrupteth the ayre, as* the influ- 
ence of sondry sterres, and standyng waters, stynkyng 
mystes, and marshes, caryn lyinge longe aboue the 
grounde, moche people in a smal rome lying vnclenly, 
and beyng fylthe and sluttysshe; wherfore he ^that 
doth pretende to buylde his mansyon or house, he must 
prouyde that he do nat cytuat hys howse nyghe to any 
marsshe or marysshe grownde ; that^ there be nat, nygh 
to the place, stynkynge and putryfyed standyng waters, 
pooles, pondes, nor myers,'* but at lestwyse that such 
waters do stande vpon a stony or a grauayle grownde 
myxt with claye, and that some fresshe sprynge haue a 
recourse to nourysshe and to refresshe the sayd stand- 
yng waters. Also there must be circumspection had 
that there be not aboute thQ howse or mansyon no 
stynkynge dyches, gutters, nor canelles, nor corrupt 
dunghylles, nor synkes, excepte they be oft and dyuers 
tymes muTzdyfyed and made clene. Swepyng of howses 
and chambres ought nat to be done as long as any 
honest man is within the precynct of the howse, for 
the dust doth putryfy the ayre, makyrige it dence. 
Also, nygh to the place let nother^ flaxe nor hempe^ 
be watered j & beware of the snoffe of candelles, and of 
the sauour of apples, for these thynges be contagyous 
and infectyue. Also, mysty & clowdy dayes, impetous 
and vehement wyndes, troublous and vaporous wether 
is nat good to labour in it, to open the pores ^ to let in 
infectious ayre. Furthermore, ^beware of pyssynge in 
drawghtes; & permyt no co??imon pyssyng place be 
aboute the howse or mansyon ; & let the common howse 
of easement be ouer some water, or elles elongated from 
the howse. And beware of emptynge of pysse-potteSj 



' The fyrst is AB. ^ B. 4, back. '^ And that AB. 
* meeres AB, ' nat her P. ^ hempe nor flaxe AB. 
' powers AB. 



sign. C. 



CHAP. Ill, IV.] DYETARY. BEFORE BUILDING, PROVIDE STORES. 237 

and pyssing in chymnes, so that all euyll and con- 
tagyous ayres may be expelled, and clene ayre kept 
vnputryfyed. And of all thynges let the buttery, the Mind that your 
celler, the kytchen, the larder-howse, with all other offices are kept 

clean, 

howses of offyces, be kept clene, that there be no fylth 
in them, but good & odyferous sauours : and, to expell 
& expulse all corrupt & contagyous ayre, loke in the 
.xxviL Chapytre of this boke. [p. 289.] 



f The .iiij. Chapytre doth shew vnder 

what maner & fasshyon a maw shuld 

buylde his howse or mansyon, in 

exchewynge thynges that 

shortneth mans lyfe.^ 

Han a man doth begyn to bylde his when you begin 

hous or mawsyou place, he must 

prouyde (sayth Jesus Chryst), be- provide before- 
hand enough to 
fore thai he begyn to buylde, for finish, as Christ 

tells you. 

all thyng^ necessary for the per- 
formacyon of it, lest that whan 
he 2 hath made his fouwdacion, & can not fynysshe his 
worke that he hath begon, euejy man wyl deryde hym, 
saying : " This man dyd begyn to buylde, but he can 
not fynysshe or make an end of his purpose:" for a man 
must consyder the exspence before he do begynne to 
buylde; for there goeth to buyldynge, many a nayle, Manyanaii, 

pin, straw, and 

many pynnes, many lathes, and many tyles, or slates, ba-ird wiii be 
or strawes, besyde other greater charges, as tymber, 
hordes, lyme, sand, stones, or brycke, besyde the work- 
manshyp and the implementes. But a man the whiche 
haue puruyd,^ or hath in store, to accomplysshe his pur- 
pose, and hath chosen a good soyle and place to cytuat 

' thynges the whiche shulde shorten the lyfe of man AB. 
^ C .i. back. ' prouyded AB. 





ft 




mm 



238 



Lay your 
foundation on 
gravel and clay, 
rock, or a hill. 



facing East and 
West, or that by 
South ; but not 
full South. 



PROSPECT AND PLAN OF A HOUSE. 



[CII. IV. 



North is better 
than South. 



Parlour at top of 
the Hall; Pantry 
at bottom : 



Kitchen next. 



with a Larder. 

Lodgings on 
another side of 
the Quadrangle ; 



Gate in middle of 
ftont; Privy- 
chamber next 
State-chamber ; 



all looking into 
the Chapel. 



hys howse or mansyon, and that the prospecte be good, 
and that the ayre be pure, fryske, and clene, Then he 
that wyll buylde, let hym make his fundacyon vpon a 
graualy grownde myxt with clay, or els let hym buylde 
vpon a roche of stone, or els vpon an hyll or a hylles 
syde, And ordre & edyfy the howse so that the pryn- 
cypall and chefe prospectes may be Eest and weest, 
specyally North-eest, Sowth-eest, and South-weest, for 
the merydyal wynde, of al wyndes is the moste worst, 
for the South wynde doth corrupt and doth make euyl 
vapours. The Eest wynde is tem^perate, fryske, and 
fragrauwt.2 The weest wynde is^ mutable. The ^orth 
wynde purgeth yll vapours ; wheifore, better it is, of thQ 
two worst, that the wyndowes do open playne Xorth 
than playne Sowth, althoughe that Jeremy sayth, "from 
the Korth depewdeth all euyl"*;" and also it is wryten 
in Cantica cant[ic]orwm^ : " Ryse vp, North wynde, and 
come, thou Sowth wynde, and parfyat ^ my gardayne." 
Make the hall vnder such a fasshyon, that the parler be 
anexed to the heade of the hall. And the buttery and 
pantry be at the lower ende of the hall, the seller 
vnder the pantry, sette somwhat abase; the kychen set 
somwhat' a base from tJiQ buttry and pantry, commyng 
with an entry by the wall of the buttry, the pastry- 
howse & the larder-howse anexed to the kychen. Than 
deuyde the lodgynges by the cyrcuyte of the quad- 
ryuyall courte, and let the gate-howse be opposyt or 
agaynst the hall-dore (not dyrectly) but thQ hall-dore 
standynge a base, and the gate-howse in the mydle of 
the front entry nge in to the place : let the pryue chambre 
be an axed to ^^e^ chambre of astate, with other cham- 
bres necessarye for the buyldynge, so that many of the 
chambres maye haue a prospecte in to the Chapell. If 



' Compare Charles Kingsley's poem on 
3 AB omit "is." " euyll AB. 



' sign. C .ii. 
the East Wind. 

•'' canticorum AB. ^ perfecte A ; perfect B. 

^ AB omit "somewhat." " the, great AB. 



CH. IV.] DYETARY. PLAN OP A HOUSE : MOAT, GARDEN, BUTTS, ETC. 239 

there be an vtter courte made, make it qua^dryuyal, with Have an outer 

bowses of easementes, and but one stable for horses of wuh p^rivies, 

pleasure ; & se no fylth nor dong be within the courte, Hdtng"LteJf '°' 

nor cast at the backe-syde, but se the donge to be caryed 

farre from the mansyon. Also, the stables and the other staWes, 

•slaughter-howse, [and] a dyery^ (yf any be kept) shulde andVairy, imiYa 

be elongated the space of a quarter of a myle from the ™' ® ° ' 

place. And also the backe-howse and brew-howse 

shuld be a dystaunce from the place and from other 

buyldyng. whan all the mansyon is edyfyed and buylte, 

yf there be a moote made aboute it, there shulde some The moat must 

fresshe sprynge come to it; and dyuers tymes the moote cieanf '** 

ought to be skowered, and kept clene from mudde and 

wedes. And in no wyse let not the fylth of the kychen no kitchen fiith 

descende in to the moote. Furthermore, it is a com- 

modyous and a pleasaunt thynge to a mansyon to haue 

an orcherd of soundry fruytes ; but it is more commo- Fruit-orchard. 

diouse^ to haue a fayre gardain repleted wyth herbes of Garden of 

aromatyck & redole7^t sauours. In the gardayne raaye ^*^ 

be a poole or two for fysshe, yf the pooles be clene kept. Fish-pooi. 

Also, a parke repleted with dere & conyes is a necessarye Park with deer 

and a pleasaunt thyng to be anexed to a mansyon. A 

doue howse also is a necessary thyng aboute a mansyon- 

place. And amonge other ^thynges, a payre of buttes a pair of Butts; 

is a decent thynge aboute a mansyon ; & other whyle, for 

a great man, necessary it is for^ to passe his tyme with a Bowling aiiey. 

bowles in an aly : whan all this is fynysshed, and the 

mansyon replenysshed with Implemented, There must 

be a fyre kept cowtynually for a space to drye vp the Fire to dry tho 

walls. 

contagyous moysters of the walles, & the sauour of the 
lyme and sande. And after that a man may ly and 
dwell in the sayd mansyon without takynge any incon- 
uenyence of syckenes. 

' sign. C .ii. back. ' dayery A ; dayerye B ; deiy P. 
* more commodyouser AB. * sign. C .iii. * AB omit " for." 

1 6 



240 



PROVIDE STORES BEFOREHAND. 



[chap. V. 



AVhen you've 
built your house, 



if you can't 
furnish it. 



bat must borrow 
salt here, a 
sheep's head 
there. 



you'll be put to 
a shift, and 
never be at 
l)eace, 



and men'll call 
you a fool. 

Look ere you 
leap^ 




% The .V. Chapytre doth shewe howe a 

man shulde ordre his howse conser- 

nynge the Implementes to 

comforte the spyrytes 

of man. ,rCi]l 

Hen a man hath buylt^ his msiVr 
syon, and hath his howses ne- 
cessary aboute his place, yf he 
haue not howsholde stuffe or im- 
plementes the whiche be nede- 
fuU, but muste borowe of his 
nayghbours, he than is put to a shefte ^and to a great 
after deale ; for 'these men the which do brew in a botyl 
and bake in a walet, it wyll be long or he can by lacke 
a 3 salet'; yet euery thynge must haue a begynnynge, and 
euery man must do after his possessyons or abylytc: 
this notwithstanding, better it is not to set vp a howse- 
holde or hospytalyte, than to set vp housholde, lackjmge 
the performacyon of^ it, as no we to ron* for malt, and 
by-and-by for salt ; nowe to sende for breade, and by- 
and-by to sende for a shepes-heade ; and nowe to sende 
for this, & nowe to sende for that ; and by-&-by he doth 
send he can not tell for what : such thynge.s is no pro- 
uysion, but it is a gi-eat abusyon. Thus a man shall 
lese his thryfte, and be put to a shefte ; his goodes shall 
neuer increase, and he shall not be in rest nor peace, 
but euer in carcke and care, for his purse wyll euer be 
bare ; wherfore I do counceyll euery man to prouyde 
for hym selfe as soone as he can ; for yf of implementes 
he be destytuted, men wyll call hym lyght-wytted, to 
set vp a great howse, and^ is not able to kepe man nor 
mowse : wherfore, let euery man loke ox he lepe, for 
many comes maketh a great hepe. 

' buylded AB. ^ C .iii. back. ^ & A ; and B. "on B. 
* come AB. The rest of this chapter runs into rude rimes. 
" & he P. 




CHAP. VI.] DYETARY. SAVE ONE-THIRD OF YOUR INCOME. 241 

^% The .vi. Chapytre doth shewe howe 

a man shuld ordre his howse and 

howseholde, and to lyue 

qnyetly. 

Vho soeuer he be that wyll kepe 
an howse, he must ordre the ex- order your house 

„ , . , J • X according to tout 

penses oi his howse according to rents, 
the rent of his landes. And yf 
he haue no landes, he must ordre 
his howse after his lucre wynnynge 
or gaynes. For he that wyll spende more in his howse 
than the rentes^ of his landes, or his gaynes, doth attayn 
to, he shal fal to pouerte, and necessite wyl vrge, cause, 
and compel hym to sel his lande, or to waste his 
stocke; as it is dayly sene by experyewce of many men; 
wherfore they the whiche wyll exchewe such prody- 
galyte and inconuenyence, must deuyde his rentes, Divide your 
porcyon, & exspences, wherby that he doth lyue, in to 3 parts: 
.iii. 3 equal porcyons or partes. IT The fyrst parte must 
seme to prouyde for meate and drynke, & all* other 1 for food, &c.f 
necessary thynges for the sustencyon^ of the howse- 
holde. IF The seconde porcyon or parte must be re- 
^serued for apparell, not onely for a mannes owne selfe, 1 for dress, 
but for all his howseholde, & for his^ seruauntes wages, ^m^!'''^'^'^ 
deductynge somwhat of this porcyon in almes dede to 
pore neyghbours and pore people, fulfyllynge [one or] 
other of ^ the .vii.^ werkes of mercy. IT The .iii.^^ por- 
cyon or parte must be reserued for vrgewt causes in tyme 1 for urgent 
of nede, as in syckenesse, reparacyon of bowses, with ^knessl repairs, 
many other cotydyall exspences, besyde rewardes, & the ^^^ ^^^rai, 
charges of a mans^^ last end. If a maw do exsyde^^ this 

' C .iv. not signed. ' rent A ; rente B. ' the three AB. 
* also AB. * sustentacion A ; sustentation B. ® C .iv. back. 
' AB omit " his." * P omits " other of." ' seuen AB. 

" thyrde AB. " of mans B. '* excede AB. 

BOORDE. 16 



242 HAVE MONEY IN STORE. [cHAP. VI, VII. 

ordre, he may soone fall in det, the whiche is a daun- 

gerous thynge many wayes, besyde the bryngynge a man 

Once get behind- to tiouble. And he that is ones behynde hande and in 

hand, and you'll , , , , . 

never be in peace, trouble, he Can not be m quyetnesse of mynde, the 
whiche doth perturbe the herte, & so consequently 
doth shorten a mannes lyfe; wherfore there is no wyse 
man but he wyll exchewe ^ this inconuenyence, & wyll 
caste before what shal folowe after. And in no wyse to 
sette vp a howseholde, before he hath made prouysyon 
to kepe a howse. For yf a man shall bye euery thynge 
that belongeth to the keping of his^ howse with his 
peny, it wyl be longe or he be ryche, and longe or that 
Before you set up he Can kcpc a good howsc. But he is wyse, in my con- 
have 3 years' rent ccytc, that wyll hauc, or he do sette vp his ^ howseholde, 
.ii. or .iii.* yeares rent in his cofer. And yf he haue 



no landes, than he must prouyde for necessarye thynges 
or that he begyn howseholde, leest that he repent hym- 
selfe after, through the whiche he do^ fall in to pen- 
cyfulnes, and after that in to syckenes & dyseases, 
lyuyng not quyetly, wherby he shal abreuyate his 

lyfe. 

^ The .vii. Chapytre doth shewe howe 
the hed of a howse, or a howseholder 
shulde exercyse hym selfe, for the 
helth of the® soule & hody. 

Fter that a man hath prouyded ?.ll, 

thynges necessary for his howse and 

for his howseholde, expedyent it is 

How to take care |f5KlJ^P'\^^fe1l ^^^ ^^^ *^ knowc howe he shuld 

a^3lB3»^l ^x^'^cyse hym selfe both bodely and 

Si5ssSs!Sl ghostly. For there is no catholycke 

' eschewe AB. ' a AB. ' sign. D .i. 

* two or thre B. " doth AB. « his AB. 



of body and soul. 



CHAP. VII.] DYETARY. PREPARE FOR DEATH : PUNISH SWEARERS. 243 

or chrysten man lynyng, but he is bounde in con- 

scyence to be more circu??2specter aboute the welth of Care more for the 

well-being of your 

his soule then the helth of his body. Our Sauyour soui than the 

health of your 

lesus Chryst sayth, " what shall it profyte vnto ^ man yf body. 

he geat all the worlde, and lese hym selfe, and bryng 

hym 2 selfe to a detrymewt ?" wherfore it appereth that a 

man ought to be circumspecte for the helth and welth 

of his soule ; For he is bounde so to lyue, that nyght 

and day, and at all houres, he shulde be redy; than^ Be always ready 

to die. 

whan he is called for to departe out of this worlde, he 

shuld nat feare to dye, saying these wordes with sayni 

Ambrose : " I feare not to dye, bycause we haue a good 

God." whan a man hath prepared * for his soule, and 

hath subdued sensualyte, and that he hath brought And when you've 

hym selfe in a trade, or a vsage of a ghostly or a to godliness, 

catholycke lyuynge in obseruyng the commaunde- 

mentes of God, than he must study to rule and to see that your 

1 • 1 1 • 1 • 1 1 1 1 * 1 household are not 

gouem them the whiche be in his howseholde,* or vnder idle; 

his custody or domynyon, to se that they be not ydle; 

for kynge Henry the eyght sayd, when he was yong, 

** ydlenes is chefe maistres^ of vyces all." And also the 

heade of a howse must ouer-se that they the which be 

vnder his tuyssyon serue God the holy dayes as dyly- make them serve 

gently, yee, and more dylygentler' than to do theyr Days, keep them 

worke the feryall dayes, refraynjmge them from vyce punish swearers, 

and synne, compellynge them to obserue the com- 

maundementes of God, specyally to punysshe swearers, 

for in all the worlde there is not suche odyble swear- for there's more 

8W6Arini? in 

yng as is vsed in En^glande,^ specyally amonge youth & England than 
chyldren, which is a detestable thyng to here it, and no the world. ^" " 
inan doth go aboute to punysshe it. Suche thynges 
reformed, than may an howseholder be glad, not cess- 
ynge to instruct them the whiche be ygnorant; but 

• to AB. ' sign. D .i. ' and P. * prouyded AB. 

• Compare Hugh Rhodes in The Babees Book, p. 64. 

• maisters P. ' diligently er A ; dylygentlyer B. 
" sign. D .ii. " See Ihrewords, p. 82. 

1 6* 



244 



SLEEP NOT TOO LONG. 



[chap. vin. 



Ret your people a also he must contynewc in shewynge good example of 
and then be ' lyuynge; than may he reioyse in God, and be mery, the 

mtrry. 

whiche myrth & reioysyng doth' lengthen a mans lyfe, 
and doth expell syckenes.^ 



Moderiite sleep 



qaickens all 
man's powers. 



and pleases Ood. 



Immoderate sleep 
breeds boils, and 



apoplexy (see 
The Breuyary), 
and 



dulls the wits. 




f The .viij. Chapytre doth shewe howe 

a man shulde ordre hym selfe in sle- 

pynge and watchynge,^ and 

in weryng his apparell. 

Han a man hath exercysed hym 
selfe in the daye tyme as is re- 
hersed, he may slepe soundly and 
surely in God, what chaunce so 
euer do fortune in the nyght. 
Moderate slepe is moste praysed, 
for it doth make parfyte* degestyon ; it doth nourysshe 
the blode, and doth qualyfye the heate of the lyuer; 
it doth acuate, quycken, & refressheth the memory; it 
doth restore nature, and ^doth quyet all the humours & 
pulses in man, and doth anymate and doth comfort© 
all the naturall, and anymall, and spyrytuall powers 
of man. And suche moderate slepe is acceptable in the 
syght of God, the premysses in the aforesayd Chapytre 
obserued and kept. And contraryly, immoderate slepe 
and sluggyshnes doth humecte and maketh lyght the 
brayne ; it doth ingendre rewme and impostumes ; it is 
cuyll for the palsy, whyther it be vnyuersall or par- 
tyculer ; it is euyll for tiiQ fallynge syckenes ^ called 
Epilencia, Analencia, & Cathalencia, Appoplesia, Soda, 
with all other infyrmytyes in the heade; for it induceth 
and causeth oblyuyousnes ; for it doth obfuske and doth 
obnebulate the memorye and the quyckenes of wvt. 

* do A ; doe B. ' See Forewords, p. 88-9 ; and p. 228. 
' slepe and watche AB ; P leaves out " and watchynge." 

* perfecte AB. * D .ii. back. * syckenesses B. 



CHAP. Vlli.] DYETARY, OF THE PIT HOURS TO SLEEP. 245 

And shortly, to conclude, it doth pertui-be the naturall. Excessive sleep 

and anymall, and spyrytuall powers of man. And sin/ancur 

specyally it doth instygate and lede a man to synne, '^«^*»*>'« »« God. 

and doth induce and infer breuyte of lyfe, & detestably 

it displeaseth God. Oure lorde lesu Chryste dyd not 

onely byd or commau?jde his dyscyples to watche, but 

dyd anymat them and al other so to do, saying: " I say Christ bade au 

not onely to you, watche, but to all men I say, watche." 

And to Peter he said, " myghtest not thou one houre 

wat^che with me :" althoughe these holy scryptures, with 

many other mo, the whiche I myght allygate for me, 

althoughe they be not greatly referred to this sewce, yet 

it may stande here with my purpose & matter without 

reprehensyon. These matters here nede not^ to be re- 

hersed ; wherfore I do retume to my purpose, and do sleep miHierausiy, 

say that the moderacyon of slepe shulde be mesured 

accordyng to the natural co7wplexyon of man, and in according to your 

state : 

any wyse to haue a respect to the strength and the 
debylyte, to age & youth, and to syckenes & helth of 
man. 1[ Fyrste, as concemynge the natiirall complexyon 
of man, as^ sanguyne and colorycke men, .vii.^ houres* saiiguine men for 

7 hoars ; 

is sufFycyent for them. And nowe, consyderynge the 
imbecyllyte and wekenes of nature, a flemytycke man Phlegmatic 

1 • 1 •»* 1 1 « men 9 hours; 

may slepe .ix. houres or more. Melancoly^ men may 

take theyr pleasure, for they be [the]^ receptacle and the Melancholy men, 

dragges of all the other humoures. IF Secondaryly, uke. 

youth and age wolde haue temporauwce in slepynge. 

IT Thyrdly, strength maye suflfre a brount in watche, 

the whiche debylytye and wekenes can not. As I wyl weak men can't 

sit up so long aa 

shew by a famylyer example. There were two men strong ones. 
set at the dyce togither a day and a nyght, & more ; 
the weke man said to hym, " I can playe no longer." 
The stronge ^man sayde to hym, "fye on the, benche- 

' sign. D .iii. * not greatlj' AB. ' AB omit "aa." 

* seuen AB. * howres of slepe AB. ^ Melancolycke AB. 

' be the AB. ^ D .ui. back. 



246 DAY-SLEEP, AND GOING TO BED. [e^AP. VUL 

whystler ! wylt thou sterte away nowe1 " The weke 
man, to satj^sfye the stronge manncs mynde, appetyte,* 
& desyre, playeth with hys felow ; throughe tho. which 
he doth kyl hym selfe. The stronge man doth hym 
selfe lytel pleasure, all thynges consydered: the whiche 

A sick man I do passe ouer. wherfore I wyll retourne to the sycke 

whenever he can, man, whiche maye slepe at all tymes whan that he 
maye get it ; but yf he maye slepe at any tyme, best it 
is for hym to refrayn from slepe in the day, & to take 

though night is his uaturall rest at nyght, whan all thynges is, or shulde 
be, at rest and peace ; but he must do as his infyrmyte 

Healthy men wyll pcrmyt and sufFre. whole men, of what age or 

shouldn't sleep in *^ ^ "^ ' ° 

the day. complcxyou soeuer they be of, shuld take theyr natural 

rest and slepe in the nyght, & to exchew merydyall 

If they must, slcpe. But, an 2 nede shall compell a man to slepe after 

tliey should do it ^ ^ 

standing against his meate, let hym make a pause, and than let hym 
a chair. ' staud, and leane and slepe agaynst a cupborde, or els let 

hym sytte vpryght in a chayre, & slepe. Slepynge 
after a full stomaoke doth ingendre dyuerse infyrmyties ; 
it doth hurte the splen, it relaxeth the synewes, it doth 
ingendre the dropsyes and the gowte, and doth make a 
No Tenery early man loke cuyll coloured. Beware of Veneryous actes 

at night or on a 

full stomach. before ^the fyrste slepe, and speoyally beware of such 
thynges after dyner, or after a ftill stomacke, for it doth 
ingendre the crampe, the^ gowte, and other displeas- 

Before bed time ures. To bcdwarde be you mery, or haue mery com- 

^^^^' pany aboute you, so that, to bedwarde, no anger nor 

heuynea, sorowe nor pencyfulnes, do trouble or disquyet 

and have a fire in you. To bedwarde, and also in the mornyng, vse to 
haue a fyre in your chambre, to wast and consume the 
euyll vapours within the chambre, for the breath of 
man maye putryfye the ayre within the chambre. 1 do 

but don't stand aduertyse you not to stande nor to syt by the fyre, but 
stand or syt a good waye of from the fyre, takynge the 

' appyted, orig. ^ and AB (if). ' D .iv. not signed. 
* and the AB. 



your room. 



or ait by the lire. 



CH. VIII.] DYETARY. HOW TO SLEEP, IN A SCARLET NIGHT-CAP. 247 

flauour of it ; for fyre doth aryfye & doth drye vp a 
inawnes blode, and doth make sterke the synewes & 
ioyntee of man. In the nyght, let the wyndowes of shut your 

bedroom 

youre howse, specially of your chambre, be closed; whan windows at 

you be in your bed, lye a lytel whyle on your left syde, 

& slepe on your ryght syde. And whan you do wake sleep on your 

right side. 

of your fyrste slepe, make water yf you fele your 

bladder charged, and than slepe on the lefte syde ; and 

loke, as ofte as you do wake, so ofte toume yourselfe in 

the bed from the^ one syde to the other. To slepe 

grouelynge* vpon the stomacke and belly is not good, i>on't sieep on 

oneles ^the stomacke be slow and tarde of digestyon ; 

but better it is to lay your hande, or your bed-felowes 

hande, ouer your stomacke, than to lye grouelyng. To 

slepe on the, backe vpryght is vtterly to be abhorred. <"• "»* on your 

back. 

when thai you do slepe, let not your necke, nother 

your shoulders, nother your handes, nor fete, nor no Cover up aii your 

body. 

other place of your body, lye bare vndyscouered. 
Slepe not with an empty stomacke, nor slepe not after 
that you haue eaten meate, one houre or two after. In 
your bead, lye with your heed somwhat hygh, lest that Lie with your 

head high. 

the meate which is in your stomacke, thorow eructua- 

cyons, or some other cause, ascend to the gryfe* of the 

stomacke. Let your nyght-cap be of skarlet; & this I Have a scarlet 

do aduertyse you, for^ to cause to be made a good thycke 

quylt of cotton, or els of pure flockes, or of clene a good thick 

quilt, covered 

woull, and let the couerynge of it be of whyte fustyan, witi» fustian, 
and laye it on the fether-beed that you do lye on; and and a feather bed. 
in your beed lye not to hote nor to colde, but in a tem- 
poraunce. Olde auncyent doctours of Physycke sayth, 
.viii. houres of slepe in Sommer, & .ix. houres of slepe ^ 
in wynter, is suffycyent for any man, but I do tliynke 

' AB omit "the." 

^ The adverb in -lynge (A. Sax. -linga, -lvnga).—'R. Morris, 
Phil. Soc. Trans. ^ D .iv. back. 

* oryfe AB ; oryfice P (see p. 265, note "). 
^ you to AB. *. AB omit " houres of slepe." 



248 



Rise with mirth. 

Brush and air 
your breeches* 

Wear linen hosci 

Stretch your legs, 
go to stool. 



truss your points, 
and comb your 
head. 

Wash in eold 
water. 



Walk a mile or 
two. 



Hear mass, 
or pray to God. 



Play tennis, or 
work your 
dumb-bells. 



Eat of 2 or 3 
dishes only, 

and then amuse 
yourself for an 
hour. 



WHAT TO DO ON RISING FROM BED. [cHAP. VIII. 

that slepe ought to be taken as the complexyon of man 
is. whan you do ryse in the morenynge, ryse with 
myrth, ^and remembre God. Let your hosen be brusshed 
within and without, and flauour the insyde of them 
agaynst the fyre; vse lynnen sockes or lynnen hosen 
next your legges. whan you be out of your bedde, 
stretche forth your legges and armes, and your body ; 
coughe and spyt, and than go to your stole to make 
your egestyon ; and exonerate your selfe at all tymes 
that nature wold expell. For yf you do make any 
restryction in kepynge your egestion, or your vryne or 
ventosyte, it maye put you to dyspleasure in bredyng 
dyuers infyrmyties. After you haue euacuated your 
body, & trussed your poyntes, kayme your heade oft ; 
and so do dyuerse tymes in the daye. And wasshe 
your handes and wrestes, your face and eyes, and your 
tethe, with colde water. & after that you be apparelled, 
walke in your gardayne or parke a thousande pace or 
two ; & than great and noble men doth vse to here 
masse, & other men that can not do so, but must 
applye theyr busynes, doth serue God with some pray- 
ers, surrendrynge thankes to hym for his manyfolde 
goodnes, with askyng meroye for theyr offences. & 
before you go to your refection, moderatly exercyse 
your body with some labour, or playing at the tennys, 
or castyng a ^bowle, or paysyng wayghtes or plomettes 
of ledde in your handes, or some other thynge, to open 
your poores, and to augment naturall hete. At dyner 
& supper vse not to drynke of sondry drynkes ; & eate 
not of dyuers meates, but fede of two or thre * dysshes 
at the moste. After that you haue dyned & supped,* 
laboure not by-and-by after, but make a pause, syttynge 
or standyng vpright the space of an houre or more, with 
some pastyme ; drynke not moch after dyner. At 

» sign. E .i. ' E .i. back. ^ AB omit "of." 
* .ij. or .iij. A. ^ and supte. 



CHAP. VIII.] DYETARY. OF APPAREL, SUNSHINE, AND OLD ROOMS. 249 

your supper, vse light meates of digestyon, & refrayne Eat a light 

supper; then 

from grose meates ; go not vnto bedde * with a ful nor ^ rest, and go to 
emptye stomacke. And after your supper, make a pause ™* 
or you go to bedde; and go to bed, as I sayde, with 
myrth. Furthermore, as coracemynge your apparell : in 
wynter, next your sherte vse^ to were a petycote of in winter, line 

_ your jacket with 

skarlet; your doublet vse at plesure; but I do aduertyse Wack and white 
you to lyne your lacket vnder this fasshyon or maner : 
by you fyne skynwes of whyte lambe & blacke lambe, 
and let your skynner cut both the sortes of the skynnes 
in smale peces tryangle wyse, lyke halfe a quarel of a sown in triangles, 
glase wyndow. And than sewe togyther a whyte pece 
and a blacke, lyke a whole quarel of a glasse wyndowe ; 
& so sewe vp togyther quarell-wyse as moche as wyll 
*lyne your lacket; this fur, for holsomnes, is praysed 
aboue sables or any other furre: your exteryall ap- 
parell vse accordjmge to your honour. In sowraer, vse in summer, wear 

aredlinsey 

to were a skarlet petycote made of stamele or lynsye *- petucoat, 
wolsye. In wynter and sommer, kepe not^ your hed to 
bote, nor bynde it to strayte ; kepe euer youre necke 
warme. In so/wmer, kepe your necke and face from the 
sowne; vse to were gloues made of goote-skynnes,' and good skin 

gloTes. 

perfumed with amber-degrece. And beware in stand- 

ynge or lying on the grownde in the reflyxyon of the Don't stand or He 

in the sun, 

sowne, but be mouable. If you * shall common or talke 

with any man, stande not sty 11 in one place yf it be on* 

the bare grownde, or grasse, or stones, but be moueable 

in such places : stande nor syt vpon no stone nor^^ stones ; or sit on a stone. 

stand nor syt long bareheed vnder a vawte of stone. 

Also beware that you do not lye in olde chambres Don't He in ratty 

and snaily roonu. 

whiche be not occupyed, specyaUy such chambres as 
myse, rattes, and snayles resorteth vnto. lye not in 
suche chambres the whiche be depryued clene from the 



• tobedAB. 


' nor an AB. 


^ vse you AB. 


♦ sign. E .ii. 


^ lynsyn P. 


^ not AB ; nor oriff. 


' skyn AB. 


« thou AB. 
»» or AB. 


' vpon A ; vppon B. 



250 



AGAINST REPLETION. 



[chap. VIII, IX. 



sowne & open ayre ; nor lye in no lowe chambre except 
Don't take cold in it be boided. Beware that you take no colde on your 

your feet. "^ 

feete and legges ; and of all wether, beware that you do 
not ryde nor go in great and impyteous wyndes. 



Bepletion or 
surfeit comes 
from drini<ing as 
well as eating. 



Tlie liver, or fire 
under the pot, is 
so prest that it 
can't cook the 
meat; 



the senses get 
dull. 



the head aches, 
and the malt-corn 
plays the devil in 
it. 




^f The .ix. Chapytre doth shewe that 

replecyon^ or surfetynge doth moche 

harme to nature / and that absty- 

nence is the chefyst medyson 

of all medysons. 

Alen, declaryng Hypocrates sentence 
vpon eatynge to moclie meate, saith : 
"More meate than accordeth with 
nature, is named replecyon,^ or a sur- 
fete." Replecyon^ or a surfet is taken as well by 
gurgytacyons, or to moche drynkynge, as it is taken by 
epulacyon,^ of eatynge of crude meate, or eatynge more 
meate than doth sufFyce, or can be truely dygested. Or 
els replecyon^ or a surfyt is whan the stomacke is farced 
or stuft,* or repleted with to moche drynke & meate, 
that the lyuer, whiche is the fyre vnder the potte, is 
subpressed,^ that he can not naturally nor truely decocte, 
defye, ne dygest, the superabundauwce of meate & 
drynke the whiche is in the potte or stomacke ; wherfore 
dyuers tymes these impedymentes doth folowe : the 
touwge is depryued of his ofFyce to speke, the wyttes or 
sensys be dull & obnebulated from reason. Slouth 
*and sluggyshnes consequently foloweth; the appetyde 
is withdrawen. The heade is lyght, and doth ake, and 
[is] full of fantasyes ; & dyuers tymes some be so sopytyd, 
that the malt worme playeth the deuyll so fast in the 
heade, that all the worlde ro?ineth rownde aboute on 



' sign. E .ii. back. 
* atufted AB. 



* replexion AB. 

* suppressed AB. 



' ejfvlatio, feastiug. 
* sign. E .iii. 



GHxVP. IX.] DYETARY. AVOID SURFEITS : EAT TWO MEALS A DAY. 251 

wheles ; then both the pryncepall membres & the offy- 
cyall membres doth fayle of theyr strength, yet the 
pulsys be full of agylyte. Such replecyon,^ specyally Repletion 

, , shortens a tiuiu's 

suche gurgytacyons, doth mgender dyuers mfyrmytes, ufe, 
thorowe the whiche, breuite and shortnes of lyfe doth 
folowe. For the wyse man sayth, that "surfetes do kyll 
many men, and temporaunce doth prolonge the lyfe." 
And also it is wrytten, Eccle. xxxvii.,^ That " there doth 
dye many mo by surfette, than there doth by the 
sworde ; " for, as I sayde, surfetynge ingendreth many 
infyrmytes, as the Idropyses,^ the gowte^, lepored, saws- and breeds 

. . dropsy, sawsfleme 

ileme & pymples m the face, vehement impressyons, (p. 101-2), gout. 

flnd fevers 

vndygest humours, opylacyons, feuers, and putryfac- 
cyons. And also it doth perturbate the heade, the 
eyes, the tounge, and the stomacke, with many other 
infyrmyties. For, as ■* Galen sayth, " ouer moche re- 
plecyon ' or surfeting causeth strangulacion and soden 
death;" for, as I sayde, the stomacke is so inferced^, ®and 
the lyuer is so sore obpressed,' that naturall heate and 
the poorest be extyncted; wherfore abstynence for this Abstinen-e is the 

best medicine for 

matter is the moste best and the parfytest medysone it. 

that can be. And in no wyse eate no meate vnto tJiQ 

tyme the stomacke be euacuated of all yll^ humours by 

vomet or other conuenyent wayes ; for els, crude and 

rawe humours vndygested wyll multiply in the body to 

the detryment of man. Two meales a daye is sufFyc- Two meals a day 

are enough 

yent for a rest man ; and a labourer maye eate thre for a resting 

man ; 3 for a 

tymes a day ; & he that doth eate ofter, lyueth a labouring one. 
beestly lyfe. And he that doth eate more than ones in 
a day, I aduertyse hym that the fyrste refeccyon or 
meale be dygested or that he do eate the seconde re- 
feccyon or meale. For there is nothynge more hurtfuU 
for mans body than to eate meate vpon meate vndy- 

replexion AB. ' 37 A. ' dropses AB. * AB omit " as." 
* enforced AB. ^ sign. E .iii. back. ' oppressed AB. 
* powers AB. ^ euyll AB 



252 BAD ENGLISH CUSTOMS AT DINNER AND SUPPER. [cHAP. IX, X. 



Don't eat several 
meats at a meal. 



Sit only an hour 
at dinner. 



Englishmen sit 
too long at it. 



and stupidly eat 
gross meat hrst, 



leaving the best 
for the servants. 



Men are so 
greedy. 



For the last refeccyon or meale wyll let the 
dygestyon of the fyrste refeccyon or meale. Also 
sondry meates of dyuers operacyons eaten at one re- 
feccion or meale, is not laudable ; nor it is not good to 
syt longe at dyner and supper. An houre is suffycyent 
to syt at dynner ; and not so longe at supper. Englande 
hath an euyll vse in syttynge longe at dyner and at 
supper. And Englysshe men hath an euyll ^vse ; for, at 
the begynnynge at dyner and supper he wyll fede on 
grose meates, And tM best meates which ^ be holsome 
and nutratyue, and lyeth ^ of dygestion, is kept for ser- 
uauntes ; for whan the good meate dotli come to the 
table, thorowe fedynge vpon grose meate, the appetyde 
is extynct whan the, good meet doth come to the table ; 
but mawnes mynde is so auydous, althoughe he haue 
eate ynoughe, whan he seth* better meate come before 
hym, agaynst his appetyde he wyll eate; wherupon doth^ 
come replecyon ^ and surfetes. 



Water is not 



wholesome by 
itself. 



Water is bad for 
an Englishman. 



f The .X. Chapytre treateth of al ma- 

ner of drynkes, as of water, of wyne, 

of ale, of bere, of cyder, of meade, 

of metheglyn, and of whay. 

Ater is one of the foure Elemente.9, 
of the whiche dyuers lycours or 
drynkes for ma/znes sustynaunce 
be made of, takyng theyr ory- 
gynall and substaunce of it, as 
ale, bere, meade, and metheglyn. 
water is not holsome,'^ sole by it selfe, for an 
Englysshe man, consyde^rynge the contrarye vsage, 
whiche is not concurraunt with nature : water is 

' E .iv. not signed. '^ the whiche AB ; meate which P. 
^ lyght BP. 1 Lyeth is A. Sax. Uc^, mild. ♦ seeth AB. 



^ 

m 









doAB. 



^ leplexion AB. ' See Forewords, p. 74. 
" E .iv. back. 



CHAP. X.J DYETARY. WATER SHOULD NOT BE DRUNK ALONE. 253 

colde, slowe, and slacke of dygestyon. The best water Rain-water 

is rayne- water, so be it that it be clene and purely taken. 

Kexte to it is rownyng water, the whiche doth swyftly running-water 

rowne from the Eest in to the west vpon stones or 

pybles. The thyrde water to be praysed. is ryuer or river-water third. 

broke water, the which is clere, roTznyng on pibles and 

grauayl. Standynge waters, the whiche be refresshed 

with a fresshe spryng, is commendable; but standyng 

waters, and well-waters, to the whiche the sowne hath weii-water 

no reflyxyon, althoughe they be lyghter than other 

ro?;.nyng waters be, yet they be not so^ co?nmendable. 

And let euery man be ware of all waters the whiche be standing water 

is bad. 

standynge, and be putryfyed with froth, duckemet,^ and 
mudde ; for yf they bake, or brewe, or dresse meate 
with it, it shall ingender many infyrmytes. The water 
tJie which euery man ought to dresse his meate with all, ^^^ cooking, ase 

running-water, 

or shall vse bakynge or bruyng, let it be rownyng ; and 

put it in vesselles that it may stande there .ii. or .iii.^ 

houres or it be occupy ed; than strayne the vpper parte ^ strained. 

thoroughe a thycke lynnyn cloth, and cast the inferyall 

parte awaye. If any man do vse to drynke water with water drunk 

, with wine must 

wyne, let it be purely ^strayned ; and than seth it, and be boiled or 

, , , , • 1 . , -, . distilled with 

after it be cold, let hym put it to his wyne : but better it herbs. 

is to drynke with wyne, stylled waters, specyally the 

water of strawberes, or the water of buglos, [or the 

water of borage,] ^ or the water of endyue, or the water 

of cycory, or the waters of southystell and dau7idelyon. 

And yf any man be combred with the stone, or doth For stone, drink 

„ water of haws, 

burne in the pudibunde ' places, vse to drynke with with white wine, 
whyte wyne the water of hawes and the water of mylke : 
loke for this water in a boke of my makynge, named 
*'the breuyary of health".^ 

' AB omit " so." ' docknet AB ; duckemeat P. 

* two or three B. * parte that B. * sign. F .i. 

* AB put in " or the water of borage " (not P). 

' pubibnude, orig. * Chapter 207, Fol. Ixxii ; p. 80, 

above. 



254 



DRINK WINE MODERATELY. 



[chap. X. 



Bespyse is 
raspberry wine. 



The qualities of 
good wine. 



Good wine 
comforts the 
heart and scours 
the liver. 

White wine 
nourishes the 
brain and 



cleanses sores. 



Wine mustn't 
too old. 



Mix It with 
water. 



In Germany, 
maidens mustn't 
drink wine. 



Abroad, there's a 
water-fountain in 
every town. 



IT Of^ wyne. 

IT All maner of wyues be made of grapes, excepts 
respyse,^ the whiche is made of a bery. Chose your 
wyne after this sorte: itmuste be fyne, fayre, & clere to 
the eye; it must be fragraunt and redolent, hauynge a 
good odour and flauour in the nose; it must spryncle in 
the cup whan it is drawne or put out of the pot in to 
the cup; it must be colde & pleasaunt in the mouth; and 
it must be strong and subtyll of substaunce : And than, 
moderatly dronken, it doth acuate and doth quycken a 
mans wyttes, it doth comfort the hert, it doth scowre 
the lyuer ; specyally, yf it be whyte wyn, it doth reioyce 
all the powers of man, and doth now^ysshe them ; it 
doth ingender good blode, it doth comforte and doth 
nourysshe the brayne and all the body, and it resolueth 
fleume ; it ingendreth heate, and it is good agaynst 
heuynes and pencyfulnes; it is ful of agylyte; wherfore 
it is medsonable, specyally whyte wyne, for it doth 
mundyfye and dense wou/ides & sores. Furthermore, 
the better the wyne is, the better humours it doth in- 
gender. wyne must not be to newe nor to olde; but 
hyghe wynes, as malmyse, maye be kep[t]e* longe. And 
bycause wyne is full of fumosyte, it is good, therfore, 
to alaye it with water, wynes hyghe and bote ^ of 
operacyoTi doth comfort olde men and women, but 
there is no wyne good for chyldren & maydens; for in 
hyghe Almayne, there is no mayde shall drynke no 
wyne, but styl she shal drynke water vnto^ she be 
maried. the vsuall drynke, there & in other hyghe 
countresjfor youth, is fountayn water; for in euery towne 
is a fountaync or a shalowe wel, to the which all people 

» AB omit " Of." 

* See Babees Book, 125/118 ; p. 204 ; 267/21. 

^^ sign. P .i. back. * kepte ABP. 

* hyghe and hote. Wynes AB. 

• vnto the time AB : vnto = until. See ch. xiv, p. 159, on 

Hygho Almayne, in the Introduction. 



CHAP. X.] DYETARY. OF DIVERS KINDS OP WINES. 255 

that be yonge, and seruauwte^, hath a confluence and a 

recourse to drynke. Meane wynes, as wynes of Gas- Light wines, 

cony, Frenche wynes, & specyally Raynysshe wyne that are good wilh ' 

is fyned, is good with meate, specyally claret wyne. It "^^* * 

is not good to drynke nother wyne * nor ale before a man 

doth eate somwhat, althoughe there be olde fantastycall 

sayinge^ to the contrarye. Also these bote wynes, as Hot wines are 

, , _ not good 

malmesye, wyne course, wyne greke, romanysk, romny, 

secke, alygaunt, basterde, tyre, osay, Muscadell, cap- 

rycke, tynt, roberdany,^ with other bote wynes, be not 

good to drynke with meate; but after mete, & with with meat, but 

oysters, with saledes, with fruyte, a draught or two may S it. ™" 

be suffered. Olde men maye drynke, as I sayde, hyghe 

wynes at theyr pleasure. Furthermore, all swete 

wynes and grose wynes doth make a man fatte. 

* sign. F .11. 

' See The Bahees Book, p. 202-7, with extracts from Hen- 
derson's Hutory of Ancient and Modern Wines, 1824, p. 75, 
above, and Notes. Of the wines mentioned above, but not in 
B. B., 

Course is the Italian * C&rso, wine of Corsica.' (Florio.) 

Alygaunt is * Alicant, a Spanish wine . . said to be made 
near Alicant, and of mulberries.' (Nares.) 

Tynt is the modem Tent used in the Sacrament, * a kind 
of wine of a deep red colour, chiefly from Galicia or Malaga in 
Spain.' (Webster.) 

At Alicant, in the province of Valencia, a vino tinto is 
procured from the tintilla grape, which resembles the Rota 
wine, and contains a large quantity of tannin, holding in 
solution the colouring matter, and precipitating animal gela- 
tin. It is sweet and spirituous, having a reddish orange 
colour, and a bitter and somewhat rough after-taste. Like the 
Rota, it is chiefly used for medicinal purposes. — Henderson, p. 
193-4 ; and see p. 251. 

Neither Roberdany nor Romanyske is mentioned by 
Henderson. 

Sack. See Henderson, p. 298-309, and his quotation, p. 
315, of Markham, "Your best Sacks are of Xeres in Spain; 
your smaller, of Gallicia and Portugall ; 3'our strong Sacks are 
of the islands of the Canaries and of Malligo . ." Also from 
the Discovery of a London Monster called the Black Bog of 
Newgate, printed in 1612, "There wanted neither Sherry Sack, 
nor Charneco, Maligo, nor amber-coloured Cand)', nor liquorish 
Ipocras, brown beloved Bastard, fat Aligant, nor any quick- 
spirited liquor." 

1 7 



256 OF ALE, BEER, CIDER. [cHAP. X. 

ir Ofi ale. 

IT Ale is made of malte and water; and they the 

which do put any other thynge to ale then^ is rehersed, 

except yest, barme, or godesgood, doth sofystical ^ theyr 

Ale comes ale. Ale for an Englysshe man is a naturall drynke. 

naturally to an . i /. i •• 

Englishman. Ale must haue these propertyes : it must be Iresshe and 

cleare, it muste not be ropy nor smoky, nor it must haue 

It should be 5 no weft nor tayle. Ale shuld not be dronke vnder .v. 

days oldf 

dayes olde. Newe ale is vnholsome for all men. And 
sowre ale, and deade ale* the which doth stande a tylt, 
is good for no man. Early malte maketh better ale 
then oten malte or any other come doth : it doth in- 
and makes a man gendre ^ grose liumoures ; but yette ^ it maketh a man 

strong. 

stronge. 

ir Of » here. 

Beer is a Dutch IT Bere is made of malte, of hoppes, and water: 

it is a naturall drynke for a Dutche man. And nowe of 

but has lately late daycs it is moche vsed in Englande to the detry- 

Engiand. mcut of many Englysshe men; specyally it kylleth 

them the which be troubled with the colycke, and the 
stone, & the strangulion ;" for the drynke is a colde 

It blows out the drynke ; yet it doth make a man fat, and doth inflate 
the bely, as it doth appere by the Dutche mens faces 
& belyes. If the bere be well serued, and be fyned, 
& not new,^ it ^ doth qualyfy the heat of the lyuer. 



f Of cyder. 
The best Cider ^T Cyder is made of the iuce of peeres, or of ^ the 

is made of Pears. 

iuce of aples; & other whyle cyder is made of both; 
but the best cyder is made of cleane peeres, the which 
be dulcet; but the beest^® is not praysed in physycke, for 

' AB omit « Of." ^ than AB. ' sophysticat P. 

* AB insert "and ale." * sign. F .ii. back. 

• AB omit "yette ; " P has "yet." 

' sti-ayne coylyon AB. * be wel brude and fyned P 

' newi, t orig. '" best AP ; beste B. 



belly. 



CHAP. X.] DYETARY. OP MEAD, METHEGLYN, WHEY, POSSET ALB. 257 

cyder is colde of operacyon, and is full of ventosyte, 
wherfore it doth ingendre euyll humours, and doth cider breeds 

I 1.1 ni n n-.li ®vil hUIUOUrS, 

swage to moche the naturall heate of man, & doth let 
dygestyon, and doth hurte the stomacke; hut they the 
which be vsed to it, yf it be dronken in haruyst, it but may be drunk 
doth lytell harme. 

IT Ofi meade. 

2 IT Meade is made of ho^ny and water boyled both 
logyther ; yf it be fyned and pure, it preserueth helth; 
but it is not good for them the whiche haue the Ilyacke Mead is bad for 

. , , , the oolic. 

or the colycke. 

IT Of^ metheglyn. 

IT Metheglyn is made of howny & water, and herbes, 
boyled and soden togyther ; yf it be fyned & stale, Metheglyn is 

wholesonier than 

it is better in the regyment of helth than meade. Mead. 

11 Of» whay.3 

f whay, yf it be wel ordered, specyally that whay 
the which doth come of butter, is a temporate drynke, whey from 

butter is 

and is moyst; and it doth nourysshc, it doth dense the nourishing, 
brest, and doth purge redde colour, and [is] good for 
sausfleme faces. 

IT Of ^ poset ale. 
IF Poset ale is made with bote mylke & colde ale; Posset aie is 

. good for a hot 

it IS a temporate drynke, and is good for a bote lyuer, liver, 
and for bote feuers, specyally yf colde herbes be soden 
ill it. 

» AB omit " Of." » sign. F .iii. 

' Pover cilly shepperde* they gett/ 
Whome into their f armes they sett/ 

Lyvynge on mylke / whyg / and whey [whyg = butter-milk, oi 
sour whey]. — Roy's Satire, Pt II, p. Ill, of Pickering's re- 
print, p. 17 of my Ballads from MSS, 1868. 

We tourmoyle oure selfes nyght and daye, 
And are fayne to dryncke whygge and wheyey 
For to maynteyne the clurgyes facciones. 

1530, A Proper Dyaloge, fol. G; Ballads from MSS, p. 22. 
BOORDE. 17 



258 



Coyte is a nsnal 
drink in Holland, 
Ac 



For a Ptisane, 
Hippocras, &c., 



OF COYTE AND BREAD. 



[chap. X, XI. 



IT Ofi coyte. 

IT Coyte is a drynke made of water, in the whiche 
is layde a sowre and a salt leuyn .iii. or .iiii. houres ; 
thew2 it is dronke. it is a vsual drynke in Pyeardy, in 
Flaundres, in Holande, in Brabant, and Selande ; ^hit 
dotlie but quench the thyrste.^ 

IT To speak e of a ptysan, or of oxymel, or of '•aqua 
vite, or of Ipocras, I do passe ouer at this tyme; for I do 



see my Bretiyary. make mewsyon of it in the Breuyary of health.^ 



Wheat bread 
makes a man fat. 



Unleavened bread 
is better than 
leavened. 



% The .xi. Chapytre treateth 
of breade. 



WM 


n 




i 


IQESlBKaii 


9H 



In Rome, loaves 
are only as big as 
a walnut, and are 
safFron'd. 



Manchet, with no 
bran, I like. 



Vycen sayth, that breed made of 
whete maketh a man fatte, specyally 
when the breade is made of newe 
whete; and it doth set a man in 
temporauwce. Breade made of fyne 
flower without leuyn is slowe of dy- 
gestyon, but it doth nourysshe moche yf it be truely or- 
dered and well baken. whan the breade is leuened, it is 
soone dygested, as some olde Aucthours sayth ; but these 
dayes is proued the contrary by the stomacke of men, 
for leuyn is heuy and ponderous. Breade hauynge to 
moche brande in it is not laudable. In Rome, and 
other hyghe countres, theyr loues of breade be lytell 
bygger then a walnot, and many lytell loues be ioyned 
togyther, the whiche doth serue for great men, and it 
is safferonde:^ I prayse it not. I do loue manchet 
breade, and great loues the whiche be well mowlded 
and thorowe 'baken, the brande abstracted and abiected ; 
and that is good for all ages.^ Mestlyng breade is 



2 than AB. ^^ put in from P. 
* chapter 368, leaf 106, &c. 
' F .iv. not signed, 
aches AB ; and AB insert a fresh chapter, headed ^ Breade 
made of Mestlynge or of Rye. 



» AB omit " Of." 
* sign. F .iii. back. 
« See p. 261, 1. 13. 



CHAP. XI.] DYETARY. OF MIXED-CORN BREAD, AND OATEN CAKES. 259 

made, halfe of whete and halfe of Rye. And there is MesUn is half 

wheat, half rye or 

also mestlyng made, halfe of rye and halfe of barly. barley. 

And yll ^ people wyll put whete and barly togyther. 

hreade made of these aforesayde gravne or cornes, thus Mixed corn 

•^ ° " . bread may fill the 

poched togyther, maye fyll the gutte, but it shall neuer guts, but does 

do good to man, no more than horse breade, or breade 

made of beanes and peason shall do ^ ; howbeit this 

matter doth go moche by the educacyon or the bryng- 

yng vp of the people, the which haue ben nourisshed 

or nutryfyde with suche breade. I do speake nowe in 

barlyes or maltes, parte to be eaten and also dronken. 

I suppose it is to moche for one grayne, for barly doth Barley breeds 

cold humours ; 

ingender colde humours : and peason and beanes, and peas and beans 

° fill one with 

the substaunce commynge from theym, repletyth a man wind. 

with ventosyte ; but and ^ yf a man haue a lust or a 

sensuall appetyd to eate and drynke of a grayne bysyde 

malte or barlye, let hym eate and drynke of it the 

whiche maye be made of otes: for hauer cakes in scotch oat cake 

•^ is good, 

Scotlande is many a good lorde and lordes dysshe.^ 

' euyll AB. 
* " I haue " . . quod Peres . . . 

A fewe cruddes and creem • and an hauer cake, 

And two loues of benes and bran • ybake for my fauntis. 

Vision of P. Plotmiian, Text B, p. 107-8, 1. 282-5. 

As to hovKcbread, cp. 

For Jjat was bake for Bayarde [the horse ' was bote for many 

hungry, 196 

And many a beggere for benes * buxome was to swynke, 

And eche a pore man wel apayed * to haue pesen for his huyre. 

ib. p. 103. 
Bolde beggeres and bigge * l^at mowe her bred biswynke, 
With houndes bred and hors bred ' holde vp her hertis ; 
Abate hem with benes • for bollyng of her wombe. 

ib. p. 104, 1. 216-18. 
' ABomit "and." 

* The Scotch lords had a different character from Holin- 
shed (15.86 AD.), or Hector Boece (died 1536) if Holinshed 
follows him here : — " But how far we in these present dales 
are swarued from the vertues and temperance of our elders, I 
beleeue there is no man so eloquent, nor indued with such 
vtterance, as that he is able sufficientlie to expresse. For 
whereas they gaue their minds to dowghtinesse, we applie our 
selues to droonkennes : they had plentie with sufficiencie, we 
haue inordinate excesse with superfluitie : they were temperate, 

1 7 • 



2G0 



DUCK THE BAD BAKERS ! 



[chap. XI. 



and, therefore, 
good drink can 
be got out of oats. 



The Devil sends 
bad Cooks. 



Bad brewers and 
cheating ale- 
wives. 



And yf it wyll make good haiier cakes, consequently it 
wyll do ' make good drynke or euyl ; euery thyng as it is 
handled. ^Foi it is a co7??mon prouerbe, " God may 
sende a man good meate, but the deny 11 may sende an 
euyll coke^ to dystrue* it;" ^wh erf ore, gentyll bakers, 
sophystycate not your breade made of pure whete ; yf 
you do, where euyl ale-brewers and ale-wyues, for theyr 
euyl brewyng & euyl measure, shuld clacke and ryng 
theyr tankardes at dym myls dale, I wold you shuld 



we effeminate ; and so is the case now altered with vs, that he 
which can deuoure and drinke most, is the noblest man and 
most honest companion ; and thereto hath no peere, if he can 
once find the veine (though with his great trauell), to puruey 
himself of the plentifullest number of new, fine, and delicate 
dishes, and best prouoke his stomach to receiue the greatest 
quantitie of them, though he neuer make due digestion of it. 
Being thus drowned in our delicate gluttonie, it is a world to 
see, how we stuffe our selues both daie and night, neuer 
ceasing to ingorge & powre in, till our bellies be so full that we 
must needs depart. Certes it is not supposed meet that we 
should now content our selues with breakefast and supper 
onelie, as our elders haue doone before vs, nor inough that we 
haue added our dinners vnto their aforsaid meales, but we 
must haue thereto our beuerages and reare suppers, so that 
small time is spared wherein to occupie our selues in any godlie 
exercise ; sith almost the whole daie and night doo scarselie 
suffice for the filling of our panches. We haue also our mer- 
chants, whose charge is not to looke out, and bring home such 
things as necessarilie perteiue to the maintenance of our lines, 
but vnto the furniture of our kitchen ; and these search all the 
secret corners of our forrests for veneson, of the aire for foules, 
and of the sea for fish ; for wine also they trauell, not only into 
France, whose wines doo now grow into contempt, but also 
into Spaine, Italie, and Greece ; nay, Affrike is not void of our 
factors, no, nor Asia, and onelie for fine and delicate wines, if 
they might be had for moneie." — P. 22, Harrison's DescriptAon 
of Scotland, prefixed to Holinshed's Historie, edit. 1686. 

' ABP omit "do" (=. cause to). ^ F .iv. back. 

^ sende euyl cokes P. * dystroy A ; destroye B. 

'~^ P has for the next two paragraphs : '* But wyues, & 
maydes, & other bruers, the whiche dothe dystrue malte the 
whiche shulde make good ale, And they [D .iv. back] the 
which that doth nat fyll theyr potes, geuynge false measure, — 
I woulde they were clackynge theyr pootes and tancardes at 
dymmynges dale. And euyll bakers the whyche doth nat 
make good breade of whete, but wyl myngle other come with 
whete, or do nat order and seson hit, gyuinge good weyght, I 
wolde they myght play bo pepe thorowe a pyllery." 



CHAP. XI.] DYETARY. SYMNELS, CRACKNELS, AND GOOD BREAD. 261 

shake out the remnaunt of your sackes, standynge in i should uke to 

the Tewnies vp to the harde chynne, and .iii. ynches bakers. 

aboue, that whan you do come out of the water you 

myght shake your eares as a spanyell thet veryly 

commeth out of ^ the water.2 Gentyll bakers, make good 

breade ^ ! for good breade doth comforte, confyrme, and Good bread 

comforts a man's 

doth stablysshe a mannea herte, besyde the propertyes heart. 

rehersed. Hote breade is vnholsome for any man, for 

it doth lye in the stomacke lyke a sponge, haustyng Hot bread is like 

a sponge. 

vndecoct humours; yet the smel of newe breade is 
comfortable to the heade and to the herte. IT Soden 
breade, as symnels and crackenels, and breade baken Symneisand 

, Cracknels are not 

vpon a stone, or vpon yron, and breade that sanron is good. 

in,3 is not laudable. Burnt breade, and harde crusted, & 

pasty crusted, doth ingendre color, aduste, and melan- 

coly humours; wherfore chyp the vpper crust of your chip your upper 

omsts off. 

breade.'* And who so doth ^vse to eate the seconde cruste 
after meate, it maketh a man leane. And so doth 
wheten breade, the which is ful of brande. ^ Breade, 
the whiche is nutrytyue, & praysed m physycke, shidd 
haue these propertes. Fyrste, it must [not] ^ be newe, Bread should be 

••11 ^ houn old, 

but a daye & a nyght olde, nor it is not good whan it is 

' B omits "of." 

' Sir H. Ellis (Brand, iii. 53, ed. 1843) says of the Cucking- 
Stool, "It was a punishment inflicted also anciently upon 
brewers and bakers transgressing the laws. . . In ' The Regiam 
Majestatem,' by Sir John Skene, this punishment occurs as 
having been used anciently in Scotland : under ' Burrow Lawes,' 
chap. Ixix., speaking of Browsters, i. e. ' Wemen quJta hrewest 
alll to be sauld,'' it is said — 'gif she makes gude ail, that is 
sufficient. Bot gif she makes evill ail, contrair to the use and 
consuetude of the burgh, and is convict thereof, she sail pay 
ane unlaw of aucht shillinges, or sal suffer the justice of the 
burgh, that is, she sail be put upon the Cock-stnle, and the ail! 
sail be distributed to the pure folke.' Lysons cites an in- 
stance of an alewife at Kingston-on-Thames, being ducked in 
the river for scolding, under Kingston Bridge, in April 1745, 
in the presence of 2000 or 3000 people." (Ellis's Brand, 
iii. 52.) 

^ See p. 258, 1. 4 from foot. 

* See The Bahees Book, p. 200, 266/4. « sign. G .1. 

' not AB. 



262 



OP POTAGE AND SEWE. 



[chap. XIL, 



not mouldy, 
well-baked, 
slightly salt. 



Stale bread 
is slow of 
digestion. 



past .iiii. or .v. dayes olde, except the loues be great ; 
nor it must not be moldy nor musty ; it must be well 
muldyd^ ; it must be thorowe bake ; it muste be lyght, 
& not heuye, and it must be temporatly salted. Olde 
breade or stale breade doth drye vp the blode or natu- 
rall moyster^ of man, & it doth ingender euyll humours, 
and is euyll and tarde of dygestyon ; wherfore there is 
no surfet so euyll as the surfet of eatynge of euyll 
breade. 



% The .xii. Chapyter treateth of po- 

tage, of sewe, of stewpottes, of grewell, 

of fyrmewte, of pease potage, of al- 

mon mylke, of ryce potage, of 

cawdels, of cuUeses, and of 

other hrothes. 



Potage and 
Brotli fill a man 
with wind. 



Potage is more 
used in England 
than anywhere 



Herbs for potage 
must be good. 



In pestilence 




L maner of lyquyd thynges, as 
potage, sewe, & all other brothes, 
doth replete a man that eateth 
theym, with ve^ztosyte. Potage is 
not so moch vsed in al Crystendom 
as it is vsed in Englande. Potage 
is made of the lyquor in the 
which flesshe is soden'^ in, with puttyng-to chopped 
herbes, and otemel and salt. The herbes with the 
whiche potage is made with all, yf they be pure, good, 
and clene, not worme -^-eaten, nor infected with the cor- 
rupte ayre descendynge vpon them, doth comforte many 
men, the ventosyte notwithstandyng. But for asmoch 
as dyuers tymes, many partes of Englande is infected 
with the pestylence, thorow the corrupcyon of the 



' moulded AB ; mylded P, 



* moyst AB. 



' sign. G .i. back. * sod AB. * warme, orig. ; wanne P. 



CHAP. XII,] DYETARY. FIRMENTY, ALMOND-MILK, ETC. 2G3 

ay re, the which doth infecte the herbes, In such tymes 

it is not good to make any ' potage, nor to eate no don't make 

potage> 

potage; In certayn plac[e]s beyonde see where as I haue 
traueyled in, in the pestylence tyme a general corn- 
maundment hath ben sent from the superyoryte to the 
commonalte, that no man shuld eate herbes in suche in- or eat herbs, 
feccyous tymes. 

2 IT Of ^ sewe and stewpottes. 
IF Sewe and stewpottes, and grewell made with Oatmeai gruei, 
otmell, in all the^ which no herbes be put in, can do 
lytel displeasure, except that^ it doth replete a man don't imrt on© 
with ventosyte ; but it relaxeth the belly. 

H Of^ fyrmente. 
IT Fyrmente is made of whete and mylke, ^ in the 
whiche, yf flesshe be soden, to eate if^ is not co77imend- Frumenty is 
able,^ for it is harde of dygestyon; but whan it is dy- but nourishing, 
gested it doth nourysshe, and it doth strength^ a man. 

IT Of ^ pease potage & beane potage. 
% Pease potage and beane potage doth replete a man 
with ventosyte. Pease potage is better than beane Pease potage 
potage, for it is sooner dygested, & lesser of ventosyte : bean pouge. 
they both be abstercyue,^ and do dense the body. 
They be compytent of nutryment; but beane potage 
doth increase grosse humours. 

H Of 3 almon mylke & of^ ryce potage. 
IF Almon mylke and ryce potage: Almons be bote 
and moyst.e: it doth comforte the brest, and it doth Almonds moiiny 

the belly. 

moUyfye the bely, and prouoketh vryne. Ryce potage 

made with almon mylke doth restore and doth comforte 

nature. 

' AB omit " any." ^ gjg^ q jj ^ ^B omit " Of." 
^ in the P. ^ AB omit " that." 

^-^ P omits this, but adds at the end, after inan, "but 

flesshe soded in myllve is nat commendable." ' it, it AB. 

^ strengthen AB. ^ abstercyue, o>-ig. 



264 



OF HENS EGGS. 



[chap. XII, XIII. 



Cullisses of 
Shrimps 
comfort the 
blood. 



Honey-sope 
breed wind. 



Don't mind old 
authors, if 
Experience 
contradicts them. 



*f[ Of ^ ale-brues, caudelles, & colesses. 

2 IT Ale-brues, caudelles, and colesses, for weke men 
and feble^ stomackes, the whiche can not eate solydate 
meate, is suffered.* But caudels made with hempe- 
sede, and collesses made of shrympes, doth comforte 
blode and nature. 

IT Of ^ honny soppes, and other brothes. 

IT Howny soppes & other brothes, of what kynde or 
substaunce soeuer they be made of, they doth^ in gender 
ventosyte ; wherfore they be not good nor holsome for 
the colycke nor the Ulycke,^ nor other inflatyue imped- 
ymentes or syckenesses, specyally yf howny be in it, 
the sayinges of Plyne, Galene, Auycene, with other 
Aucthours, notwithstandynge ; for in these dayes expe- 
ryence teacheth vs contrary to theyr sayinges & wryt- 
yngesj^ for althoughe the nature of man be not altered, 
yet it is weker, and nothynge so stronge nowe as whan 
they lyued," &c. [" <fe dyd practes &; makyng tliQ 
bokes.— P.] 



Hens' eggs only 
are used in 
England. 



Eggifdffosld be 
new, and roasted. 



f The .xiij. Chapitre treateth of whyt 

moate, as of egges, butter, chese, 

mylke, crayme,^ &e, 

N England there is no egges vsed to be 
eaten but hen-egges; wherfore I wyl 
fyrst wryte & pertract of hen-egges, 
The yolkes of ^hen-egges be cordyalles, 
for it is temporatly bote. The whyte of an egge is 
viscus & colde, aijd slacke of digestyon, and doth not 
ingender good blode ; wherfore, whosoeuer that wyl eate 
an egge,^*' let the egge be newe, and roste hym reare, and 




^ AB omit " Of.* 

* sustered, oH^. 

* and crayme P. 



' sign. G .ii. back. 
* do AB. ** nor Ilyacke AB. 



' fell AB. 
^ vvrytynge AB. 



sign. G .iii. 



'" Henne egge AB. 



CHAP. XIII.] DYETARY. OF BUTTER. 265 

eate hym; or els poche hym, for poched egges be best at or poached, 

nyglit, & newe reare rosted egges be good in the morn- 

ynge, so be it they be tyred with a lytell salte and and eaten with 

suger ; than^ they be nutry[ty]ue.2 In Turkey, and other 

hyghe chrystyan landes anexed to it, they ^ vse to seth in Turkey, they 

. boil eggs hard, 

two or thre busshels of egges togither harde, and pull and pickie 'em. 

of the shels, &* sowse them, and kepe them to eate at all 

tymes ; but hard egges be slowe and slacke of dygestyon, 

and doth nutryfye the body grosly. Hosted egges be 

better than sodden; fryed egges be nought; Ducke- Fried eggs are 

egges & geese-egges I do not prayse ; but fesaunt-egges pheasant and 

and partreges egges, physycke syngulerly doth prayse. ar^l^gwd.^ ^^^* 

IF OP butter. 
H Butter [is]® made of crayme, and' is moyste of ope- 
racion ; it is good to eate in the mornyng before other Eat butter eariy, 
meates. Frenche men wyll eate it after meate. But, food, 
eaten with other meates, it doth not onely nowrysshe, but 
it is good for the breste and lunges, and also it [doth] ® it's good for 

the lungs. 

relaxe and ^ molly fye the bely. Douche men doth eate 

it at all tymes in the daye, the which e I dyd not prayse Dutchmen cat 

when I dyd dwell amonge them / consyderyng that butter times in tiie day. 

is vnctyous,^^ and euery thynge that is vnctyous^^ is noy- ** ^' " ' ^*^' 

some to the stomacke, for as moche as it maketh lubry- 

factyon. And also euery thyng that is vnctious,^® That 

is to say, butterysshe, — oyle, grese, or fat, — dothswymme Butterish things 

aboue in the brynkes of the stomacke: as the fatnes other drinks in 

doth swymme aboue in a boylynge potte, the excesse 

of suche nawtacyon or superfyce wyll ascende to the 

oryse^^ of the stomacke, and doth make eructuasyons / 

wherfore, eatynge of moche butter at one refection is 

not comme?idable, nor it is not good for theym the Butter is bad for 

ague and fever. 
' that AB. ^ nutritive P; nutrj^ue AB. 

^ AB omit " they." " AB omit " &." 

* AB omit "Of." ^ is AB. ' Butter made of crayme P. 

* doth AB. ^ and doth P ; sign, G .iii. back. 
'° vncryous B. " oryfe AB ; orifice P. 



266 



OF THE FIVE KINDS OF CHEESE. 



[chap. XIII. 



Eat fresh butter 
ill the morning. 



whiche be in any ague or feuer, for the vnctuosyte * of 
it dothe auge and^ augment the heate of the lyuer : a 
lytell porcyon is good for euery man in the morenynge, 
yf it be newe made. 



Of 5 sorts of 

cheese : 

1. Green Cheese: 



2. Soft Cheese ; 



3. Hard Cheese; 

4. Spermyse 
Chees*, made of 
curds and the 
juice of herbs. 



5. Rewenc 
Cheese, the best 
ofaU. 



Tlie qualities of 
good Cheese. 



ir Of 3 Chese. 

IT Chese is made of my Ike ; yet there is* .iiii. sorces 
of chese, whiche is to say, grene chese, softe chese, 
harde chese, and ^ spermyse / Grene chese is not called 
grene by the reason of colour, but for the newnes of it / 
for the whey is not halfe pressed out of it; and in 
operacy^on it is colde and moyste. Softe chese, not to 
new nor to olde, is best, for in operacyon it is bote and 
moyste. Harde chese is bote and dry, and euyll to 
dygest. Spermyse is a chese the which is made with 
curdes and with the- iuce of herbes : to tell the nature 
of it, I can not / consyderynge that euery mylke-wyfe 
maye put many iuces of herbes of sondry operacyon & 
vertue, one not agreynge with another. But and yf 
they dyd knowe what they dyd gomble togyther with- 
out trewe compoundynge, and I knowynge the herbes, 
then I coulde tell the operacyon of spermyse chese. 
Yet besyde these .iiii. natures of chese, there is a chese 
called a rewene^ chese, the whiche, yf it be well orderyd, 
doth passe all other cheses, none excesse taken. But 
take the best chese of all these rehersyd, yf a latel ^ do 
good and pleasur. The ouerplus doth ingewdre grose 
humours ; for it is harde of dygestyon ; it maketh a 
man costyfe, and it is not good for the stone. Chese 
that is good, oughte not be to harde nor to softe, but 
betwyxt both ; it shuld not be towgh nor bruttell ; it 
ought not to be swete nor sowre, nor tarte, nor to salt, 
nor to fresshe ; it must be of good sauour & taledge, 

' ventuosyte orig., and P ; vnctuosyte AB. 
' AB omit " auge and." ^ AB omit " Of." 

* my Ike there be P. ' or AB. ^ G .iv. not bignecL 

^ Irweue AB. ^ lytell AB ; lytel P. 



CHAP. XIII.] DYETARY. MILK, CREAM, ALMOND-BUTTER. 267 

nor full of iyes, nor mytes, nor magottes / yet in 

Hydi Almen^ ^ the chese the whiche is full of macjotes is The High- 

•^ ° ^ Germans eat 

called there the best chese, and they wyll eatethe great cheese-maggots 

like we do 

magotes as fast as we do eate comfetes. comfits. 

IF OP Mylke. 

My Ike of a woman, and the mylke of a gote, is a woman's and 
good restoratyue ; wherfore these mylkes be good for good for con- 
them that be in a consumpcyon, and for the great ^"™p^^"* 
temperaunce the whiche is in them : it doth nowrysshe 
moche. 

IT Cowes mylke and ewes mylke, so be it the* beestes Cow's and ewe's 

•^ -^ ' ^ milk are 

be yonge, and do go in good pasture, the mylke is nutry- nourishing. 

tyue, and doth humect and moysteth the membres, and 

doth mundyfye and dense the entrayles, and doth alle- 

uyat & my ty gate the payne of the lunges & the brest; 

but it is not good for them the whiche haue gurgula- Miikisbadfor 

grumblings 

cyons in the bely, nor it is not al the best for sanguyne inthebeiiy; 
me?z / but it is very good for melancoly men, & for olde but good for old 

men and children. 

men and chyldren, specyally yf it be soddyn, addynge 
to it a lytell sugre. 

IT Of3 Crayme. 
IF Crayme the which dothe not stande longe on the 
mylke, & soddyn with a lytell suger, is nowrysshynge. 
Clowtyd crayme and rawe crayme put togyther, is eaten clotted cream, 
more for a sensuall appetyde than for any good now- 
rvsshe^ment. Kawe crayme vndecocted, eaten mth strawberries and 

•^ , "^ V 1 Ti cream will 

strawberyes or hurtes, is a rurall mannes banket. I haue endanger a man's 

life 

knowen such bankettes hath put men in ieoperdy® of 

theyr lyues. 

IF Almon-butter. 

^ Almon-butter made with fyne suger and good Aimond-butter 

and violets 

rose-water, and eaten with the flowers of many 

' Almayne AB. See p. 159, above. ' G .iv. back. 

3 AB omit '* Of." " thai the P. 

* sign. H .1. ^ ieobardy AB. 



268 



SALT AND FRESH- WATER FISH. 



[chap. XIV, 



rejoice the 
heart. 



Bean-butter fills 
the paunch 
and raises wind. 



England's the 
best fish country. 



vfholesomer than 
fresh-water fish. 



Porpoise is bad, 
say the Bible and 
Pliysic. 



Fish from 
running water is 
better than fish 




vyolettes, is a commendable dysshe, specyallye in Lent, 

whan the vyoletes be fragrant ; it reioyseth the herte, it 

doth comforte tliQ brayne, & doth qualyfye the heate of 

the lyuer. 

IT Beene-butter. 

f Beene-butter is vsed moche in Lent in dyuers 
countres. it is good for plowmen to fyl the panche; it 
doth ingender grose humours ; it * doth replete a man 
with ventosyte. 

f The .xiiii. Chapytre treatyth 
of Pysshe. 

F all nacyons and couwtres, England 
is beste seruyd of Fysshe, not onely 
Rr I of al maner of see-fysshe, but also of 
^^ fresshe- water fysshe, and of all maner 
of sortes of salte-fysshe. 

IT Of 2 See-fysshe. 

'IF Fysshes of the see, the which haue skales or 
many fynnes, be more holsomer than tliQ fresshe-water 
fysshe, the whiche be in standynge waters. The elder * 
a fysshe is, so much he is the better, so be it that the 
fysshe be softe and not solydat. yf the fysshe be faste 
and solydat, the yonger the fysshe is, the better it is to 
dygest ; but this is to vnderstaTide, that yf the fysshe 
be neuer so solydat, it muste haue age / but not oucr- 
growen, except it be a yonge porpesse, the which 
kynde of fysshe is nother praysed in the olde testament 
nor in physycke.^ 

IT Fresshe-water fysshe. 

IT The fysshe the whiche is in ryuers and brokes 
be more holsomer than they the which be in pooles, 
' and AB. 



» AB omit " Of. 
' sign. H .i. back. * older AB. 

* See TJie Babces Book Index, " Porpoise," and ' 



Purpose.' 



CHAP. XIV, XV.] DYETARY. OP SALT FISH, AND WILD FOWL. 



269 



pondes, or mootes, or any other stawdynge waters ; for from standing 

they doth laboure, and doth skower them selfe. Fysshe 

the whiche lyueth & doth feede on the moude, or els do Mud-fish taste of 

mud. 

feede in the fen or morysshe grou?zde, doth sauer of the 

moude, whiche is not so good as the fysshe that fedyth 

and doth skowre them self on the stones, or granell, or 

sande. 

ir Of Salte fysshe.i 

IF Salte fysshe, 2 the whiche be powderyd' and salted 
with salte, be not greatly to be praysed, specyally yf a sait-fisii only for 
man do make his hoole refecty^on w^ith it ; the qualyte good, 
doth not hurte, but the quantyte, specyally suche salte 
fysshes as wyll cleue to the fyngers whan a man doth 
eate it. And the skyn of fysshes be vtterly to be ab- 
horryd,^ for it doth ingender viscus fleume and color 
adust. Al maner of fysshe is colde of nature, and 
doth ingender fleume; it doth lytell nowrysshe / Fysshe Don't eat fish and 
and flesshe oughte not to be eaten togyther at one meale. 



% The .XV. Chapitre treateth of wylde 

fowle, and tame fowle 

[and] ^ byrdes. 




augment cam all lust. 

' Salte fysshes AB. 
' sprinkled.— F. 
* See Bahees Boq\ p. 
^ See Bahees Booh, p. 
for the other wild birds. 



F all wylde foule, the Fesaunt Pheasant is 

tlie best ; 

IS most beste,'^ Althoughe that 

a partreche of all fowleS is Partridge soonest 

soonest dygested ; wherfore it 
is a restoratyue meate, and 
dothe comforte the brayne 
and the stomacke, & doth 
A wood-cocke is a meate of woodcock. 

2 fysshes AB. 

* sign. H .11. 
154/55.3 ; UO/367, &c. ^ and AB. 
217, &;c. ; also p. 218-20, 143-4, &c., 



270 

Quail. Plover. 
Lapwing. 

Turtle-dove. 

Crane. 

Heron. 

Bustard. 

Bittern. 

Shoveler, 



Hen-pheasant. 

Moorcock. 

Moorhen. 



OP FOWL, AND LItTLE BIRDS. 



[chap. XV. 



good temperaunce. Qufiyles & plouers and lapwynges 
doth nowrysshe but lytel, for they doth ingender 
melawcoly humours, yonge turtyll-doues dothe in- 
gender good blode. ^ A crane is harde of dygestyon, 
and doth ingey^der euyll blode. A yonge herensew is 
lyghter of dygestyon than a crane. A bustarde well 
kylled and orderyd is a nutrytyue meate. A byttoure 
is not sf harde of dygestyon as is an herensew. A 
shoueler is lyghter of dygestyon than a byttoure : all 
these be noyfull except they be well orderyd and 
dressyd. A fesaunt-henne, A more-cocke and a more- 
henne, except they be sutt ^ abrode, they be nutrytyue. 
All maner of wylde fowle the whiche lyueth by the 
water, they be of dyscowmendable nowrysshement. 



Capon. 
Hen. 
Chicken. 
Cock. 



Pigeon. 
Goose. Duck. 
Peachick. 
Peacock. 



Sparrow. 

Colmouse (or 
Cole Titmouse, 
Parua Ater : Nat. 
Libr, Kxv. 172). 
Wren. 



H Of tame or domestycall fowle. 

If Of all tame fowle a capon is moste beste,^ For it 
is nutrytyue, and is soone dygestyd. A henne in 
wynter is good and nutrytyue. And so is a chyken* in 
somer, specyallye cockrellys and polettes, the whiche be 
vntroden. The flesshe of a cocke is harde of dy- 
gestyon, but the broth or gely^ made of a cocke is 
restoratyue. pygyons be good for coloryke & melancoly^ 
men. gose-flesshe and ducke-fiesshe is not pmysed, 
except it be a yonge grene goose, jonge peechyken of 
halfe a yere of age be praysed. olde pecockes be harde 
of dygestyon. 

IT Of Byrdes. 

^ IT All maner of smale Byrdes be good and lyght of 
dygestyon, excepte sparowes, whiche be harde of dy- 
gestyon. Tytmoses, colmoses, and wrens, the whiche 
doth eate spyders and poyson, be not comme7idable.^ 

' sign. H .ii. back. '^ do syt AB ; they sute P. 

^ See Bahees Book, p. 222, kc. * be chycken A ; be chyckens B. 
* a gely AB. ^ nielancolycke AB. ^ sign. H .iii. 

^ cowtmestyble AB. 



CHAP. XVI.] DYETARY. OF BEEF AND VEAL. 271 

of all smale byrdes the larke is beste : tban is^ praysed Lark. 
the blacke byrde & the thrusshe.^ Rasis and Isaac BiackWrd. 

Tlirush. 

prayseth yonge staares ; ^ but I do thynke, bycause they starling. 
be bytter in etyng, they shuld ingewder colour. 



% The .xvi. Chapytre treatyth 

of flesshe, of wylde and 

tame beestes. 



Eefe is a good meate for an Eng- Young Beef is 

T • T 1 1 good for 

lysshe man, so be it the beest be Englishmen. 




yonge, & that it be not kowe- 
flesshe; For olde beefe and kowe- 
flesshe doth* ingender melancolye 
and leporouse humoures. yf it be moderatly powderyd,* 
that the groose blode by salte may be exhaustyd, it sait beef makes 
doth make an Englysshe man stro7?ge, the educacion of ^"^ * ™"** 
hym with it cowsyderyd. Martylmas beef, whiche is Martiimasor 
called *' hanged beef" in the rofe of the smoky howse, is bad. 
is not laudable ; it maye fyll the bely, and cause a man 
to drynke, but ^it is euyll for the stone, and euyll of 
dygestyon, and maketh no good iuce. If a man haue a 
peace hangynge by his syde, and another in his bely, 
that the whiche doth hange by the syde shall do hym ' use it outBide 
more good, yf a showre of rayne do chaunse, than that not inside, 
the which is in his^ bely, the appetyde of mans sensu- 
alyte notwithstandynge. 

IT Of 9 Veale. 

IF Veale is [a] ^^ nutrytyue meate, and doth nowrysshe 
moche a man, for it is soone dygestyd: wherupon many Veaiiasoon 

. in digested. 

men doth holde oppynyon that it is the beste flesshe,^^ 

' then P. ^ thrusshes B. ' starlings. ■• do AB. 
5 salted. — F. ** H .iii. back. '' a man AB. 

* within the AB. ^ AB omit " Of." '" is a AB. 

" flesse, orUj. 
1 8 



272 MUTTON, LAMB, PORK. [cHAP. XVI. 

and the moste nutrytyue meate, that can be for mans 
sustenawnce. 

IT Of ^ Mutton and lambe. 

Mutton I IT Mutton, of Easis and Aueroyes is puaysed for a 

' good meate, but Galen dothe not laude it; and sewrely I 

do not loue it, consyderyng that there is no beest that 

is so soone infectyd, nor there doth happen so great 

sheep are so murren and syckenes to any quadrypedyd ^ beeste as 

murrain. ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ sheepc. This notwithstaudynge, yf the 

Bat good mutton sheepe be brought vp in a good pasture and fatte, and 

helps sick folk. n.. 

do not nauoure of the woUe, it is good for sycke per- 
sones, for it doth ingender good blode. 
Lamb 18 not good IT Lambes flesshe is moyste and flumatycke, ^wher- 

for old men. 

fore it is not all the best for olde men, excepte they be 
melancolye of complexyon : it * is not good for fiumatyke 
men to feade ; to moche of it doth hurte.'^ 



IT Of 1 Porke, brawne,^ bakon, & pygge. 

IT where-as Galen, with other auncyent and ap- 

probat doctours, doth prayse porke, I dare not say the 
Pork I contrarye agaynst them ; but this I am sure of, I dyd 

neuer loue it : And in holy scrypture it is not praysed ; 
A swine is filthy for a swyne is an vnclene beest, and dothe lye vpon ' 

fylthy & stynkynge soyles ; and with stercorus matter 

but is kept dyuers tymes doth^ fede in^ Englande ; yet in^^ Hygh- 

ermany, ^jj^gj^ u ^j^^ other hygh couutres, (except Spayne & other 

countres anexed to Spayne) , [m en] doth kepe theyr swyne 
and has a swim clcuc, and dotho cause them ones or twyse a daye to 

swymwe in great ryuers, lyke the water of Ryne, whiche 

* AB omit " Of." On lamb, see Bahees Booh, p. 222. 
' quatryped AB ; quadi-yped P. 
' H .iv. not signed. * nor hit P. 

* ABP omit "doth hurte." — P adds "for the flesshe is wa- 
teiysshe." ^ browne, orig. ' vpponj in AB. 

" it doth AB. ^ specyallye in AB. 

*" AB omit " in." " hyghe Ahnayne AB. 



twice a day. 



CHAP. XVI.] DYETARV. ADDERS, PORK, AND BACON. 273 

is aboue Coleyne^; but Spaynyerdes, with the other regi- Spanish swine are 

ons anexed to them, kepe the swyne more fylthyer than 

Englysshe^ persons doth. Further-more, the leue, the 

Sarason, the Turkes, cowsernynge theyr polytycke wyt 

and lerenyng in Physycke, hath as moche wyt, wysdom, .,54 

reason, and knowledge, for the sauyte of theyr body, as 

any Chrysten man hath ; — and noble physycyons I haue I'^e known 

noble heathen 

knowen amonges them ; yet ^ they all lacked gtace, for Physicians. 

as moche as they do not knowe or knowledge* lesu 

Chryste, as the holy scrypture telly th vs and them. — 

They louyth * not porke nor swynes flesshe,^ but doth Jews and Turks 

vituperat & abhorre it; yet for all this they wyll eate 

adders, whiche is a kynde of serpentes, as well as any but wiii eat 

adders like any 

other Crysten man dwellynge in Rome,^ & other hyglic christian in 

countres ; for adders flesshe there is called " fysshe of 

the mountayn." This notwithstandynge, physycke 

doth approbat adders flesshe good to be eaten, sayinge Adder's flesh 

makea a man 

it doth make an olde man yonge, as it apperyth, by young. 
a harte eatyng an adder, maketh hym yonge agayne. 
But porke doth not so ; for yf it be of an olde hogge 
not clene kepte, it doth ingender gross blode, & doth 
humect to moche the stomacke; yet yf the porke be Young pork 

nourishes. 

yonge, it is nutrytyue. 

IT Bacon is good for carters and plowmen, the Bacon is good 

for ploughmen ; 

whiche be euer labourynge m the earth or dunge ; but 

& yf they haue the stone, and vse to eate it, they shall bad for the stone. 

synge, " wo be^ the pye ! " wherfore I do say that col- 

oppes and egges is as holsome for them, as a talowe coiiops and eggs 

are bad lor that 

candell is good for a horse mouth, or a peese of pow- too. 

dred^ beef is good for a blereyed mare; yet sensuall 

appetyde muste haue a swynge, all^ these thinges 

not-'^withstandynge. ^^ porke is conuertyble to mans 

flesshe." 

' See Introduction, p. 156. ' englysse, orig. ' H .iv. back. 
* loue AB. * flesse, orig. ^ See Introdiiction, p. 177. 
' be to AB. « salt. » at all AB. *» sign. I .i. 

11— u p leaves out these words. ,, , 

BOORDE. 18 



274 



Brawn is a usual 
English winter 



Keep clear of it. 



BRAWN, KID, AND VENISON. [CHAP. XVI. 

IT Of » Brawne. 

IT Brawne is an vsual meate in wynter amoTzges 
Englysshe men : it is harde of dygestyon. the brawne 
of a wylde "boore is moche more better than the brawne 
of a tame boore. yf a man eate nother of them bothe, 
it shall neuer do hym harme. 



Pigs in jelly are 
good. 



A young fat pig 
is good. 
But mind ; no 
oraclding * 



IT Ofi Pygges. 

^ Pygges, specyally sowe pygges, is nutrytyne; and 
made in a gelye, it is^ restoratyue, so be it the pygge be 
fleed,^ the skyn taken of, and than stewed with restor- 
atyues, as a cocke is stewed to make a gely. A yonge 
fatte pygge in physicke is syngulerly praysed, yf it be 
wel orderyd in the rostynge, the skyn not eaten. 



Kid's flesh Is the 
best tame animal 
flesh. 



1[ Of^ Kydde. 

IF Yonge Kyddes flesshe is praysed aboue all other 
flesshe, as Auicen, Rasis, & Aueroyes sayth, for it is 
temperate and nutrytyue, although it be somwhat dry. 
Olde kydde is not praysed. 



Nowhere in 
Christendom are 
deer so loved as 
in England. 



IT Of wylde beestes flesshe. 

IT I haue gone rownde aboute Crystendome, and 
ouerthwarte Crystendom, & a thousande or two and 
more myles out of Crystendom, ^ yet there is not so 
moche pleasure for harte & hynde, bucke, and doo, and 
for roo bucke and doo, as is in Englande ; & although 
Give me Venison, the flesshe be dispraysed in physycke / I pray God to 

though Physic ' /. i 

says it's bad. sende me parte of the flesshe to eate, physycke not-with- 
standyng. The opynyon of all olde physycyons was 
& is, that venyson is not good to eate, pryncipaylly for 
two cause[s] ^ : the fyrst cause is, that^ the beest doth lyue 
in fere'; for yf he be a good wood-man, he shall neuer 



' AB omit " Of. 
^ fleyd AB. 
* causes ABP. 



* is a AB. 

* sign. I .i. back. 

« that he AB. ' feare AB. 



CHAP. XVI. ] DYETARY. VENISOi"?-, HARE, CONEY, RABBIT. 275 

se no kyude of deere, but at the .x. hjt on the grasse, The deer is fuii 

of fear, 

or brosynge on the tree, but he wyll lyfte vp his hed 
& loke aboute hym, the whiche co?72meth of tymorys- 
nes ; and tymorosyte'doth brynge in melancoly humours, 
wherfore all Physycyons ^ sayth that venyson, which and its flesh 

. " 1 T 1 breeds choleric 

IS the secowde cause, doth mgender coloryke humours ; humours. 
& of trueth it doth so: wherfore let them take the But i say, 

let Physicians 

skyn, and let me haue the flesshe. I am sure it is a take the deer's 

skin : give me 

lordes dysshe, and I am sure it is good for an Englysshe its flesh ! 

man, for it doth anymate hym to be as he is, whiche is, lord's dish, and 

stronge and hardy / but I do aduertyse euery man, for l^ngHshman. 

all my wordes, not to kyll, and so to eate of it, excepte Don't poach for 

deer. 

it be lefully,^ for it is a meate for great men. And 

great men do not set so moch by the meate, as they do ^ Great men uke 

? , ^ , „ ^ . killing 'em. 

by the pastyme of kyllyng of it. 



* IT Of 5 Hares flesshe. 

IT A hare doth no harme nor ^ dyspleasure to no 
man : yf the flesshe be not eaten, it maketh a gentyl- Let hares be 
man good pastyme. And better is for the bounder or the dogs eat 'em 
dogges to eate the hare after they haue kylled it, as I 
Bayd, than man shuld eate it; for it is not praysed, 
nother in the olde Testament, nother in physycke ; for 
the byble sayth the hare is an vnclene beeste, And they breed 
physycke sayeth hares flesshe is drye, and doth ingen- 
der melancoly humors. 

IT Of 5 Conys flesshe. 
IT Conys flesshe is good, but rabettes^ flesshe is Rabbit's flesh. 

18 tli6 l)6sti wild* 

best of all wylde beestes / for it is temperat, and doth beast flesh, 
nowrysshe, and [is] syngulerly praysed in physycke ; for 
all thynges the whiche dothe sucke, is nutrytyue. 

' Phyon auchons, oriff. and AB. Physycyons P. 

* lawfully AB, ' do AB. * sign. I .ii. 

* AB omit " Of." 6 nor no AB. 

' Rabbit, the young cony while a sucker. Babees Book. 

1 8* 



276 



don't eat skin, brains, etc. [chap. XVII. 



^ The .xvij. Chapytre doth treate of 

pertyculer thynges of fysshe 

and flesshe. 



The heads and 
the fat of fish 
are bad. 



Don't eat the 
skin of fisl) and 
flesh. 



Brains (except 
a Itid's, and some 
birds') hurt the 
stomach. 



Fore parts better 
than hind parts. 



Marrow is 
nourishing when 
eaten with 
pepper. 



Blood, inwards, 
and 

entrails, aro 
indigestible. 



Fat nourishes 
less than lean. 




He heddes of fysshe, and the fatnes of 
fysshe, specyally of Samon and Con- 
ger, is not good for them the whiche 
be dysposed to haue rewmatycke 
heddes. And tho, heddes of lampryes 
^ & lamprons,* & the strynge the whiche is within theym, 
is not good to eate. refrayne from etynge of the 
skynnes^ of fysshe and flesshe,^ & hornet^ meate, and 
browne meate, for it doth ingender viscus humours, and 
color, & melancoly, And doth make opylacions. The 
braynes of any beest is not laudable, excepte the brayne 
of a kydde ; for it is euyl of digestyon, and doth hurte 
a mans appetyde and the stomacke, for it is colde, and 
moyste, and viscus. a bote stomacke may eate it, but it 
doth inge?2der grose humours. The brayne of a wod- 
cocke, and of a snype, and suche lyke, is commestyble. 
The foreparte of all maner of beestes & fowles be more 
hotter, and lyghter of digestyon, than the hynder 
partes be. The marye of all beestes is bote and 
moyste ; it is nutrityue yf it be wel dygestyd, yet it 
doth moUyfy the stomacke, and doth take away a mans 
appetyde; wherfore let a man eate peper with it. The 
blode of all beestes & fowles is not praysed, for it is 
hard of digestyon. Al the, inwarde*' of beestes and of 
fowles, as the herte, the lyuer, the lunges, and trypes, 
and trylybubbes, wyth all the intrayles, is harde of 
dygestyon, and doth increase grose humoures. The 
fatnes of flesshe is not so moche nutrytyue as ^the 
leenes of flesshe ; it is best whan leene and fat is 



* sign. I .ii. back. ^ See Babccs Booh, p. 215, 166, 174, 235. 
^ kynnes, orig. ; skynnes AB. * flesshe and fysshe AB. 

* burned AB ; borned P. * sign. I .iii. 




CH. XVIII.] DYETARY. OF COOKED MEAT, AND A GOOD COOK. 277 

myxte one with another. The tunges of beestes^ be Tongues, 
harde of dygestyon, and of lytell nowrysshement. The 
stones of a cockrell, & the stones of other beestes that Teaticie* 
hath not done theyr kynde, be nutrytyue. 



% The .xviij. Chapitre treaty th of roste 

meate, of fryed meate, [of soden or 

boyled meate, of bruled meate,] ^ 

and of bake meate. 

Ith vs at Mouwtpylour, and other At Montpeiier we 
vnyuersyties, is vsed boyled meate for dinner and 

, J J . i i roast for supper. 

at dyner, and roste meate to sup- 
per : why they shulde do so, I 
cannot tell, onlesse it be for a 
consuetude. For boyled meate is 
Ivghter of digestvon than rosted meate is. Bruled Broiled meat is 

•"^ ^ -^ indigestible. 

meate is harde of digestyon, & euyll for the stone. 
Fryed meate is harder of dygest[y]on2 ^han brulyd meate 
is, and it doth ingender color and melancoly. Bake Baked meat 

(buried in paste) 

meate, whiche is called flesshe that is beryd,^ — for it is is bad. 

buryd in paast, — is not praysed in physycke. All maner 

of flesshe the whiche is inclyned to humydyte, shulde Roast 

moist flesh ; 

be rostyd. And all flesshe the whiche is ^inclyned to boii dry neeh. 
drynes shulde be sodde or boyled. 

IT Fysshe may be sod, rostyd, brulyd, & baken. How to cook fish, 
euery one after theyr kynde, and vse, & fasshyon of the 
countree, as the coke and the physycyon wyll agre and 
deiiyse. For a good coke is halfe a physycyon. For The chief physio 

comes from the 

the cheie physycke (the counceyll of a physycyon ex- kitchen, 
cepte) dothe come from the kytchyn ; wherfore the 
physycyon and the coke for sycke men muste consult cook and Doctor 
togyther for the preparacion of meate ^ for sycke men. 

' Put in from AB. ' dygestyon ABP. ^ buryed AB. 
* sign, I .iii. back. * meates AB. 



278 



OF ROOTS. 



[chap. XIX. 



Phybicians are 
bad cooks. 



Borage; Bugloss 

(see p. 280). 



Alexanders. 



Elecampane 
(Scabwort or 
Horseheal). 



Parsley (p. 281). 



Fennel (p. 281). 



Turnips. 



Parsnips. 



T 



For yf the physycyon, withx)ut tlie coke, prepare any 
meate, excepte he be very experte, he wyll make a 
werysse ^ dysshe of meate, the whiche the sycke can not 
take. 

% The .xix. Chapitre treateth of Roo- 

tes, and fyrste of the rootes [of] ^ 

borage and of buglosse. 

He rootes of Borage and Buglosse soden tender, 
and made in a succade, doth ingender good blode, 
and doth set a man in a temporaunce. 

f The rootes of Alysannder^ 
and Enulacampana.* 

IT The rootes of Alysaunder soden tender and 
made in [a]^ succade, is good for to dystroye the stone 
in the Raynes of the backe & blader. ^The rootes of 
Enulacampana* soden tender, and made in a succade, is 
good for the breste, and for the lunges, and for all the 
interyall membres of man. 

IF The rootes of percelly & of fenell. 

IT The Rootes of percelly soden tender, and made in 
a succade, is good for the stone, and doth make a man 
to pysse. The rootes of Fenell soden tender, & made 
in a succade, is good for the lunges and for the syght. 

IT The rootes of turnepes & persnepes.'^ 
IF Turnepes boyled and eaten with flesshe, aug- 
mewtyth the seede of man. yf they be eaten rawe 
moderatly, it doth prouoke a good apetyde. Persnepes^ 
soden & eaten doth increase nature^; they be nutrityne, 
& doth expell vryne, 

^ verysshe AB ; werysshe P. ' of AB. 

' Fr. Alexandre . . the hearb, great Parsley, Alexanders or 
Alisaunders. — Cotgrave. * Elenacampane B. 

* in a AB ; in surcade P. " I .iv. not signed. 

' Parsneppes AB. ® Semen, generative fluid. 



CHAP. XIX.] DYETARY. RAPES, ONIONS, LEEKS, GARLICK. 279 

IF Radysshe rootes, and Caretes. 

IT Eadysshe rootes doth breke wynde, & dothe pro- Radishes, 
uoke a ina?^ to make water, but they be not good for 
them the whiche hath the gowte. Caretes soden and Carrots, 
eaten doth ange & increase nature, & doth cause a man 
to make water. 

IT The rootes of Rapes. 

IT Rape rootes, yf they be well boyled, they do ^ Rapes, 
nowrysshe, yf they be moderatly eaten : iwmoderatly 
eaten, they doth ^ ingender ventosyte, and doth anoye 
the stomacke. 

3f Of* Onyons. 

If Onyons doth prouoke a man to veneryous actes, Onions. (See 

1 . 1 o A 11 111 BdbeesBook, 

and to sompnolence; & yi a man drynke sondry drynkes p. i56, 2i4.) 
it doth rectyfy and reforme the varyete of the opera- 
cyon of them : they maketh a mans apetyde good, and 
putteth away fastydyousnes. 

IT Of* Leekes. 

IT Leekes doth open the breste, and doth prouoke a Leew. 
man to make water ; but they doth make and increase 
euyll blode. 

IT Of* Garlyke. 
IT Garlyke, of all rootes is vsed & most praysed in gotUc 
Lombardy, and other countres anexed to it ; for it doth 
open the breste, & it doth kyll all maner of wormes in kiiis worms in 
a mans bely, whiche be to say, lumbrici, ascarides, and "^ ^ 
cucurbitini, whiche is to saye, longe wormes, small lytell 
longe wormes whiche wyll tykle in the foundement, and and fund.imenL 
square wormes j it also hetyth tM body, and desoluyth 
grose wyndes. 

• doth AB. "" do AB. 

'•^ I .iv. back. * AB omit " Of." 



280 



OF HERBS FOR COOKING. 



[chap. XX. 



Borage. 



Bugloes (see p. 
2W). 



Artichokes. 



RockeL 



f The .XX. Chapitre treateth of ^ 

vsuall Herbes. And fyrste of 

Borage and Buglosse. 

BOrage doth comforte the herte, and doth ingender 
good blode, and ^(jauseth a man to be mery, & 
doth set a man in^ temporaunce. And so doth buglosse, 
for he is taken of more vygor, & strength, & efFy- 
cacye,'* 

IT Of Artochockes, and Eokat.^ 

IT There is nothynge vsed to be eaten of Arto- 
chockee but thQ hed of them, whan they be almost 
rype, they must be soden tewder in tim broth of beef;* & 
after, eate them at dyner: they doth increase nature, and 
dothe prouoke a man to veneryous actes. Rokat doth 
increase the seede of man, and doth stumulat the flesshe, 
and doth helpe to dygestyon. 



IT Of Cykory, and Endyue. 

Chicory. IT Cykoiy doth kepe the stomacke and f/ie heed in 

Endive. temporauuce, and doth qualyfy color. Endyue is good 

for them the whiche haue hoote stomackes and drye. 

IT Of whyte Beetes, and Purslane. 

White Beets. IF whyte Beetes "^ be good for the lyuer & for the 

Purslane. spleno, and be abstersyue. Purslane dothe extynct the 

ardor of lassyuyousnes, and doth mytygate great heate 

in all the inwarde partes of man. 



• of certayne A ; of certaine B. * sign. K .i. 
^ in a AB. * etficacytye AB. 

* Garden Rocket {Brassica eruca or Eruca mtiva) is an 
annual, of which, when young, the leaves are used as a salad 
abroad, and were formerly so in Britain. The wild Rocket 
(Sisymbrinm officinale or Erijslinnm officinale) is common 
here, and is sometimes sown and used as a spring pot-herb. 
Chamhers's Cijcloi)cedia. ® AB add " or with beef e." 

■^ beeten P. 



CHAP. XX.] DYETARY. THE QUALITIES OF CERTAIN HERBS. 281 

IT Of Tyme and Parsley. 
H Tyme breky th the stone ; it dotlie desolue wyndes, xhyme. 
And causeth a man to make water. Parsley is good to Parsiey (p. sts;. 
breke the stone, and cau^seth a man to pysse; it is 
good for the stomaeke, & doth cause a man to haue a 

swete breth. 

IT Of Lettyse, and SorelL 
IT Lettyse doth extynct veneryous actes, yet it doth Lettuce 
increase my Ike in a womans breste; it is good for a 
bote stomaeke, and doth prouoke slepe, and doth 
increase blod, and doth set the blode in a temporaunce. 
SoreU is good for a bote lyuer, and good for the SorreU 

stomaeke. 

IT Of Penyryall and Isope. 
IF Penyryall doth purge melawcoly, and doth com- Pennyrovau 
forte the stomaeke & the spyrites of man. Isope clens- Hyssop, 
eth viscus fleume, & is good for the breste and for the 

lunges. 

% Of Roosmary, and Rosea. 

^ Roosmary is good for palses,^ and for the fallynge Rosemary, 
syckenes, and for the cowghe, and good agaynst colde. 
Roses be a cordyall, and doth comfoi-te the herte & the Roses. 
brayne. 

IT Of Fenell, and Anys. 

IT These herbes be seldome vsed, but theyr seedes be 
greatly occupyde. Fenell-sede is vsed to breke wynde,^ Fennei-seed (p. 
and [is] good agaynst poyson. Anys-sede is good to dense Anise-seed, 
the bladder, and the raynes of the backe, & doth pro- 
uoke vryne, and maketh one to haue a soote^ breth. 

H Of Sawge, and Mandragor.* 
<'ir Sawge is good to helpe a woman to conceyue, sage. 
and doth prouoke vryne. Mandragor doth helpe a Mandragora. 
woman to concepcion, and doth prouoke a man to slepe. 

' sign. K .i. back. ' the palsey P. 

^ vryde AB. (cp. Glutton going to the ale-house in Vii. 
of Piers Plowman.) * swete AB. 

* Mandragod, oriff. and P j Mandragor AB. ^ sign. K .ii. 



282 



OF HERBS AND FRUITS. 



[CH. XX, XXI. 



No herb or weed 
without power to 
help man. 



IT Of all herbes in generall. 

IT There is no Herbe, nor weede, but God haue' 
gyuen vertue to them, to helpe man. But for as moche 
as Plyne, Macer, and Diascorides, with many other 
olde auncyent and approbat Doctours, hath wryten 
and pertracted of theyr vertues, I therfore nowe wyll 
wryte no further of herbes, but wyll speke of other 
matters that shalbe more necessary e. 



Figs are most 
nourishing, 



specially with 
biancht Almonds, 



but provoke 
Tenery. 



Raisins stir up 
the appetite. 




^ The .xxi. Chapitre treatyth 

of Pruytes, and fyrste 

of Pygges. 

Uicen sayth that Fygges doth now- 
rysshe more than any other Fruyte : 
they doth nowrysshe meruelouslye 
whan they be eaten with blanched 
Almons. They be also good, rosted, 
^ ^ _ ^ _ & stued. They do dense the brest 
& the lunges, & they do open th^ opylacyons of the 
lyuer & the splene. They doth stere a man to ^vene- 
ryous actes, for they doth auge and increase the sede of 
generacyon. And also they doth prouoke a man to 
sweate ; wherfore they doth ingender lyce. 

IT Of great Eaysyns. 
IT Great Eaysyns be nutrytyue, specyally yf the 
stones be pullyd out. And they doth make the 
sfcomacke fyrme & stable. And they doth prouoke a 
man to haue a good appetyde, yf a fewe of them be 
eaten before meate. 



Currants are 
good for the 
botik. 



IF Of smale Eaysyns of Gorans. 
IT Smale raysyns of Gorans be good for tlm raynes 
of the backe ; and they dothe prouoke vryne. Howbeit 
■ hath AB. ' sigQ. K .ii. back. 



CHAP. XXI.] DYETARY. THE QUALITIES OP PEACHES, NUTS, ETC. 283 

they be not all the best for the splene, for they maketh 
opylacyon. 

IT Of Grapes. 
IT Grapes, swete and newe, be nutrytyue, & doth Fresh Grapes 

^ ' J J i comfort the 

stumulat the flesshe ; And they doth comforte the Liver, 
stomacke and thQ lyuer, and doth auoyde opylacyons. 
Howbeit, it doth replete the stomacke with ventosyte. 

IT Of Peches, of Medlers, & Ceruyces. 

IT Peches doeth mollyfy the bely, and be colde. Peaches. 

Medlers, taken superfluous, doth ingender melancolye. Medlars. 

And Ceruyces^ be in maner of lyke operacyon. services. 

% Of Strawburyes,2 Cherys, & Hurtes. 
^ir Strawburyes be praysed aboue all buryes, for strawberries, 
they do qualj^ye the heate of the lyuer, & dothe in- 
gender good blode, eaten with suger. Cherys doth cherries, 
mollyfye the bely, and be colde. Hui"tes be of a Hmtieberries 

( Vaccinium, L. 

groser substaunce; wherlore they be not lor them the xheWhortie- 
whiche be of a clene dyete. 

IT Of Nuttes, great and smale, 

IT The walnut & the banocke* be of one operacyon. Wainuta. 
They be tarde and slowe of digestyon, yet they doth 
comforte the brayne if the pyth or skyn be pylled of, 
and than they be nutrytyue. Fylberdes be better Filberts are best 

when new. 

than hasell Nuttes : yf they be newe, and taken from 
the tree, and the skyn or the pyth pullyd of, they be 

' Pyrus Sorbns, the True Service. A tree very like the 
mountain-ash, but bigger, and bearing larger fruit, which, 
when beginning to decay, is brought to table in France ; though 
it is oftener eaten by the poor than the rich. See LoudorCs 
Enc. of Trees and Shrubs, 1842, p. 442-3. 

* Strawderyes B. ' sign. K .iii. 

* and banocke, AB. JBannnt, a walnut, West. [Wilts 
and Somerset : Stratmann.] The growing tree is called a Jfl«- 
nut tree, but the converted timber walnut. The term occurs 
as early as 1697 in MS. Lansd. 1033, fol. 2.—IIaUhvelVs Gloss. 



284 



PEAS, BEANS, AND FRUITS. 



[chap. XXI. 



Old nuts breed 
palsy in the 
tongue. 



Peas. 



Beans are 
strong food. 



Mellow Pears 
make men fat. 



Roast Wardens 
comfort the 
stomach. 



Apples should 
be eaten with 
comfits or fennel> 
seed. 



Pomegranates. 

Baked Quinces 
soften the belly. 



nutrytyue, & doth increase fatnes ; yf they be olde, they 
shuld be eaten with great raysens. But new nuttes be 
farre better than olde nuttes, for olde nuttes be color- 
ycke, and they be euyl for the hed, and euyll for olde 
men. And they dothe ingender the palsey to the 
tounge, (yet they be good agaynst venym,) And, immo- 
deratly taken or eaten, doth ingender corrupcyons, as 
byles, blaynes, & suche putryfaction. 

IT Of Peason and Beanes. 
If Peason the whiche be yonge, be nutrytyue; 
Howbeit, they doth replete a man with vento'syte. 
Beanes be not so moche to be praysed as peason, for 
they be full of ventosyte, althoughe the skynnes or 
huskes be ablatyd or cast away ; yet they be a stronge 
meate, and doth prouoke veneryous actes. 

If Of Peares, and Appulles. 
IT Peares the whiche be melow and doulce, & not 
stony, doth increase fatnes, ingenderyng waterysshe 
blod. And they be full of ventosyte. But wardens 
rosted, stued, or baken, be nutrytyue, and doth com- 
forte the stomacke, specyally yf they be eaten with 
comfettes. Apples be good, after a frost haue taken 
them, or ^whan they be olde, specyally red apples, and^ 
they the whiche be of good odor, & melow ; they shuld 
be eaten with suger or comfettes, or with fenell-sede, or 
anys-sede, bycause of theyr ventosyte; they doth 
comforte than the stomacke, and doth make good dy- 
gestyon, specyally yf they be rostyd or baken. 

IT Of Pomegranates, & Quynces. 
IF Pomegranates be nutrytyue, and good for the 
stomacke. Quinces baken, the core^ pulled out, doth 
moUyfy the bely, and doth helpe dygestyon, and dothe 
preserue a man from dronkenshyppe. 

* sign. K .iii. back. ^^ P omits this. ' gore P. 



OHAP. XXI.] DYETARY. THE QUALITIES OF GOURDS, ETC. 285 

IT Of Daates, and My Ions. 
* IT Daates, moderatly eaten, be nutrityue ; but they i>ate8 nouriBh. 
doth cause opylacyons of the lyuer and of the splene. 
Mylons doth ingender euyl humoures. Melons. 

IT Of gourdes, of Cucu?7ibres, & pepones. 
IT Gourdes be euyll of nowrysshement. Cucumbers Gourds, 
restrayneth veneryousnes, or lassyuyousnes, or luxury- Cucumbers, 
ousnes. Pepones ^ be in maner of lyke operacion, but Pepones. 
the pepones ingenderyng^ euyll humours. 

IT Of Almondes and Chesteyns. 
IF Almondes causeth a man to pysse ; they do* Almonds stop 
mollyfy the bely, and doth purge the lunges. And 
.vi. or .vii. eate before meate, preserueth a man from 
dror^kenshyp. Chesteynes doth no^vTysshe the body Chestnuts fatten, 
strongly, & doth make a man fat, yf they be thorowe 
rested, and the huskes abiected ; yet they doth replete a 
man with vewtosyte or wynde, 

IT Of Prunes, and Damysens. 
IT Prunes be nat greatly praysed, but in the way of Prunes (plums), 
medysyne, for they be cold & moyste. And Damysens Damsons : 
be of tJie sayd nature ; for the one is olde and dryed, 
and the other be taken from the tre. .vi. or .vii.* dam- eat e or 7 before 

dinner. 

ysens eaten before dyner, be good to prouoke a mans 
appetyde; they doth mollyfy the bely, and be ab- 
stersyue; ^the skyn and the stones must be ablatyd 
and caste awaye, and not vsed. 

IT Of Olyues, and Capers. 
IT Olyues condyted, and eaten at the begynnynge ouves. 
of [a]^ refectyon, doth con'oborate the stomacke, and 
prouoketh appetyde. Capers doth purge fleume, and capers, 
doth make a man to haue an appetyde. 

' K .iv. not signed. 

* Fr. Pepon : m. A Pompion or Melon. — Cotgravc. 

* ingenderythe P. ■• doth AB. * Syxe or seuen AB. 

^ K .iv. back. ' a AB 



286 



Oranges, and 
Orange- 
Marmalade, 



OF SPICES. 



[chap. XXII. 



f Of Orenges. 

H Orenges doth miake a man to haue a good appe- 
tyde, and so doth the ryndes, yf they be in succade, & 
they doth comforte the stomacke; the luce is a good 
sauce, and dothe prouoke an appetyde. 



Ginger. 
Green ginger. 



Pepper, white, 
black, and long 



Cloves. 



Mm< 



Cardamons, 
SalTron. 




% The .xxii. Chapitre treateth of 
spyces, and fyrste of Gynger 



ynger doth hete the stomacke, and 
helpyth dygestyon : grene gynger 
eaten in the moreniwge, fastynge, doth 
acuat and quycken the remembraunce. 



IF Of Peper. 

IT There be .iii, sondry kyiides of peper, which be 
to say, whyte Peper, blacke Peper, & long Peper. All 
kyndes of pepers doth^ heate the bo'-'dy, and doth de- 
solue fleume & wynde, & dothe helpe dygestyon, and 
maketh a man to make water. Blacke peper doth make 
a man leane. 

IT Of Clones, and Mace. 
H Clones doth comforte the senewes, & doth dy- 
soliie and doth consume superfluous humours, [and] ^ re- 
storyth nature. Maces is a cordyall, and doth helpe 
the colycke, & is good agaynst the blody flyxe and 
laxes. 

IF Of Graynes, and Safl'eron. 

^ Graynes be good for the stomake and the head; 
And be good for women to drynke. Safferon doth 
comforte the hcrte & the stomacke, but he is to bote for 
the lyuer. 



^ to oHff. ; doth AB. 



sign. L .i. 



and AB. 



CH. XXII, XXIII.] DYETARY, DIETS FOR SANGUINE MEN. 287 

% Of Nutmeges, & Cynomome.^ 

% Nutmeges be good for them the whiche haiie Nutmegs. 
colde in theyr hed, and dothe comforte the syght and 
the brayne, & the mouthe of the stomacke, & is good 
for the splene. Cynomome is a cordyall, wherfore the cinnamon. 
Hebrecyon^ doth say, " why doth a man dye, and can 
gette Cynomome to eate ? " yet it doth stop, & is good 
to restrayne, fluxes or laxes. 

% Of Lyqueryce. 

^ Lyqueryce is good to dense and to open the Liquorice, 
lunges & the brest, & doth loose fleume. 

f The .xxiij. Chapytre sheweth a dyete 
for Sanguyne men. 

Anguyne me7i be hoote and moyste Sanguine men 
of complexion, wherfor they must 
be cyrcumspect in eatynge of 
theyr meate, cowsyderynge that 
the purer the complex[i]on is, the 
soner it may be coruptyd, & the 
blode maye be the sooner infectyd / wherfore they must mustn't eat 
abstayne to eate inordynatly fniytes and herbes and roots,' 
rotes, as garlyke, onyons, and leekes; they must re- 
frayne from eatyng of olde flesshe, and exchew the oidnesii, 
vsage of etynge of the braynes of beestes, & from 
etynge the vdders of keyn. They muste vse moderat cows' udders, 
slepe and moderat dyet, or els they wyl be to fat and 
•j[rose. Fysshe of muddy waters be not good for them, or mud-ash. 
And yf blode do abouwde, dense it with stufes, or by 
fleubothomye. 

' Cynamon B (ed. 1562) ; Cynamone P. ^ Hebricion ABP, 

^ sign. L .i. back. 
1 9 





288 PHLEGMATIC AND CHOLERIC MEN. [cH. XXIV, XXV. 

% The .xxiiij. Chapyter sheweth a dyete 
for Fleumatycke men. 



Leumaticke men be colde and moyste, 
wherfore they must abstayne from 
meates the whiche is cold. And 
also they must refrayne from eatyng 
viscus meate, specially from ^ all 
meates the whiche doth ingender fleumatycke humours, 
as fysshe, fruyte, and whyte meate. Also to exchewe 
the vsage of eatynge of crude herbes ; specyall[y] to re- 
frayne from meate the whiche is harde and slowe of 
dygestyon, as it appereth in the propertes of meates 
aboue rehersyd. And to^ beware not to dwell nyghe to 
waterysshe and morysshe grounde. These thynges be 
good for fleumatycke persons, moderatly taken : onyons, 
garlycke, peper, gynger ; And all meates the whiche 
be bote and drye ; And sauces the whiche be sowre. 
These thynge.s folowynge doth purge fleume : polypody, 
netyll, elder, agarycke, yreos, mayden-heere, and 
stycados. 



fish or fruit. 



PlilcKraatic men 
mnstn't eat 
indigestible 
meats, 



but hot and dry 
ones. 



Purgatives of 
Phlegm. 



Choleric men 
shouldn't eat hot 
spices, or drink 
wine. 



Purgatives of 
Choler. 



% The .XXV. Chapitre sheweth a dyete 
for Colorycke men. 

Olor is bote and dry ; wherfore Colorycke 
men muste abstayne from eatyng bote 
spyces, and to refrayne from drynkynge 
of wyne, and eatynge of Colorycke 
meate : howbeit, Colorycke men may eate groser meate 
than any other of complexions, except theyr educacion 
haue ben to the contrary. ^ Colorycke men shulde not 
be longe fastynge. These thynges folowyng do^ purge 
color: Fumytory, Centory, wormewod, wylde hoppes, 




' sign. L .ii. 

' sign. L. ii. back. 



* AB omit " to.' 

* doth AB. 




OH. XXVI, XXVII.] OF MELANCHOLY MEN, AND OF THE PESTILENCE. 289 

vyoletes, Mercury, Manna, Reuberbe, Eupatory, Tama- 
rindes, & the whay of butter. 

% The .xxvi. Chapitre treateth of a 
dyetarye for Melancoly men. 

Elancoly is colde & drye; wherfore 
Melancoly men must refrayne from Melancholy men 

..■,■,.■,' mustn't eat fried 

iryed meate, and meate the whiche is or salt meat. 

ouer salte, And from meate that is 
sowre & harde of dygestyon, and from all meate the 
whiche is burnet ' and drye. They must abstayne from Melancholy men 

should drink 

immoderat thurste, and from drinkyng of hote wynes, only light wine, 

and grose wyne, as red wyne. And vse these thynges, 

Cowe mylke, Almon my Ike, yolkes of rere egges. miik, and egg- 

Boyled meate is better for Melancoly men than rosted 

meate. All meate the whiche wylbe soone dygestyd, & 

all meates the w>»ich do% ingender good blode. And 

meates the whiche bt '«mperatly hote, be good for 

Melancoly men. And so uo all herbes the whiche be 

hote and moyste. These thynges folowynge doth purge Purgatives of 

Melancholy. 

Melancoly: quyckbeme. Scene, sticados, hartystounge, 
mayden heere, pulyall mountane, borage, organum, 
suger, and whyte wyne. 

% The .xxvii. Chapiter treatyth of a 

dyete and of an ordre to be vsed 

in the Pestyferous tyme of the^ 

pestylence & swetyng sycknes. 

Han the Plages of the Pestylence in Pestilence 

,^ , 1 • . time in 

or the swetynge syckenesis in a Montpeiier, 
towne or cou7?-tree, with vs at 
Mountpylour, and al other hygh 
Regyons and countrees f/iati haue 
dwelt in, the people doth fle from 

' burned AB. = of B. 

BOOIIPE. 19 




290 



people flee from 
the city. 



In low countries, 
infected houses 
are shut up, with 
the men in them. 



REMEDIES FOR PESTILENCE. 



[chap. XXVII. 



Infection hangs 
in clothes, 



straw, and rushes. 



Burn scented 
herbs or gums ; 

or ftimigate with 
Boorde's powder, 



or make a 
Pomander 



of spices, &C., 



into a ball. 



the contagious and infectious ayre; preseruatyues,^ with 
other counceyll^ of Physycke,notwithstandyng. In lower 
and other baase countres, howses, the which he infectyd 
in towne or cytie, he closyd vp, both doores & wyn- 
dowesj & the inhahytours shall not come a brode, 
nother to churche, nor to market, nor to any howse or 
company, for^ infectyng other, the whiche be clene with- 
out infection. A man cannot be to ware, nor can not 
kepe hym selfe to well from this syckenes, for it is so 
vehe^ment and so parlouse,^ that the syckenes is taken 
with thQ sauour of a mans clothes the whiche hath 
vysyted the infectious howse, for the infection wyl lye 
and hange longe in clothes. And I haue knowen that 
whan the strawe & russhes hath ben cast out of a 
howse infectyd, the hogges the whiche dyd lye in it, 
dyed of tM pestylence ; wherfore in such infectious 
tyme it is good for euery man thai wyl not flye^ from 
the contagyous ayre, to vse dayly — specyally in the 
mornynge and euenyng — to burne luneper, or Eose- 
mary, or Eysshes, or Baye leues, or Maierome, or 
Franke?i[se]nce, [or]^ bengauyn. Or els make this pow- 
der : Take of storax calamyte half an vnce,^ of franken- 
sewce an vnce,^ of the wodde of Aloes the weyghte of .vi. 
b.*j myxe al these togyther; Than cast half a sponefull 
of this in a chaffyng - dysshe of coles, And set it to 
fume abrode in the chambers, & the hall, and other 
howses. And ^^ you wyll put to this powder a lytell 
Lapdanum, it is so moche tliQ better. Or els make a 
pomemauwder^^ vnder this maner. Take of Lapdanum 
.iii. drammes, of the, wodde of Aloes one drame, of amber 
of grece .ii drames and a half ; of nutmegges, of storax 
calamite, of eche a drame and a half ; confect^^ all these ^^ 

» preeeruations B. ^ counsayles AB. 

' against, for fear of, to prevent. * sign. L .iii. back. 

» peryllous AB. ^ flee AB ; fly P. ' frankensence or AB. 

« ounce AB. ' drachms. *" if. 

" Pomaunder AB. " conferre B. *' this B. 



CH. XXVII, XXVIII.] DYETARY. OF PESTILENCE, FEVER, AND AGUE. 291 

togyther with Eose-wa'ter, & make a ball. And thk 

aforesayd Pomemaunder^ doth not onely expell contagy- 

ous ayre,^ but also it doth comforte the brayne, as Bar- 

thelmew of Montagnaue sayth, & other modemall 

doctors doth afferme the same : whosoeuer that is in- For remediea for 

fectyd with the pestylence, let hym loke in my see my Breviary. 

*breuyary of helth* for a remedy.* But let hym vse this 

dyete : let the Chamber ^ be kept close, And kepe a Keep a fire in 

your room. 

contynuall fyre in the Chamber, of clere burnynge 

wodde or chares-cole without smoke; beware of takynge Don't take cold; 

any colde, vse temporat meates and drynke, and beware 

of wyne, here, & cyder; vse to eate stued or baken eat stewed 

wardens, with 

wardens, yf they can be goten ; yf not, eate stued or comfits, 
baken peers, with comfettes; vse no grose meates, but 
those the whiche be lyght of dygestyon. 



f The .xxviij. Chapitre sheweth of a 
dyete [for them] ^ the whiche he in 

any Feuer or agew. Fever, Ague. 



Do aduertyse euery man that hath a Don't eat meat 

— , . . M , , for 6 hours before 

Jb euer or an Agewe, not to eate no meate the first course. 

.vi. howres before his course doth take 
hym. And ^in no wyse, as longe as the Agew doth in- 
dure, to put of ^ shertte nor dowblet, nor to ryse out of oon-t expose 
the bedde but whan nede shall requyre; and in any 
wyse not to go, nor to take any^® open ayer. For suche 
prouysyon may be had that at vttermost at the thyrde You'll be cured at 

, i/.i-r-i 1 "'^ S""^ course, 

course he shalbe delyuered of the Feuer, vsynge the ifyouusothe 
medsynes the whiche be in the Breuyary of helthe.^^ Sm!yar7.^""^^ 

' L .iv. not signed. * Pomaunder AB. ayres AB. 

* Chap. 121, fol. xlv. back, ed. 1552. * Chambers AB. 

" AB omit " chare." ' for them AB. 

« L .iv. back. » of the AB. '" the AB. 

" Chap. 135—150, fol. xlix. back, to fol. Iv., ed. 1552. 

1 9* 




292 



ILIAC AND COLIC. THE STONE. 



[CH. XXIX. 



Weiir gloves. 



Hiae and Colic. 




Beware of cold. 



Don't fast too 
long. 



Mt now bread, 



cold herbs, 

fruit, or anything 
which raises 
wind. 

For Stone, don't 
drink wine, or eat 
red herrings, &c. 
(See p. 80 above). 



And let euery man beware of castynge theyr handes 
& armes at any tyme out of the bed, in or out of theyr 
agony, or to spraule with the legges out of the bed : 
good it is for the space of .iii. courses to weare con- 
tynewelly gloues, and not to wasshe the handes. And 
to vse suche a dyet in meate & drynke as is rehersyd in 
the pestylence. [See above; p. 291, lines 11 — 15.] 

1 The .xxix. Chapitre treatyth of a 

dyete for them the whiche haue the 

Iliacke, or the colyck, & the stone. 

He Iliacke and the Colycke be ingen- 
dered of ventosyte, the whiche is 
intrusyd or inclosed in two guttes ; 
the one is called Ilia, And the other 
is called Colon. For these two in- 
fyrmytes a * man muste beware of colde. And good it 
is not to be longe fastynge. And necessary it is to be 
laxatyue, and not in no wyse to be constupat. And 
these thynges folowyng be not good for them the which 
haue these aforesaid infyrmytes ; ^new bred, stale bred,^ 
nor new ale. They must abstayne also from drynkyng 
of beere, of cyder, and red wyne, and cynamom. Also 
refrayne from al raeates that ho?iny is in; exchew eatyng 
of cold herbesj vse not to eate beanes, peson, nor 
potage ; beware of the vsage of fruytes. And of all 
thynges the whiche doth ingender wynde. For the 
stone, abstayn from drynkynge of new ale ; beware of 
beere, and of red wyne and^ bote wynes; refrayne from 
eatynge of red herynge, ma[r]tylmas beef and bakon, and 
salte fysshe, and salt meates. And beware of goynge 
colde aboute the mydell, specyally aboute the raynes 
of the backe. And make no restryctyon of wynde and 
water, nor seege^ that nature^ wolde expelle. 

' sign. M .i. ^^ bote bread P. ^ and of AB. 
* egestyon P. ^ water AB. 



CH. XXX, XXXI.] DYETARY. DIETS FOR GOWTY AND LEPROUS MEN. 293 




Gomt, 



% The .XXX. Chapitre treatyth of a 

dyete for them the whiche haue 

any kyndes of the gowte.^ 

Hey the whiche be infectyd with the 
gowte, or any kynde of it, I do aduer- 
tyse them not to syt long^ bollynge* Don't sit bibbing 
and bybbynge, dysyng and cardyng, 
in forgettyng them selfe to exonerat and forget to 
the blader and the bely whan nede shall xeqnyre; 
and also to beware that^ the legges hange not without 
some stay, nor that the bootes or shoes be not Gowtyfoik 

mustn't wear 

ouer strayte. who soeuer hath the gowte, muste re- tight boots, 

frayne from drynkyng of newe ale ; and let hym 

abstayne from drynkyng of beere and red wyne. Also, 

he must not eate new brede, egges, fresshe samon, eles, or eat salmon, 

fresshe heryng, pylcherde^, oysters, and all shell-fysshe. oysters. 

Also,* he muste exchew the eatynge of fresshe beef, of 

goose, of ducke, & of pygyons. Beware of takyng^ or ducks; 

colde in the legge,^ or rydyng, or goynge wetshod. Be- or go wetshod. 

ware of veneryous actes after refection, or after or vpon 

a full stomacke. And refrayne from all thinges that 

doth ingewder euyll humours, and be infiatyue. 



% The .xxxi. Chapytre treatyth of a 

dyete for them the whiche haue 

any of the kyndes of lypored. 



E that IS mfectyd wyth any of the Lepers mustn't 

drink wine and 

.im/" kyndes of the lepored must strong aie. 
refrayne from al maner of wynes, & 
from new drynkes, and stro7^ge ale ; 
than let hym beware of ryot and 




' gowtes AB. 
* bowlynge AB. 
' takynge of A : 
^ sign. M .ii. 



^ sign. M .i. back. 
^ AB omit " that. 



takyng of B. 



' to longe AB, 
« And AB. 
* legge AB. 
'" foure AB. 



294 



DIET FOR FALLING SICKNESS. 



[CH. XXXII. 



Lepers mustn't supfetyiige. And let hym abstayne from' etyng of 
spyces, and daates, and from trypes & podynges, and 

fish, eggs, all inwardes of beestes. Fysshe, and egges, & mylke, 

is not good for leperous persons : and they must ab- 

beef, goose, stayne from eating of fresshe beef, and from eatynge of 

water-fowl, gose [&] ducke, and from water-fowle and pygions; 

venison, hate^ &c. And in no wyse eate no veneson, nor bare-flesshe, and 
suche lyke. 



HpUepsy. 
(See Breuyary, 
ch. 122, fol. xlvi.) 
Folk with Falling 
Sickness 



mustn't drink 
milk or strong 
ale. 



or eat fish-fat, 
viscous fish, 
garlick, leeks, 
venison, &c. ; 



or go to meetings 
of men. 



or sit too near the 
fire. 




% The .xxxii. Chapytre treatyth of a 
dyete for them the whiche haue any 
of th^ kyndes of the fallyng syckenes. 

Ho so euer he be, the which haue 
any of the kyndes of the^ fallyng 
syckenes, must abstayn from eat- 
ynge of whyte meate, specially of 
milke : he must ^rcfrayne from 
drynkyng of wyne, newe ale, and 
stronge ale. Also theyshulde not eate the fatnes of fysshe, 
nor the hedes of fysshe, the whiche dothe ingender 
rewme. Shell-fysshe, eles, samon, herynge, & viscus 
fysshes, be not good for Epilentycke men. Also, they 
muste refrajTie from eatynge of garlyke, onyons, leekes, 
chybbolles, and all vaperous meates, the whiche doth 
hurte ihQ bed : venson, hare-flesshe, beef, beanes, and 
peason, be not good for Epilentycke men. And yf they 
knowe that they be infected with this* great sycknes, 
they shulde not resorte where there is great resorte of 
company, whiche is,in^ churche, in sessyons, and market- 
places on market dayes ; yf they do, the sycknes wj'll 
infeste^ them more there than in any other place, or at 
any other tyme. They must beware they do not syt 
to nyghe the fyre, for the fyre wyll ouercom them, and 



' for AB. « AB omit "the." 
< these AB. * in the AB. 



' sign. M .ii. back. 
" infecte AB. 




OH. XXXIIL] DYETARY. diet for HEADACHE. 295 

wyll induce the sycknes. They must beware of lyeng 

hote^ in theyr bed, or to laboure extremely; for suche or work too hard. 

thynges causyth the grefe to come the ofter. 



% The .xxxiii. Chapytre treatyth 
of a dyete [for them] ^ the whiche 

haue any payne in the ^ hed. Headache. 

Any sycknes, or infyrmytes, and impe- 
dymentes, may be in a mans hed, 
wherfore, who so euer haue any impe- Keep the head 

cool. 

dymewt in the hed, must not kepe the 
hed to bote nor to colde, but in a tem- 
poraunce. And to beware of ingendryng of rewme, Don't eat things 
whiche is the cause of many infyrmytes. There is no- rheum; 
thynge that doth ingender rewme so moche as doth the 
fatnes of fysshe, and the heddes of fysshe, and sur- 
fettes,^ & takynge colde in the feete, and takynge colde 
in the nape of the necke or hed. Also, they thQ 
whiche haue any infyrmyte in the hed must refrayne don't sleep too 
of immoderat slepe, specyally after meate. Also, they 
must abstayne from drynkynge of wyne ; and vse not drink wine, 
to drynke ale and beere the whiche is ouer stronge. 
vocyferacyon, halowynge, cryeng, and hygh synging, is or haUo. 
not good for the hed. All thynges the whiche is 
vaporous or dothe fume, is not good for the hed. And 
all thynges the which is of euyll sauour, as caryn, Keep out of 
synkes, wyddrawghtes,^ pisse-bolles, snoffe of candellys, 
dunghylles, stynkynge canellys, and stynkynge stand- 
yng waters, & stynkynge marshes, with suche conta- 
gyous ^ eyres, doth hurte the hed, and the brayne, and the 
memory. All odyferous sauours be good for the hed, and smeii swwt 
and the brayne, and the memory. 

' to bote AB. ' for them ABP. ^ theyr AB. 

* sign. M .iii. * surfestes, orig. * wynkraughtes. 

' sign. M .iii. back. 



296 



CONSUMPTION AND ASTHMA. [cH. XXXIV, XXXV. 



Consumption. 



Avoid sour 
things. 



Use cordials, 
nourishing food, 
su»;ar, and sweet 
wines. 




^ The .xxxiiii. Chapitre treateth of a 

dyete for them the whiche be 

in a consumpcyon. 

Ho soeuer he be that is in a consumpcyon 
muste abstayne from all sowre and tarte 
thynges, as venegre & alceger/ & suche 
lyke. And also he must abstayne from 
eatynge of grose meates, the whiche be harde and slowe 
of dygestyon, And vse cordyallys and restoratynes, 
and nutrytyue meates. All meates and drinkes the 
which is swete, & that suger is in, be nutrytyue; 
wherfore swete wynes be good for them the whiche be 
in consuwpcion,^ moderatly taken. And sowre wyne, 
sowre ale, and sowre brede,^ is good for no man ; For 
it doth freate away nature, and let them beware, that 
Don't eat fried or be in* consumpcion, of fryde meate, of bruled meate, 

burnt meat; at* 

and bronte"'' meate, the whiche is ouer rostyd. And m 
any wyse let them beware of anger & pencyfulnes. 
These thynges folowynge be good for them the whiche 
^be in coTisumpcions "^ : a pygge or a cocke stewed and 
made in a gely, cockrellys stewed, gootes mylke and 
suger, almon mylke in the whiche ryce is sod en, and 
rabettes stewed," &c. [" & newe layd egges, & rere 
yolkes of egge^, & ryce soden in almon mylke. P.] 



but eat stewed 
pig or coclc. 



% The .XXXV. Chapitre treateth of a 
dyete for them the whiche be as- 
matyke men, beyng short wyn- 
dyd, or lackynge breth. 



aleger AB ; alegar P. * consumpcions AB. ^ beere AB. 
* in a AB. * of burned AB. ^ M .iv. not signed. 
' consumpcion AB. 



CH. XXXV, XXXVI.] DYETARY. DIETS FOR THE ASTHMA AND PALSY. 297 




Asthma comes 
from phlegm 
obstroctLng the 
lungs. 



Hortnes of wynde commeth dyuers 
tymes of impedyniente^ in the 
lunges, and stray tnes of the brest, 
opylatyd thorow viscus fleume; 
and other whyle whan the hed is 
stufFyd with rewme, called the 
pose, lettyth the breth of his ThePose. 



naturall course, wherfore he that hath shortnes of breth 
muste abstayne from eatyng of nuttes, specyally yf they 
be olde * chese^ and my Ike is not good for them ; no more 
is fysshe and fruyte, and rawe or crude herbes. Also 
all maner of meate the whiche is harde of dygestion, is 
not good for them. They muste refrayne from eat- 
yng of fysshe, specially from eatyng fysshe the which 
^wyll cleue to the fyngers, & be viscus & slyme ; & in 
any wyse beware of the skyns of fysshe, & of all 
maner of meate the whiche doth ingender fleume. 
Also they muste beware of colde. And whan any 
howse is a swepynge, to go out of the howse for a space 
in to a clene* eyre. The dust also that ryseth in the 
etrete thorow the vehemens of the wynde or other 
wyse, is not good for theym. And smoke is euyll for 
them ; and so is all thynge that is stoppynge : wherfore 
necessary it is for them to be laxatyue, [& to be in a 
clene & pure eyre. P.] 



Don't eat nuts or 
cheese, &c. 



For Asthma 



don't eat 
viscous fish. 



Beware of cold 
and dust. 



and smoke. 



% The .xxxvi. Chapitre treatyth of a 
dyete for them the whiche 

haue the palsy e. pai^ 

Hey the whiche haue the Palsye, vny- 
uersall or pertyculer, must beware of 
anger, hastynes, and testynes, & must Don't get teaty. 
beware of feare, for thorow anger or 
feare dyuers tymes the Palsye do come 
in AB. ^ and chese P. ' M .iv. back. ■• clere P. 




298 



OP PALSY AND OF MADMEN. [CHAP. XXXVII. 



Don't get drunk, to a man. Also tliey, must beware of dronkewnes, and 
or eat nuts, eatyng of nuttes, whiche thynges be euyll for the palsye 

of the tonge. coldnes, and contagyous and stynkynge 
& fylthy ayres be euyll for the palsye. And lette euery 
^man beware on^ lyeng vpon the bare grounde, or vpon 
the bare stones ; for it is euyll for the Palsye. the 
f^'ais"'' *' ^"^ sauour of Castory, & the sauour of a fox, is good 
agaynst the palsye. 



or lie on the 
ground. 



Madmen must be 
kept in safe 
guard. 



Mychell, a 
lUnatic, 



killed 2 people 
and himself. 



Keep lunatics in 
a close dark 
room, witli a 
keeper whom 
they fear. 




Don't put 
pictures in their 
rooms. 



Shave their heads 
once a month. 



f The .xxxvii. Chapitre doth shew 

an order and a dyete for them 

the whiche be madde, and 

out of theyr wytte. 

Here is no man the whiche haue any of 
tliQ kyndes of madnes but they ought to 
be kepte in sauegarde, for dyuers incon- 
uenyewce that may fall^ as it apperyd of 
late dayes of a lunatycke man named 
Mychell, 3 the whiche went many yeres at lyberte, & at 
last hedyd kylle his wyfe, and hiswyfes suster, &his owne 
selfe. wherfore I do aduertyse euery man the whiche is 
madde, or lunatycke, or frantycke, or demonyacke, to be 
kepte in saue garde in some close howse or chamber, 
where there is lytell lyght. And that he haue a keper, 
the whiche the madde man do feare. And se that the 
madde man haue no knyf, nor sheers, nor other edge 
toule, nor that he haue no gyrMyll, except it be a week 
lyste of clothe, for^ hurtynge or kyllynge hym selfe. 
Also the chamber or the howse that the madde man is 
in, let there be no payntcd clothes, nor paynted wallys, 
nor pyctures of man nor woman, or fowle, or beest ; for 
suche thynges maketh them ful of fantasyes. lette the 
madde persons hed be shauen ones a moneth : let them 

* sign. N .i. ' of AB. ' Michel P. * sign. N .i. back. 
* against, to prevent. 



CH. XXXVIII.] DYETARY. A DIET FOR DROPSICAL PEOPLE. 299 

drinke no wyne, nor stronge ale, nor stronge beere, "but and give them no 

,... . , strong drink. 

moderat drynke; and let them haue .111. tymes in a days 
warme suppynges, and [a]^ lytell warme meat. And vse 
few wordes to them, excepte it be for reprehensyon, or speak iittie to 
gentyll reformacyon, yf they haue any wytte or perse- 
ueraunce to vnderstande [what reprehensyon or refor- 
macyon is. P.] 

% The .xxxviii. Chapytre treatyth of 

a dyete for them the whiche haue 

any of the kyndes of the 

Idropyses. i>r'*»». 

Aynt Beede sayeth 'the more a man 
doth drynke that hath the Idropise,^ 
the more he is a thurst ;' for although 
the syckenes doth come by superabun- 
daunce of water, yet the lyuer is drye, whether it be 
alchy^tes, Iposarca, Lencoflegmancia, or the tympany. 
They that hath any of the .iiii. kyndes of the Idropyses /* Avoid binding 
must refrayne from al thynges the whiche be cowstupat 
and costyue, and vse all thynges the which be laxatyue / 
nuttes, and dry almondes, and harde chese, is^ poyson Nuts and cheese 
to them ; ^ A ptysane and posset ale made with colde posset aie is 
herbes doth comforte them, who so euer he be, the ^ 
whiche wyll haue a remedy for any of these fours 
kyndes of the Idropyses,'' and wyll knowe a declaracyon For aii sicknesses 
of these infyrmytes, and all other sycknesses, let hym treatment, see 
loke in a boke of my makyng, named the Breuyary of ™^ «*y«»'i'« 
helth. For in this boke I do speke but of dyetes, and i only speak hero 

of Diet, and of 

how a man shuld order his mansyon place, And hym self managing a 

houso. 

& his howsholde, with suche lyke thynges, for the con- 
seruacion of helth.* 

* a AB. '^ Idropsye AB; I dropj'-se P. ' sign. N .ii. 

* Idropsyes AB. * AB omit "is." ^ Not in AB. 

^ See Boorde's Bretiyary^ chap. 179, 38, 17, 345. 




300 



GENERAL RULES FOR SICKNESS. 



[CH. XXXIX. 



A general Diet, 



% The .xxxix. Chapytre treateth of a 

generall dyete for all maner of 

men and women, beynge 

sycke or hole. 



Every one knows 
best what helps 
and what hurts 
him. 



Don't be anxious, 

Sleep at night. 
A merry heart 



makes a man 
live, and look 
young. 

Care brings age 
and death. 



Wash your hands 
ollen, and comb 
your head. 



Keep your chest 
and stomach 
warm, your 
feet dry, and 



your head cool. 



Avoid venery; 



THere is no man nor woman the which haue any 
respect to them selfe, that can be a better Phesyc- 
ion for theyr ^owne sauegarde, than theyr owne self 
can be, to consyder what thynge tJiQ whiche doth them 
good, And to refrayne from suche thynges that doth 
them hurte or harme. And let euery man beware of 
care, sorowe, thought, pencyfulnes, and of inwarde 
anger. Beware of surfettes, and vse not to'^ moche 
veneryouse actes. Breke not the vsuall custome of 
slepe in the nyght. A mery herte and mynde, the 
whiche is in reste and quyetnes, without aduersyte 
^and to moche worldly busynes,^ causeth a man to lyuo 
longe, and to loke yongly, althoughe he be agyd. care 
and sorowe bryngeth in age and deth, where[fore] ^ let 
euery man be mery ; and yf he can not, let hym re- 
sorte to mery company to breke of his perplexatyues. 

IF Furthermore, I do aduertyse euery man to wasshe 
theyr handes ofte euery daye; And dyuers tymes to 
key me theyr hed euery daye, And to plounge the eyes 
in colde water in the morenyng. Moreouer, I do coun- 
cell euery man to kepe the breste and the stomacke 
warme, And to kepe the feete from wet, and other 
whyle to wasshe them, and that they be not kept to 
bote nor to colde, but indyfFerently. Also to kepe the 
hed and the necke in a moderat temporaunce, not to 
bote nor to colde; ^and in any wyse to beware not to 
medle to moche with veneryous act^s; for that wyll cause 
a man to loke agedly, & also causeth a man to haue a 



* sign. N .ii. back. 

* wherfore A 



^ so, orig. 
wherefore B. 



-' Not in P (ed. 1547), 
' sign. N .iii. 



CHAP. XL.] DYETAR7. HOW TO MANAGE A SICK MAN. 301 

breef or a shorte lyfe. All^ other matters pertaynynge it shortens life, 
to any pertyculer dyete, you shall haue '^ in the dyetes 
aboue in this boke rehersyd. 



^ The .xl. Chapytre doth shewe an 
order, or a fasshyon, how a sycke 

man shulde be ordered, And Anchroom,^ 

how a sycke man shuld 
be vsyd that is lykely 
to dye. 



and a Death-bed. 




Hoo SO euer that is sore sycke, it 
is vncerteyne to man whether he 
shall lyue or dye ; wherfore it is 
necessarye for hym thai is sycke 
to haue two or .iii.^ good kepers, Have 2 or 3 good 
the whiche at all tymes must be 

dylyge7it, and not slepysshe, sloudgysshe,* sluttysshe. 

And not to wepe and wayle aboute a sycke man, nor to No wailing or 

talking, 

vse many wordes / nor that there be no greate resort to 

common and talke, ^For it is a busynes [for] ^ a whole 

man to answere many men, specyally women, that shall 

come to hym. They the which commeth to any sycke 

person, ought to haue few wordes or none, except certayne except to make 

persons the whiche be of counseyll of the Testament 

makynge, the whiche wyse men be not to seke of such 

matters in theyr syckenes ; for wysdom wolde that euery 

man shulde prepare for suche thynges in helth. And yf 

any man for charyte wyll vyset any person, lette hym a visitor may 

aduertyse the sycke to make euery thynge euyn bytwext matters, 

God, and the worlde, & his co?2Scyence ; And to re- receiving the 

c6yue the ryghtes of holy churche, lyke a catholycke cimrch, 

• Also AB ; All, ed. 1547. ' haue it AB. 
' thre AB. * ABP insert "nor." 

* sign. N .ill. back. * for AB and ed. 1547. 



302 



attention to 
Priest 
and Doctor. 



THE SICK Man's death. 



[chap. XL. 



Keep sweet 
odours in the 
sick room. 



Don't have 
women babbling 
there. 



Have the drink 
fresh. 



When Death's 
coming, 



read of Christ* 
sufferings ; 



give the dying 
man a little 
warm drink ; 



and pray that he 
may die in the 
faHh of Christ. 



man; And to folowe the counseyll of "both Physyc- 
yona, whiche is to say, the physycyon of the soule, & 
the physycyon of the body, that is to saye, the spyrit- 
uall counseyl of his ghostly father, and the bodely coun- 
seyll of his physycyon consernyng the receytes of his 
medsons to recouer helth. For saynt Augustyn saith, 
'* he that doth not the ^ commauwdement of his physyc- 
yon, doth kyll hym self." Furthermore, about a sycke 
persone shuld be redolent sauour[s], and the chamber 
shuld be replenysshed with herbes & flowers of ody- 
ferouse sauour.^ & certayne tymes it is good, to be vsed 
a lytell of some perfume^ ^to stande in tliQ my die of 
the chamber. And in any wyse lette not many men, and 
specyally women, be togyther at one tyme in the cham- 
ber, not onely for bablynge, but specially for theyr 
brethes.^ And the kepers shulde se at all tymes that 
the sycke persons drynke be pure, fresshe, & stale, and 
that it be a lytell warmed, turned out of the colde. 
Yf the sycke man wex sycker and sycker, that there is 
lykle^ hope of amendment, but sygnes of deth, than no 
man oughte to moue to hym any worldly matters or 
busynes; but to speke of ghostly and godly matters. 
And to rede the passyon of Cryste, & to say the psalmes 
of the passyon, and i^o holde a crosse or a pyctour of 
the passyon of Cryste before tliQ eyes of the sycke 
person. And let not the kepera forget to gyue the 
sycke man that is in suche agony, warme drynke with 
a spone, and a sponefull of a cawdell or a colesse. 
And than lette euery man do^ indeuer hym selfe to 
prayer, that the sycke person may fynysshe his lyfe 
Catholyckely in the fayth of lesu Cryste, And so^ 



' not obserue the cowmaundementes AB. 
' flauours AB. ' good to vse some perfumes P. 

* N .iv. not signed. * hote breathes AB. 

« likely AB ; lytle P. ' P leaves out " do." 

8 so to AB. 



CHAP. XL.] DYETARr. MAT WE DIE IN THE FAITH ! 303 

departe out of this myserable world. I do beseche 
the Father, and the sone, and the holy ghost, thorow 
the meryte of lesu Crystes passyon, that I and all 
Creatures lyuynge may do [so].^ AMEN. 

» 80 P 



304 



DYETARY. COLOPHONS OP 4 EDITIONS. 

Wi^tx I btofllgnjgt in u^ni 

JHartgns pargisslje besstre cfjargnge 

Crosge, at tlie ssgne of segnt 

3oi}n ffiuangelgste* 

(for |o^n ^0bg^£, C«m priuilcgio ngali. 
gib imprimenbttm solwrn.^ 




[? Cif/^ ^ St John wi'ltinff Ids Revelations in the Isle of Patmos.'\ 

' N .iv. back. 

' Robert "W)'^er'8 Colopbon to the undated edition in the British Museum of 
? 1557 A.D., is : ^f Imprinted by me Robert Wyer, Dwellynge at the Sygne of 
Seynt John Euangelyst in S. Martyns Parysshe, besyde Chavynge Crosse. 

Thomas Colwel's Colophon to the edition of 1562 is : ^ Imprinted by me 
Thomas Colwel. Dwellynge in the house of Robert Wyer, at the Signe of 
S. John Euangelyst, besyde Charynge Crosse. c^J 

Wyllyam Powell's Colophon to the edition of 1547 is : ^ Imprynted at 
London in Fletestrete at the sygne of the George nexte to saynte Dunstones 
churche by Wylh^nm Powell. In the yere of our Lorde god .M. CCCCC. 
LXVII. tt^ : ^ 



305 



C^()e treatpft anftioe 
jpnge ttie bofee of 




Compgleb bg CDllgtt clobjt^, btiig* 

catgb to Barttarbt barber 

bbjdlgtts in Banberg. 




BOORPE. 



20 



306 BARNES IN THE DEFENCE OF THE BERDE. 

^% %a kgitk foitlj mt, k not a itxHt 



[Coarse woodcut of a man stooping down and exposing 

himself, with the legend Testiciilos Habet, 

Any member wanting the cut must apply to 

Mb Fuenivall.] 



^ I am a Jfjook of (^si^t lowllgs bot^ 
Callgitg al kitancs, in pll t^mix a rope. 



A .i. back. 




BARNES IN THE DEFENCE OF THE BERDE. 307 



^% The preface, or the pystle. 



the ryght worshypfulle (Bamarde Barber), dwell- 
ynge in. Banberye, CoUyn Clowte surrendreth gret- 
ynge, with inmiGrtall thankes. 



IT was so, worshypful syr, that at my last beynge in Mount- 
pyllour, I chaunsed to be assocyat with a doctor of Physyke / 
which at his retorne had set forth .iij. Bokes to be prynted in 
Fleetstrete, within Temple barre, the whiche Bokes were compyled 
togyther in one volume named the Introductorie of knowledge / 
whervpon, there dyd not resort only vnto hym marchauntos, gentyl- 
men, and wymen / but also knyghtes, and other great men, whiche 
were desyrous to knowe the effycacyte, and the efFecte of his afore- 
sayd bokes ; and so, amonge many thynges, they desyred to knowe 
his fansye consernynge the werynge of Berdes / He answeryd by 
great experyence : " Some wyl weer berdes bycause theyr faces be 
pocky, maun^gy, sausflewme', lyporous, & dysfygured / by the 
whiche many clene men were infected." * So, this done, he desyred 
euery man to be contentyd : Vvherfore I desyre no man to be dys- 
pleasyd with me. And where-as he was anymatyd to wryte his boke 
to thende, that great men may laugh therat*/ I haue deuysed this 
answere, to the entent, that in the redyng they myght laughe vs 
bothe to scorne / And for that cause I wrote this boke, as god know- 
eth my pretence / who euer keape youre maystershyp in helthe. 

' sign. A .ij. ' sign. A .ij. back. ' See Forewords, p. 101, 

* Speaking of matters trifelyng, Wilson, in his ^7-^ of Rhetor'upte, 1553 
(edit. 1584, p. 8), 8a)'S : " Suche are triflyng causes when there is no weight in 
them, as if one should phantasie to praise a Goose before any other Beast 
liuyng (as I knowe who did) or of fruite to conimende Nuttes cheefly, as Ouid 
did, or the Feuer quartaine as Phaciosimis did, or the Gnat, as Virgill did, or 
the battaile of Frogges, as Homer did, or dispraise beardes, or commende 
shauen hiddes."— W. C. Hazlitt. 

* See the Preface to the Byctary, p. 228 above. 

20 # 



308 BARNES AGAINST BOORDE UPON BEARDS. 




% Here foloweth a treatyse, made 

Answerynge the treatyse of 

doctor Borde vpon Berdes. 



Allynge to remembraunce your notable reproclie gyuew 
vnto berdes,^ I was cowstrayned to render the occasion 
therof; whempon, I founde by longe surmyse and 
studye that ye had red the storye of Hellogobalus, 
& founde therin greate and stronge auctoryties / 
which hy lykelyhode mouyd you to this ^ Eeformacyon of berdes. 
For ye knowe that Hellogobalus, beynge gyuen moche to the 
desyre of the body, & that by moche superfluyte, he^ thought it 
requysyght to commyt the fylthy synwe of leche[r]y, vpon the 
receyptes of delycate meat^^. For he caused his cokes to make & 

' Mr Hazlitt sa3's, * See Grapaldus de Partibvs Ovimn, and Collier's Extr. 
Jicg. Stat. Co. ii. 97.' At the latter reference, 22 Sept. 1579, is, ' H. Denham, 
Lycenced unto him &c, A paradox, provinge b)'^ Reason and example that 
Baldnes is much better then bushie heare . . vj^.' (Written by Synesius, 
englished by Abraham Fleming. ) After this, Mr Collier prints, from a MS of 
his own, he says, an amusing dialogue between B[aldness] and H[air], en- 
titled the ' Defence of a Bald Head.' B, argues that baldness is no sign of 
old age, as many young men are bald from too much wenching ; 

Then, thinke also of this : 

if you no haire have gott. 
How pleasantly your haire you misse, 

when weather it is hot. 
Let ruffins weare a bushe, 

and sweat till well nigh dead, 
In that Ime bald, I care no rush, 

but onely wipe my head, 
fiair ends with 

Thy reasons may be good, 

that baldnes is no ill ; 
But ladies will love lustie blood 

and haire, say what you will. 
' A .iij. not signed. ^ orig. ye 



BARNES IN THE DEFENCE OP THE BERDE. 309 

ordeyne suche hote meates that maye prouoke or stere hym the 
rather therunto. And in ther so doyng, he made them, some of his 
preuye chambre, some of his hed lordes of his counsell. But yet the 
chefe and pryncypall preseptes that he gaue vnto his cokes, was this, 
that they shulde not only poUe theyr hedes, hut also shaue theyr 
berdes. For this entente, that when he were dronkyn, or vometynge 
rype by takyng excesse, that he myghte be well assuryd, that it 
came not by no heer of from his cokes heddes. For his delyght was 
not onely in the feminyne kynde / but also delyghted in womenly 
men / yet he and his fyne vnberdyd faces ledde not onely a vycyous 
lyfe, but also made a shameful ende. Notwithstandynge other, 
that, or this storye folowynge, was and is the occasyon why ye 
*abore berdes, and that was this: at your laste beynge in Mownt- 
pyllyer, Martyn the surgyen beyng there with you, & dyd accompany 
dayly with none so moch as with you : yf ye be remembred, he 
brought you to dyner vpon a daye to one Hans Smormowthes house, 
a Duche man, in whiche house you were cupshote^, otherwyse called 
dronkyn, at whiche tyme your berde was lowge / so then your 
assocyat Martyn brought you to bed / and with the remouyng, your 
stomake tornyd, & so ye vometyd ixk his bosome y howbeit, as moche 
as your berde myghte holde, vpon youre berde remayned tyll the 
next daye in the morenyng. And when ye waked, & smelt your 
owne berde, ye fel to it a fresshe ; and, callynge for your frende 
Martyn, shewynge ^ the cause of this laste myschaunce. Wherupon 
ye desyred to shaue you. And so, when ye sawe your berde, ye sayd 
that it was a shamfull thynge on any mans face. And so it is in 
suche cases, I not denye / yet shall ye consyder, that our Englysshe 
men, beynge in Englande, dothe vse to kepe theyr berdes moche 
more clen 

[leaf A .iv. is lost.] 

' A .ill. back. ' See p. 156, note. ^ 7 shewed hym. 



310 



HOW ANDREW BOORDE GOT DRUNK. 



[leaf A .iv. is lostJl 

[sign. B .i.] As longe as any berdes be worne, 
Mockynge shall not be forborne ; 
But yet at length, his is the scorne. 
I fere it not. 



Andrew Boorde 
hates bearded 
men 



because he once 
made his own 
beard stink. 



IF With berdyd men he wyll not drynke, 
Bycause it doth in theyr berdes synke ; 
The cause therof, ye may soone thynke, 
His berde in Flaunders ones dyd stynke, 
"Whiche by dystulacyon 
Of a vomytacyon 
Made suche dysturbacyon, 
That it abored the nacyon. 
I fere it not. 



12 



Boorde lookt 
like a fool when 
he got drunk. 



IT Some berdes, he saith, doth grow a pace, 
To hyde an euyll coleryd face ; 
In fayth, his had an homlye grace, 
When he was in that dronkyn case. 
But sythe he doth this matter stere. 
To make that shauynge shuld be dere, 
I thynke it doth full well appere, 
That foles had neuer lesse wyt in a yere. 
I fere it not. 



16 



20 



Boorde says a IF A bcrdc, sayth he, wyl breyd moch care, 

06drd will brficd 

cttte. If that he with his mayster compare. 24 

Here may ye proue a wyt full bare 

That iudgeth so a man to fare, 
[sign. B .1. back] What maw lyuyng, I wold fayne knowe. 

That for comparason letes his berde growe % 28 

He's a spiteful But yet, though that a spyghtfuU shrow 

His spyghtfull wordes abrode doth blow, 
I fere it not, &c. 



BARNES IN THE DEFENCE OF THE BEBDE. 



311 



IT Of berdes, he sayth, tlier comms no gaynes, 
& berdes quycknytb not the braynes. 
Lo, haw in Physyke he taketh paynes ! 
He mery tes a busshel of brwers * graynes ! 
He warneth aLso euery estate 
To auoyde berdes, for fere of debate. 
If men, lyke hym, shnld vse to prate, 
His warnyng then shuld come to late, 
I fere it not. 



32 Boorde says 
beards don't 
quicken tho 
brains. 



36 



40 



and do raise 
quarrels. 



IT If berdes, also, a purse doth pycke, 
As ye compare them to be lyke, 
yet ye haue gotte more in one w'ycke. 
Then berdes in .x. togyther may stryke. 
For by castynge of a pyspotte, 
ye haue poUyd many a grote ; 
yea, and moche more, God wotte. 
By falshede ye haue gotte. 
I fere it not. 



44 



48 



Oh, Andrew, 



you've cheated 
men of many a 
groat by looking 
at their urine, 
and by falsehood ! 



IT Yet one thynge more, I wyll assayle : 
The dauwger of drynkyng ye do bewayle^. 
Beleue ye me, yf all do fayle. 
In stede of a cup, ye shall haue a payle ; 
For you haue gyuen warnynge playne, 
That berdyd men shall be full fayne 
To brynge a cup, for theyr owne gayne, — 
The more fole you, so to dysdayne ! 
I fere it not. 



You've warned 
men against 
52 drinking. 



and told bearded 
men to bring a 
56 cup for them- 
selves. 



IF Note me well, for it is trewe, 
Thoughe berdyd men ye wyll eschewe. 
There be moche honyster men than you, 
That wyl drynke long, or they do spewe 



60 Some bearded 
men are more 
worthy than you, 
and don't spue, 
like you. 



SO. 



' See Boorde on Drunkenness, p. 90, above. 



312 



BOORDE CHAFFT FOR ABUSING BEARDS. 



As you haue done, I knowe, or this, 
wh erf ore I say, though so it is, 
I wyll not tell that is amys ; 
yet wyll I tell some trewyth yewys^. 
I fere it not. 



64 



Boorde, yon say 
tliat a Beard 
lioats a man. 



But your honour 
is stained. 



IF yet of one thynge that ye do treate, 
Howe that a berde, in a great swete, 
By lyke doth catche a k[n]auysshe^ hete 
Therby ye do a grete prayse gete, 
For trewely vnfayned, 
Your honyste is dystayned ; 
All though ye haue dysdayned, 
Men kn,owe ye haue sustayned. 
I fere it not.. 



68 



72 



76 



You tell men not ^ Though in the wyuter a dew wyl lye, 

to drink when ■, -, n i ^ 

their noses run. That dystylleth froHi the nose pryuelye ; 
To refrayne your cup ye pray then hartly ; 

sign. B .ii. back] And all is for superfluous glotonye. 
For glotony i§ of such,e a kynde, 
That ende of excesse he can none fynde, 

You've lost wit Tyll past is both the wyt aud mynde ; 

through gluttony. 

So one of those ye be assynde. 
I fere it not. 



80 



84 



getvis, certainly. 



^ See 1. 156. 



BARNES IN THE DEFENCE OP THE BEllDE. 



313 



0f tjjat S0ng^. 

ILytell thought, ye were so wyse, 
Berdes to deuyse of the new guyse ; 
But truely, for your enterpryse, 
ye may go cast your wyt at dyse. 
At syncke or syse, whiche so doth fall, 
Fere ye not to cast at all ; 
For yf you lose, your lostes be small : 
It is to dere, a tenys ball j 
I fere it not. 



Boorde, with your 

new-fashioned 

beardB, 



88 



92 



your wit 's 

liice a tennis-ball. 



f A berde vpon his ouer lyppe, 
ye saye wyll be a proper tryppe, 
Wherby ye shall the better skyppe. 
Go your wayes, I dare let you slyppe, 
"Where as be many more, 
I thynke, by .xx. score, 
In cocke lorelles bote, before 
ye maye take an ore. 

I fere it not. 



96 



100 



Boorde, begone, 
you poor fool, 



and row low 
down in Cock 
Lorell's boat ! 
[B .Hi. not 
signed] 



IT Yet though that ye one thing do craue, 104 

"Which is, a muster deuyles berde to haue, 

ye make me study, so God me saue ! 

If this peticion came not of a knaue, 

Perhapes some other man dyd make it, 108 

And so ye dyd vp take it ; 

But best ye were forsake it, 

For fere of Pears go nakyt. 

Nowe fere you that ! 112 



You want a kind 
of Devil's beard, 
do you P 



Beware of Piers 
Go-naked. 



314 



WHO SHAVED ADAMI 



You say beards 
hide little brains, 



and want mag- 
pies to pull our 
hairs out. 



You tell crafty 
lies. 



IT ye say some berdes be lyke lambes woU, 
With lytell wyt within theyr skull : 
* Who goth a myle to sucke a bull,* 
Comes home a fole, and yet not fulL* 116 

And where ye wyshe them pekt with pyes, 
That weres a berde, vnto theyr iyes : 
Be wyse, take hede ! suche homely spyes 
Oftymes can spye your crafty lyes. 120 

I fere it not. 



Pray, Andrew, 
didn't God make 
Adam a beard ? 



If He did, who 
shaved him ? 



[B .ui. back] 



IT But, syr, I praye you, yf you tell can, 
Declare to me, when God made man, 
(I meane by our forefather Adam) 
Whyther that he had a berde than ; 
And yf he had, who dyd hym shaue, 
Syth that a barber he coulde not haue. 
Well, then, ye proue hym there a knaue, 
Bycause his berde he dyd so saue. 
I fere it not. 



124 



128 



Didn't Christ and IT Christ & his apostlcs, ye haue declaryd, 
beards ? That theyr berdes myght not be sparyd, 

Nor to theyr berdes no berdes cowparyd : 
Trewe it is, yet we repayryd 
By his vocacion, to folowe in generall 
His disciples, both great and small ; 
And folowyng ther vse, we shuld not fal, 
Nothynge exceptynge our berdes at alL 
I fere it not. 



And we ought to 
follow them. 



132 



136 



Sampson, and 
thousands of old 
philosophers, 
wouldn't be 
shaved. 



We should 
imitate them. 



IT Sa77zpson, with many thousandes more 140 

Of auncient phylosophers, full great store, 

Wolde not be shauen, to dye therfore ; 

Why shulde you, then, repyne so sore 1 

A[d]myt that men doth Tmytate 144 

Thynges of antyquite, and noble state. 



Waltom's calf, says the proverb, did this. 



BAllNES IN THE DEFENCE OF THE BEllDE. 



315 



Sucli couwterfeat thinges oftymes do my ty gate 
Moche ernest yre and debate. 
I fere it not. 



148 



IT Therfore, to cease, I thynke be best ; 
For berdyd men wolde lyue in rest. 
you proue yourselfe a homly gest, 
So folysshely to rayle and iest ; 
For if I wolde go make in ryme, 
Howe new shauyd men loke lyke scraped swyne, 
& so rayle forth, from tyrae to tyme, 
A knauysshe laude then shulde be myne : 
I fere it not. 



Bearded men 
like peace. 
You're a noodle 
to rail against 
152 them. 



[B .iv. not signed] 
I won't tell you 
how shaved men 
look like scraped 
156 »wine. 



IT What shulde auayle me to do so, 
yf I shulde teache howe men shulde go, 
Thynkynge my wyt moche better, lo, 
Then any other, frende or fo 1 
I myght be imputed trewly 
For a foole, that doth gloryfye 
In my nowne selfe onelye ; 
I thynke you wyll it veryfye : 
I fere it not. 



WhafU be the 
good of it ? 



160 



164 



I don't want to 
show off. 



And thus farewel, though I do wryght 
To answere for berdes, by reason ryght ; 
yet vnberdyd men I do not spyght, 
Though ye on berdes therin delyght. 
And in concludynge of this thynge, 
I praye God saue our noble kynge ! 
Berdes & vnberdyd, to heuen vs brynge, 
Where as is loye euerlastynge ! 
I fere it not, &c. 



Tho' I defend 
beards, I don't 
168 Bpite unbearded 
men. 



172 God save the 

King ! and bring 
us all, beards and 
no beards, to 
Heaven ! 



^ Pinis. 



316 



[B Iv, back] 



f^ l$arnr0 in tjbe tie 
fmct of tht ^tr^t. 




If my rimea 
are bad. 



think that my 
wish is to stop 
quarrelling. 



B 



Ames, I say, yf thou be shent, 
Bycause thou wantyst eloquence, 
Desyre them, that thyne entent 
May stonde all tymes for thy defence, 
Consyderynge that thy hole pretence 
Was more desyrous of vnyte 
Then to enuent curyosyte. 



R w 



^ Ad imprimendum solum. 



317 



HINDWORDS. 



This term Hindwords is Mr David Laing's ; and I gladly adopt 
it, as it's so much better than the Post-Prcefatio of Mr W. C. Haz- 
litt in his Handbook, and of divers other folk. 

After the extracts in the Forewords, p. 74 — 104, from Boorde's 
Breuyary, showing his opinions there, it seems to me now that I 
ought to have stated some of his opinions in his Introduction and 
Dyetary before summing up his character on p. 105. I therefore do 
this here ; better late than never. 

Boorde believes in 'the noble realme of England' (p. 116, 144), 
and, though he reproaches his countrymen for their absurd love of 
new fashions in dress, and for the treason among them (p. 119), he 
yet holds that * the people of England be as good as any people in 
any other lande and nacion thai euer I haue trauayled in, yea, and 
much more better in many thynges, specially in maners & manhod. 
As for the noble fartyle couwtrey of England, hath no regyon lyke it.' 
So also London is the noblest city in any region, and has the fairest 
bridge : * in al the worlde there is none lyke ' (p. 119). But Cornish 
ale Boorde thinks very bad (p. 123). In Wales he notices the people's 
love of toasted cheese, and that their voices and harps are like the 
buzzing of a bumble-bee (p. 126), the people very rude and beastly, 
very fond of the devil in their speech, of selling their produce a 
year before it comes (p. 127), and of lechery (p. 128). The custom 
of ' bundling ' probably prevailed there ; and the priests also in- 
creased the population. 



318 SKETCH OP BOORDE's INTRODUCTION. 

The wild Irish, Boorde describes as very rude and wrathful, men 
and women lying together in mantles and straw (p. 132-3); but 
among those in the English Pale, which is a good country, Boorde 
found as faithful and good men as ever he knew (p. 133). The 
Scotch, among whom Boorde had lived, he didn't much like : they 
bragged and lied ; and either naturally, or from a devilish disposition, 
didn't love Englishmen, though they resembled the latter in being 
hardy and strong, well-favoured, and good musicians (p. 137). With 
Boorde's description of Iceland (p. 141) my friend, Mr Gu^brandr 
Vigfusson, is much amused, but does not believe in it. Boorde 
liked Calais, and Flanders (p. 147), though the Flemings were — like 
the Dutch (p. 149) — great drinkers, and also eat frogs' loins, and 
toadstools (p. 147), and sold brood mares to England. The church- 
spire and meat-shambles of Antwerp he thought fine (p. 151) ; and 
ihe Julich (or Juliers) custom of plucking their geese yearly, curious 
(p. 154). Cologne he calls a noble city, the Rhine a fair water, and 
its wine good; but the people he found very drunken (p. 156), 
though many were virtuous and full of alms-deeds (p. 157). The 
Germans were rude and rustical, eat cheese-maggots, gave their 
maidens only water to drink (p. 160), and had snow on their moun- 
tains in summer (p. 161). Denmark, Boorde found such a poor 
country, that he couldn't make out how it (and little Saxony, p. 
164) came to win England (p. 163). The Bohemians he thought 
heretics, and they didn't eat ducks (p. 167). The Poles were poor, 
eat honey, and didn't like wax (p. 168). Hungary was partly in the 
hands of the Turks, and was full of aliens (p. 170). Greece was 
Turkish ; its capital, Constantinople, and its St Sophia's the fairest 
cathedral in the world, with a wonderful sighf^ of priests (p. 172). 
Of Sicily, the biting flies (or mosquitoes) Boorde noticed (p. 176); 
of Naples, the laziness and the hot wells (p. 177); of Italy, the 
fertility, the noble river Tiber, the fallen St Peter's at Rome, and 
the abominable vices in the city (p. 178). Venice, Boorde thought 
the beauty of the world ; and he saw no poverty there, but all 
riches (p. 181-5). The Lombards he found crafty, eaters of adders 
and frogs, and having spiteful cur-dogs that would bite your legs. 
' The phrase wasn't slang then. 



SKETCHES OP BOORDE*S TNTRODUCTION AUT) DYETARY. 319 

The Lombards also ploughed with only two oxen, which they 
covered with canvas, against the flies (p. 187). Genoa was a noble 
city in a fertile land (p. 189). France a noble country, with Paris 
and four other universities ; but the French had no fancy for Eng- 
lishmen ; they set the fashion to all nations (p. 190-1). They alone, 
and the English, to Boorde's great disgust, were always changing 
their dress ; every other nation kept to its old apparel. Aquitaine 
was the cheapest country in the world, and Montpelier the noblest 
medical university (p. 193-4). The Portuguese were seafarers, and 
their girls cropt their polls (like the Spanish women), but left a 
rim of it like a barefoot friar's (p. 197). Spain was a sadly poor 
place; no good food, wine in goat-skins, hogs under your feet at 
table, and lice in your bed (p. 198-9). In Castille, &c., the people 
stupidly called on their dead friends to come to life again (p. 200). 
Boorde's pilgrimage to, and abode in, Compostella we have noticed 
above (p. 51) ; thieves, hunger, and cold, were his foes on it (p. 206). 
At Bordeaux was the greatest pair of organs in the world, with "Vices, 
giants' heads, &c., that wagged their jaws and eyes as the player 
played (p. 207). Normandy was a pleasant country, and its people 
gentle : it and all France really belonged to England (p. 208). 
Latin was spoken over all Europe (p. 210). 

From Barbary, slaves were sold to Europe, and left to die un- 
buried (p. 212). Turkey was a cheap and plentiful country, under 
the law of Mahomet, whose tricks Boorde shows-up (p. 214-16). 
Judaea is a fertile land ; and Boorde gives full instructions to persons 
intending to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and describes shortly 
the Holy Sepulchre (p. 219-20). 

In his Dyetary, Boorde tells his contemporaries how to choose 
sites for their houses, how to arrange their buildings, spend their 
incomes, govern their households, manage their bodies ; and what 
flesh, fish, vegetables, and fruits, are good to eat. The two passages 
that I specially call attention to are those on the site and plan of a 
Tudor mansion, p. 238-9, and on what a man should do before going 
to bed and on rising, p. 246-8. They enable you to realize well the 
surroundings and life of an English gentleman of Henry VIII's 
time. The bits on Ale and Beer (p, 256) ; on bad cooks and brewers, 

2 1 



320 MR JOHN LEIGH ON BOORDE*S DYETARY. 

and rascally bakers (p. 260-1) ; and on Venison (p. 274-5), are also 
very characteristic. 

Our good friend at Manchester, Mr John Leigh, Officer of Health 
to the Corpoiation of the town, has been kind enough to read 
thromgh the Forewords and Boorde's Dyetary, and to send me some 
iwtes on the former, which will be found further on, and the follow- 
ing high opinion of Boorde and his Dyetary, which will, I hope, give 
the reader as much pleasure as it has given me : — 

" Either the man was far beyond his time, or the men of the 
time were better informed than we have given them credit for. 
How a man who wrote so gravely, and exhibited in his writings 
such clear sound sense, could have been taken for a 'Merrie An- 
drewe,' passes one's conception. 

" I have carefully read through the Dyetary. The first ten 
chapters are admirable ; indeed, the third chapter so thoroughly 
comprehends all that sanitary reformers have been teaching for the 
last 20 years, that it is difficult to say that we have made any 
advance upon it. Certainly, until quite recently, the knowledge of 
Englishmen on all sanitary matters connected with the surroundings 
of a house, must have retrograded since Boorde wrote. Nothing can 
be better than the advice he gives as to the situation of a house, the 
soil on which it should be erected, the placing of the outbuildings, 
the avoidance of stagnant water, &c., and the means to be taken to 
secure a pure atmosphere. The advice given throughout the remain- 
ing seven chapters, how to procure and to retain good health, is not 
surpassed in quality in any book of modern times. It is not neces- 
sary to select any special passage where all is good. 

"The remaining chapters of the book on special diets are all 
coloured by the peculiar doctrines of Boorde's time ; but, setting those 
aside, the advice he gives is good. He specifies the articles of diet 
which are, as determined by long experience, difficult of digestion, or 
which produce flatulence ; whilst such elements of diet as are laxa- 
tive, diuretic, stimulant to special organs, &c., he points out, dlbeit 
there is sometimes a little fancy about the latter. 

" Like a sensible man, however, he sums up in his thirty-ninth 
chapter what it is necessary that a man should do to preserve his 
health, making much of that depend upon his own experience and 
common sense. The perusal of the Dyetai'y is calculated to give a 
medical reader a high opinion of Boorde's sound good sense and 
powers of observation. 1 think you have done good service in 
reprinting the Dyetary ^ and that you will thereby have corrected 
some erroneous impressions as to the knowledge of the time on 
sanitary matters." 

A man must dwell at elbow-room, says Boorde (p. 233), having 



niNDWORDS. SKETCH OP BOORDE's DYETARY. 321 

water and wood annexed to his house ; he must have a fair prospect 
to and from it, or he'd better not build a house at all (p. 234) ; he 
must have pure air round it, and nothing stinking near it (p. 235-7), 
and must provide, before he begins, all things needful to finish it ; 
for * there goeth to buyldynge many a nayle, many pynnes, many 
lathes, and many tyles or slates or strawes, besyde tymber, hordes, 
lyme, sand, stones or brycke,' &c. (p. 237). Don't front your house 
to the South, but don't be afraid of the East, as * the Eest wynde is 
temperate, fryske, and fragraunt,' — witness Charles Kingsley ; — ar- 
range your buildings on my plan in pages 238-9, and have a park, 
a pair of butts, and a bowling-alley, near them. Provide food and 
necessaries beforehand (p. 240) ; divide your income into three 
parts, 1. for food ; 2. for dress, wages, and alms ; 3. for emergencies 
(p. 241) ; fear God, and make your household do so too, specially 
punishing swearing (p. 243). Sleep moderately (p. 245), and not 
during the day ; be merry before bed- time, sleep on your side, wear 
a scarlet night-cap, and have a quilt over you (p. 247); air your 
breeches in the morning ; wash, pray, take exercise, and eat two meals 
a day (p. 248). Wear a lambskin jacket in winter, and a scarlet ijety- 
cote in summer (p. 249). Don't stuff (p. 250). Abstinence is the 
best medicine (p. 251). Only sit an hour at dinner : Englishmen 
sit too long, and stupidly eat heavy dishes first (p. 252). DonH 
drink water (p. 252-3), except it's mixed with wine (p. 254). In 
Germany, maidens drink water only ; prostitutes drink wine. Abroad 
there's a fountain in everv town (p. 254). 

*Ale for an Englysshe man is a naturall drynke. . . Bere is a 
naturall drynke for a Dutche man ; and nowe of late dayes it is 
moche used in Englande, to the detryment of many Englysshe men ' 
(p. 256). Cider does little harm in harvest-time ; metheglin, fined, 
is better than mead (p. 257). Bread is best when unleavened and 
without bran. In Eome the loaves are saffroned, and little bigger 
than a walnut (p. 258). EascaUy bakers I should like to stand in 
the Thames up to their eyes (p. 261). Potage is more used in 
England than anywhere else in Christendom (p. 262). Almonds 
comfort the breast, and mollify the belly (p. 263). Don't mind 
what old authors say, if experience contradicts them (p. 264). No 

BOORDE. 21 



322 SKETCH OP BOORDE'B DYETAR7. 

eggs but hen's are used in England (p. 264) ; in Turkey they pickle 
hard eggs (p. 265). Dutchmen eat butter at all times in the day, 
which I think bad (p. 265). In High Almayne the Germans eat 
cheese-maggots like we do comfits (p. 267). Milk is not good for 
those who have grumbling in the belly ; strawberries and cream may 
put men in jeopardy of their lives (p. 267). England is supplied 
better with fish than any other land (p. 268) ; but you musn't eat 
fish and flesh at the same meal (p. 269). A pheasant 's the best 
wild fowl, and a capon the best tame one (p. 269-70). All small 
birds are good eating (p. 270). Young beef is good for an English'- 
man (p. 271) ; mutton and pork I don't like. In England swine eat 
stercorous matter, and lie in filth, though in Germany and abroad 
(except in Spain) they have a swim once or twice a day (p. 272). 
Jews and Turks hate pork, but will eat adders as well as any 
Christian in Rome will (p. 273). Bacon 's oidy good for carters and 
ploughmen. Brawn's a usual winter meat in England. Nowhere 
are hart and hind loved as in England. Doctors tell us that 
venison is bad for us ; but I say it 's a lord's dish : let the doctors 
take the skin ! give me the flesh ! (p. 274-5). Let dogs eat hares ; 
don't you (p. 275). Rabbits, sucking ones, are the best wild beasts' 
flesh (p. 275). At Montpelier they have boiled meat for dinner, 
roast for supper (p. 277). A good Cook is half a physician. Onions 
make a man's appetite good, and put away fastidiousness (p. 279). 
Artichokes' heads and sorrel are good (p. 280-1). * There is no 
Herb nor Weede, but God haue gyven vertue to them, to helpe 
man ' (p. 282). Strawberries are praised above all berries ; filberts 
are better than hazle-nuts (p. 283) ; peas and beans fill a man with 
wind ; roast apples comfort the stomach (p. 284). Olives and 
oranges provoke appetite ; black pepper makes a man lean (p. 285-6). 
Then I give you diets for Sanguine, Phlegmatic, Choleric, and Me- 
lancholy folk (p. 287-9), tell you how to treat Pestilence (p. 
289-91), Fever or Ague (p. 291-2), the Iliac, Colic, and Stone (p. 
292), Gout, Leprosy (p. 293), Epilepsy (p. 294), Pain in the Head 
(p. 295), Consumption (p. 296), Asthma, Palsy (p. 297), and 
Lunatics (p. 298). Hardly, these last : keep 'em in the dark, shave 
their heads once a month, and use few words to them. Lastly, I treat 



HINDWORDS. HELPJ-OL BOOKS AND MEN. ^23 

Dropsy (p. 299) ; give general directions on Diet to all people (p. 
300) ; and then tell you how to arrange a sick-bed, a death-bed, 
urging all to make their peace with God (p. 300-1). 

Two quaint and jolly books these are * and if readers are not 
obliged to me for reprinting them, they ought to be. 

On the state of England at Boorde's time, I refer the reader to 
my Ballads from Manuscripts for the Ballad Society, Part I, 1868, 
* Poems and Ballads on the Condition of England in Henry VII I 's 
and Edward Vl's Keigns;* Part II, 1871, these continued, with 
Poems against Cromwell, on Anne Boleyn, &c. The contemporary 
complaints give a very different view of the state of affairs to Mr 
Froude's couleur-de-rose picture. Of early books on the countries of 
Europe, I know only the Lihel of English Policy, a.d. 1436, in Mr 
T. Wright's Political Songs, vol. ii. 1861, and the descriptions, not 
the history, in Thomas's very interesting History e of Italy e, 156L 
Both of these I have quoted largely. George North's * Description 
of Swedland, Gotland, and Finland. Imprinted at London by 
Jhon Awdeley, 1561, 4to, 28 leaves, with the Lord's Prayer in 
Swedish at the end' (Hazlitfs Handbook), I don't know. The 
Russia of Fletcher, and Horsey, Boorde does not touch. 

Spriiner's Reformation Map of Europe in the middle of the 16th 
century, No. VII, in his Historical Atlas, is the best to use for 
Boorde's Introduction. In it, Syria is part of the Osmannisches 
Reich, Turkey in Europe and Asia, and that may account for Boorde 
treating it as in Europe. For the dress of the inhabitants of the 
different countries, recourse may be had to the Reciieil de la Di- 
■versitS des Habits, Paris, 1562, 8vo, from which Upcott had his 
Scotchman and Frenchman cut on wood for his reprint of Boorde's 
Introduction in 1814, chap. iv. sign. G ii, chap, xxvii., sign. T. 

In conclusion, I have to thank Mr John W. Praed for his help 
(obtained by Miss C. M. Yonge's kind offices) in Boorde's Cornish 
dialogue ; Dr B. Davies for help in the Welsh ; Mr F. W. Cosens 
and Mr H. H. Gibbs for help in the Spanish ; Professor Cassal for 
help in the French ; and Prof Rieu in the Arabic ; also a German 
officer of the Coin Department in the British Museum (with very 
little time to spare) for explanations of the names of a few coins. 

2 1 • 



324 EINDWORDS. AN ENGLISH GAIATEO IN 1576. 

To Mr Henry Bradshaw, Librarian of the University of Cam"bridge, 
I am much indebted for help in the bibliography of Boorde's books, 
and to his friend, Mr Hollingworth, Fellow of King's, and curate of 
Guckfield, for a very pleasant day's entertainment and walk near 
Andrew Boorde's birthplace. 
19^^ Sept., 1870. 



One of Andrew Boorde's phrases, " good felowes the whyche wyll 

drynke all out" i^. 151, 1. 6, receives illustration from an unexpected 

source, namely, an English translation in 1576 a.d. of the famous 

Galateo of Delia Casa, written about 1550 a.d., and so amusingly 

sketched for us from the original Italian by our good friend Mr W. 

M. Eossetti, at the end of his essay on Italian Courtesy Books in 

Part II, p. 66 — 76, of the Society's Queene Elizabethes Achademy, 

&c., 1869. Neither he nor I knew at that time of the existence of 

this translation, though it was entered in Bohn's Lowndes, with 

others in 1703, and 1774 :— 

" Galateo of Maister lohn Delia Casa, Archebishop of Beneuenta. 
Or rather, A treatise of the maTxners and behauiours, it behoueth a 
man to vse and eschewe, in his familiar conuersation. A worke very 
necessary & profitable for all Gentlemen, or other. First written in 
the Italian tongue, and now done into English by Eobert Peterson, 
of Lincolnes Inne Gentleman. Satis, si sapienter. Imprinted at 
London for Eaufe Newbery dwelling in Fleetestreate a little aboue 
the Conduit. An. Do. 1576." black letter 4to, leaves, ^ in 4, ^ in 
2, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, 0, P, Q, in fours, with a leaf 
of errata and verse. 

On leaf 115 is this passage : 

" Kow, to drinh all out euery man — which is a fashio^^ as litle in 
vse amowgst vs, as the. terme it selfe is barbarous & strau??ge: I 
meane, Ick bring you : — is sure a foule thing of it selfe, & in our 
countrie [Italy, ab. 1550 a.d.] so coldly accepted yet, that we must 
not go about to bring it in for a fashion." 

The Swearing^ of which Boorde complains so much in pages 82, 
243, was also complained of by Eobert of Brunne in 1303 a.d. ; but 
then the gentry were the chief sinners in this way, and * every gad- 
ling not worth a pear taketh example by you to swear.' Handlyng 
SynnSy p. 23-7 



335 



NOTES. 



I. ON THE FOREWORDS. 

p. 21. Agues , , .he infectiouse. Although at this day medical men 
are disposed to extend tlie list of communicable diseases, they have not 
yet come to regard the agues as amongst them. — John Leigh. 

p. 25. Pronosticacions. — An amusing instance of how some people 
believed in prognostications and astronomers' prophecies in Boorde's 
days, is told by Hall : — 

" In this yere [1524 a.d»], through bookea of Emphymerydes and 
Pronostications made and calculate by Astronomers, the people were 
sore aflfrayde ; for the sayd writers declared that this yere should be 
suche Eclipses in watery signes, and suche coniunctions, that by waters 
& fluddes many people should perishe, Insomuche that many persones 
vitailed them selfes, and went to high groundes for feare of drounyng ; 
and specially, one Bolton, which was Prior of sainct Bartholemewes in 
Sniythfeld, builded him an house vpow Harow of the hill, only for feare 
of this flud ; and thether he went, and made prouision for all thinges 
iiecessarye within him, for the space of two monethes : But the faythfuU 
people put their trust and confidence onely in God. And this raine was 
by the wryters pronosticate to be in February ; wherfore, when it began 
to raine in February, the people wer muche afrayd ; & some sayd, ' now 
it beginneth : ' but many wisemen whiche thought tliat the worlde 
could not be drounod againe, contrary to Goddes promise, put their trust 
in him onely; but because they thought that some great raines might fall 
by enclinacionsof the starres, and that water milles might stand styll, and 
not griude, they prouided for meale ; and yet, God be thanked, there was 
not a fairer season in many yeres ; & at the last, the Astronomers, for 
their excuse, said that in their computacion they had mistaken and mis- 
counted in their nomber an hundreth yeres." — HalVs Chronicle^ p. 675, 
ed. 1809. 

p. 28. Gotham and Nottingham. Nearer hand [nearer to Notting- 
ham Castle than Belvoir Castle was], within three miles, I saw the 



326 NOTES ON THE FOREWORDS. 

ancient Towne of Gotham, famous for the seven sages (or Wise men) 
who are fabulously reported to live there in former ages. (1639. John 
Taylor, Part of this Summers Travels, p. 12,) 

p. 59. Trust yow no Skot f " As there are many sundry Nations, so 
are there as many inclinations : the Russian, Polonian, German, Belgian, 
are excellent in the Art of Drinking ; the Spaniard will Wench it ; the 
Italian is revengefull ; the French man is for fashions ; the Irish man, 
Usquebaugh makes him light heel'd ; the Welsh mans Cowss-boby 
works (by infusion) to his fingers ends, and translates them into the 
nature of lime-twigs ; and it is said, that a Scot will prove false to his 
Father, and dissemble with his Brother; but for an English man, he is so 
cleare from any of these Vices, that he is perfectly exquisite, and ex- 
cellently indued with all those noble abovesaid exercises." 1652. John 
Taylor, Christmas in <& out, p. 9. 

p. 64. Boorde holding land. The statute 31 Henry VIII, chapter vi, 
(a.d. 1539) enabled "all . . . Religiouse persons . . to purchase to them 
and their heires . . . landes . . and other hereditaments . . as thoughe 
they . . had never bene professed nor entred into any suche religion." 
This Act also enabled them to sue and be sued, but provided that not 
" axiyQ of the saide religiouse persons, beinge Priestes, or suche as have 
vowed religion att twenty one yeres or above, and therto then consented, 
continuynge in the same any while after, not duly provinge . . some un- 
laufuU cohercion or compulsion ... be enhabled by . . this Acte . . to 
marie or take any wief or wyves." 

p. 71. Mr J. F. Collier's inaccuracy. I believe that among persons 
who have followed Mr Collier, only one opinion prevails as to his 
accuracy. While I write, comes an unsought testimony on the point 
from a conscientious editor ; " King lohan as edited by Mr Collier so 
^arms with blunders, that I regard it as just so much waste paper. The 
late J — B- — (good man and true) sent me his copy of Mr C.'s lohan, 
and every page is speckled with his corrections. I'm sorry to say this is 
no new thing in following and testing Mr Collier." 

p. 72. The sycknes of the prisons. Boorde has anticipated Howard 
and other Samaritans in announcing that "this infirmitie doth come of 
the corruption of the ayer," &c. As prisons are now kept, medical men 
have little opportunity of seeing the special forms of disease referred to 
by Boorde. They do, however, meet with cases simulating carcinoma, 
in badly-ventilated private houses, which recover on removal to more 
healthy localities. — John Leigh. 

p. 75, 256. Ale. I call to minde the vigorous spirit of the Buttry, 
Nappy, Nut-browne, Berry-browne, Ale Abelendo, whose infusion and in- 
spiration was wont to have such Aleaborate operation to elevate & ex- 
hillerate the vitals, to put alementall Raptures and Enthusiams in the most 
capitall Perricranion,in such Plenitude, that the meanest and most illiter- 
ate Plowjogger could speedily play the Rhetorician, and speak alequently, 
as if he were mounted up into the Aletitude. 1652. John Taylor, 
Christmas in. & out, p. 14. 



NOTES ON THE FOREWORDS, 327 

p. 75, 255. Wines. See a long list of wines in " Colyn Blowbols 
Testament" (? 1475-1500 a.d.), printed in Halliwell's Nugce Poeticce, 
1844, and Hazlitt's Early Popular Poetry, i. 106, lines 324-341 (line 7 or 
8 of the poem is left out) ; and in "The Squyr of Lowe Degre," 1. 753- 
7G2, E. Pop. P. ii. 51. Alicant wine, so called from Alicante, the chief 
Town of Mursia in Spain, where great store of Mulberries grow, the juyce 
whereof makes the true Alicant Wine. — Blount's Glossographia. 

p. 78-9. An excellent description of Nightmare and of its causes 
and remedies. Nothing can be better than the advice. It is honestly 
wortli a guinea even now. 

Query, Is the use of ' Saynt lohns worte' (commonly placed by 
maidens under their pillows on St John's eve in former times, and in 
some districts even now, that they may dream of their sweethearts,) 
adopted on the Hahnernanian principle, that what will cure a disease 
will produce it ? — John Leigh. 

p. 79. If the general advice for the cure of Cachexia be followed, the 
treatment by ' Confection of Alkengi ' may be safely omitted. — J. L. 

p. 80, 271. Martinmas beef. " In a hole in the same Rock was three 
Barrels of nappy liqueur ; thither the Keeper brought a good Red-Deere 
Pye, cold roast Mutton, and an excellent shooing-horn of hang'd 
Martimas Biefe." (1639. John Taylor, Part of this Summers Travels, 
p. 26.) 

p. 80. Symnelles. At Bury in Lancashire, ' Symnell Sunday ' is a 
great day ; and rich cakes are prepared for it, containing currants, 
raisins, candied lemon, almonds, and other ingredients. 

In the prescription for Stone, the Broom seeds, parsley seeds, saxi- 
frage {Saxifraga granulatd), and Gromel seed (those of Lithospen'mum 
arvense) are all excellent diuretics. — J. L. 

p. 81. It is rather an exaggeration to say that " touchynge the con- 
tentes of vrines, experte physicions maye knowe the infyrmyties of a 
pacient unfallybly'^ ; but certainly, the careful examination of the con- 
tents by the " experte phisicions " of modern times has marvellously in- 
creased their knowledge of many diseases. — J. L. 

p. 82. ^^ Impetigo" is now known to be a fungoid growth, and not a 
worm. — J. L. 

p. 94. The farrago of remedies for the treatment of wounds is now 
all cast aside. The proper treatment is all contained in Boorde's first 
two lines of "remedy." — J. L. ' 

p. 97. Boorde's treatment of Tertian Fever not unlikely brought the 
latter into the category of infectious diseases. — J. L. 

p. 97. * Boorde's treatment of Scurf ' With the omission of the 
mercury, we Lave here a very good sulphur ointment, the free applica- 
tion of which would render the cultivation of the nails unnecessary. — 
J. L. 

p. 99. ' Boorde's cure for asthma.' The treatment consists in the- 
administration of antispasmodics and expectorants, and the avoidance of 
such articles of diet as produce flatulence. — J. L. 



328 NOTES ON THE FOREWORDS.' 

p. 99. ' Loch de pino.' In tlie " Niewe Herball or Hislorie ot 
Plantes, &c., first set foorth in the Doutche or Alinaigne tongue by that 
learned D. Rembert Dodoens, &c., and uowe first translated out of French 
into English by Henry Lyte, Esquyer, 1578," it is strted in the descrip- 
tion of the virtues of the Pine : " The Kernels of the Nuttes which are 
founde in the Pine apples are good for the lunges, they dense the breast, 
and cause the fleme to be spet out ; also they nourish wel, and ingender 
good blood, and for this cause they be good for suche as have the 
cough." — John Leigh. 

p. 99. '• Pylles of Agai-ycke.^ Dodoens also says, " there groweth on 
the larche tree a kinde of Mushrome or Tadstoole, that is to say, a fung- 
euse excrescence called Agaricus or Agarick, the whiche is a precious 
medicine, and of great vertue. The best Agarick is that which is whitest, 
very light and open or spongious. . . . Agarick is good against the 
fihortnesse of breath called Asthma ; the hard continual! cough or in- 
veterate cough. . . . Taken about the weight of a Dramme, it purgeth 
the belly from colde slimie fleme, and other grosse and raw humours 
which charge and stoppe the brayne, the sinewes, the lunges, the breast, 
the stomach, the liver, the splene, the kidneyes, the matrix, or any other 
the inwarde partes. . . It also cureth the wamblinges of the stomacke." 
—J. L. 

p. 99. Wood poiodei' for Excoriation. The application of wood- 
powder to an excoriation is analogous treatment to that of flour to a 
burn or scald. The object in both cases is to exclude atmospheric air, 
and to efl'ect the absorption of purulent matter. — J. L. 

Wood-dust was also used for the 'violet powder' of the present 
day : compare Florio's ' Carolo, a moath or timber-worme. Also, a cunt- 
botch or winchester-goose. Also dust of rotten wood vsed about yongue 
children against fleaing .^ 

p. 100. ' Agnus castus.'' " Agnus castus, Hempe tree or Chaste tree, 
is a singular remedie and medicine for such as woulde live chaste . . . 
whether in powder or in decoction, or the leaues alone layde on the bed 
to sleepe uppon. . . . The seede of Agnus Castus driveth away and dis- 
solveth all windinesse and blastinges of the stomacke, entrailes &c." 
Lyte's Dodoens — J. L. 

p. 110. Louis Napolem,. My revises come on Sept. 5 ; and on Sept. 
2 Louis Napoleon and MacMahon's army surrendered almost uncon- 
<litionally to the King of Prussia, Bazaine and the Army of the Rhine 
being held captives at Metz ! Well-deserved retribution^! May it be 
speedily followed to the end, and France have meted to her the same 
measure she declared that she would mete to Prussia, at least, the loss 
of her Rhine provinces ! Meantime, as the uprising of the German 
nation to defend their Fatherland has been the grandest sight that I 
have ever seen, and one of the most magnificent that I have ever heard 
of, making one glad to have lived to witness it, I desire to quote hero 

' Notwithstanding Louis Napoleon's friendship for England. If one's 
friends take to unprovoked murder, they deserve hanging. 



NOTES ON BOORDE's INTRODUCTION. 329 

the words of a stranger who is not one of the trimmerB who have dis- 
graced part of the English Press : — 

" History will record no instance of a greater outrage done to 
humanity, or one accompanied by circumstances of more malicious 
perfidy, more selfish premeditation, or a display of combined abjectness, 
effrontery, and vainglorious miscalculation more disgustful to think of, 
than this war thrust upon the world by Napoleon III. and his official 
lackeys. There has never been a nobler movement of national indigna- 
tion and national resolution, undertaken in a temper more magnificent, 
more gravely and unexultingly heroic, than the rising of the German 
people to the challenge. These great facts are, and will remain, true 
concerning the causes of the war, whatever may be its progress and re- 
sults. I am not speaking of that which has been obscure or ambiguous 
in the contradictions and recriminations of diplomatists ; but of that 
which has been obvious in the action and speech of a sovereign and a 
nation. It is perfectly possible to separate the German nation in this 
case from Herr von Bismarck ; and if Herr von Bismarck is convicted of 
the crime of seriously entertaining rapacious negotiations (which in- 
volves, be it remembered, his further conviction of the folly of self-be- 
trayal) in that case to condemn him, without foregoing a jot of the ad- 
miration due to the superb attitude of threatened Germany. To what 
extent it may yet be possible to separate Napoleon III. from the people 
among whom he has gagged whatever elements he has not been able to 
demoralize, and to acquit France of anything worse than military and 
territorial jealousy, must remain uncertain for the present." An English 
Republican, in the Pall Mall Gazette^ August 10, 1870, p. 3, col. 2. 



II. NOTES ON BOORDE'S INTRODUCTION. 

p.. 119. Bulwarks^ dc. — Compare Hall, under the xxx. yere of K3'ng 
Henry the VIII. "The same tyme [March, 1538-9] the kyng caused all 
the hauens to be fortefied, and roade to Doner, and caused Bulwarkes 
to be made on the sea coastes." — Chronicle^ p. 827, ed. 1809. And on 
p. 828, " Also he sent dyuers of his nobles and counsaylours to view and 
searche all the Fortes and daungiers on the coastes, where any meete or 
conuenient landing place might be supposed, as well on the borders of 
Englande, as also of Wales. And in alle suche doubtfull places his 
hyghnes caused dyuers & many Bulwarkes & fortificacions to be made." 

p. 119. Castles and Blockhouses built by Henry VIII. "The most 
prouident prince that euer reigned in this land, for the fortification there- 
of against all outward enimies, was the late prince of famous meniorie, 
king Henrie the eight, who, beside that he repared most of such as were 
alreadie standing, builded sundrie out of the ground. For, hauing shaken 
off" the more than seruile yoke of popish tyrannic, and espieng that the 
emperour was offended for his diucrce from queene Catherine, his aunt, 
and thereto vnderstanding that the French king had coupled the Dol- 



330 NOTES ON boorde's introduction, 

phin his sonne with the popes neece, and maried his daughter to the 
king of Scots, . . he determined to stand vpon his owne defense, and 
therefore with no small sped, and like charge, he builded sundrie blocke- 
houses, castels, and platformes, vpon diuerse frontiers of his realme, but 
chieflie the east and southeast parts of England, whereby (no doubt) he 
did verie much qualifie the conceiued grudges of his aduersaries, and 
vtterlie put off their hastie purpose of inuasion." W. Harrison^s Descr. 
of England, in Hollnshed'a Chronicle^ p. 194, col. 2, ed. 1587. 

p. 120. Caemai-von. " Wednesday the 4. of August, I rode 8 miles 
from Bangor to Camarvan, where I thought to have seen a Town and a 
Castle, or a Castle and a Towne ; but I saw both to be one, and one to be 
both ; for indeed a man can hardly divide them in judgement of appre- 
hension ; and I have seen many gallant Fabricks and Fortifications, but 
for compactness and compleatness of Caernarvon, I never yet saw a 
parallel. And it is by Art and Nature so sited and seated, that it stands 
impregnable ; & if it be well mand, victualled, and ammunitioned, it 
is invincible, except fraud or famine do assault, or conspire against it." 
(1653. John Taylor, A short Relation of a long loumey, p. 14.) 

p. 120. The Northern tongue. — Sane tota lingua Nordanimbrorum, et 
niaxime in Eboraco, ita inconditum stridet, ut nichil nos australes intel- 
ligere possimus. Quod propter viciniam barbararura gentium, et propter 
remotionem regum quondam Anglorum modo Normannorum contigit, 
qui magis ad austrum quam ad aquilonem diversati noscuntur. — Willehni 
Malmesburiensis monachi Gesta Pontificum Anglorum, lib. iii. p. 209, ed. 
Hamilton, 1870. 

p.. 120. Salt. And for Salte, there is great pi en tie made at the Witches 
[places whose names end in -wich'] in Cheshire, and in diners other 
places : Besides many Salte houses standyng vpon the coaste of Eng- 
lande that, makes Salte, by sething of salte Sea water. — \b%0, Robert 
Ilitchcok's Pollitique Piatt, sign. e. iii. 

p. 122. Cornwall. The Water-Poet gives the county a much better 
character a hundred years later: "Cornewall is the Cornucopia, the 
compleateand repleate Home of Abundance, for high churlish Hills, and 
affable courteous people : they are loving to requite a kindenesse, 
placable to remit a wrong, and hardy to retort injuries: the Countrey 
hath its share of huge stones, mighty Rocks, noble, free, Gentlemen, 
bountiful housekeepers, strong and stout men, handsome beautifull 
women ; and (for any that I know) there is not one Cornish Cuckold to 
be found in the whole County ; In briefe, they are in most plentifull man- 
ner happy in the abundance of right and left hand blessings." 1649. John 
Taylors Wandering, to see the Wonders of the West, p. 10. On pages 17, 1 8, 
Taylor gives an account of the pilchard fishing at Mevagesey in 
Cornwall. 

p. 126. The Welsh and Cawse boby or Roasted Cheese. — The 78th 
Tale in "A Hundred Mery Talys" from the only perfect copy known, 
printed by John Rastell in 1526, ed. Oesterley, 1866, p. 131, is 

" LXXVIII. Of seynt Peter that cryal 'cause bole.' — I fyndc wryte« 



NOTES ON BOORDE'S INTRODUCTION. 331 

anionge olde gestys, how God made Saynte Peter porter of heuen / and 
that God of his goodnes, soone after his passyon, suffred many men to 
come to the kyngdome of heuen witli small deseruyng / at whichetyme 
there was in heuen a grete company of Welehemen / whiche, with 
theyre krakynge & babelynge, trobelyd all the other. Wherfore God 
sayd to Saynt Peter that he was wery of them / & that he wolde fayne 
haue them out of heuen. To whome Saynt Peter sayde ' Good Lorde, 
I warrant you that shalbe sliortly done / ' wherfore Saynt Peter went 
out of heuew gatys, & cryed with a loude voyce ' Cause bobe ' / that 
is as moche to say as ' rostyd chese ' / whiche thynge the Welchmen 
heryng, ran out of heuyn a great pace. And when Saynt Peter sawe 
them al out, he sodenly went in to heuen, and lokkyd the dore, and so 
sparryd all the Welchmen out. 

" IF By this ye may se that it is no wysdome for a man to loue or to 
set his mynde to moche vpon ony delycate or worldly pleasure wherby 
he shall lose the celestyall & eternall loye." 

See also the note below, on p. 156. 

p. 127. St WinifrkVs Well. Taylor the Water- Poet describes this 
in his Short Relation of a long loumey in 1653, p. 10-12. "Saturdaj', the 
last of July, I left Flint, and went three miles to Holy-Well^ of whicli 
place I must speak somewhat materially : About the length of a furlong, 
down a very steep Hill, is a Well (full of wonder and admiration ;) it 
comes from a Spring not far from Radland Castle ; it is, and hath been, 
many hundred yeares knowne by the name of Holy -Well, but it is more 
commonly, and of most Antiquity, called Saint Winifnds Well in 
memory of the pious and chaste Virgin Winifrid, who was there be- 
headed for refusing to yield her Chastity to the furious lust of a Pagan 
Prince : in that very place where her bloud was shed, this Spring sprang 
up ; from it doth issjie so forceible a stream, that within a hundred yards 
of it, it drives certain Mils ; and some do say that nine Corn Mils and 
Fulling Mils are driven with the Stream of that Spring: It hath a fair 
Ciiappell erected over it called Saint Winifrid's Chappell, which is now 
much defaced by the injury of these late Wars ; The Well is compassed 
about with a fine Wall of Free stone ; the Wall hath eight Angles or 
Corners, and at every Angle is a fair Stone Filler, whereon the West end 
of the Chappell is supported. In two severall places of the Wall there 
are neat stone staires to go into the water that comes from the Well ; for 
it is to be noted that the Well it selfe doth continually work and bubble 
with extream violence, like a boiling Cauldron or Furnace ; and within 
the Wall, or into the Well, very few do enter : The Water is Christalline, 
sweet, and medicinable ; it is frequented daily by many people of Rich 
and Poore, of all Diseases ; amongst which, great store of folkes are cured, 
divers are eased, but none made the worse. The Hill descending is 
plentifully furnished (on both sides of the way) with Beggers of all ages, 
sexes, conditions, sorts, and sizes ; many of them are impotent, but all 
are impudent, and richly embrodered all over with such Hexameter 
poudred Ermins (or Vermin) as are called Lice in England." 



332 NOTES ON boorde's introduction. 

p. 127-8. Foolish Customs in Wales. Taylor the Water- Poet, in 1G53 
notices that the Welsh were free from the Sabbatarian superstition of one 
English place. " Of all the places in England and Wales that I havd 
travelled to, this village of Barnsley [in Gloucestershire] doth most strictly 
observe the Lords day, or Sunday, for little children are not suffered to 
walke or play : and two Women, who had beene at Church both before 
and after Noone, did but walke into the fields for their recreation, and 
they were put to their choice, either to pay sixpence apiece (for prophane 
walking,) or to be laid one houre in the stocks ; and the pievish willfull 
women (though they were able enough to pay,) to save their money, 
and jest out the matter, lay both by the heeles merrily one houre. 

There is no such zeale in many places and Parishes in Wales ; for 
they have neither Service, Prayer, Sermon, Minister, or Preacher, nor any 
Church door opened at all, so that people do exercise and edifie in the 
Church-Yard, at the lawfull and laudable Games of Trap, Catt, Stool-ballj 
Rocket &c, on Sundayes." 

p. 128. Prestes shal haue no concuhynes (or wives). The 31st of 
Henry VIII, chapter 14, a.d. 1539, enacted "that if any person w/tich is 
or hath byne a Preest, before this present parliament, or during the time 
of cession of the same, hath maryed, and hath made any contract of 
matrimony with any woman, or that any man or woman wAz'ch before 
the makinge of this acte advisedly hath vowed chastitie or wydowhode 
before this present parliament or during the cession of the same, hath 
maried or contracted matrimony with any person, that then every suche 
mariage & contract of matrimony shalbe utterlie voide and of none 
effecte : And that the Ordynaries within whose Dioces or Jurisdicc»on 
the person or persons so maried or contracted is or be resident or abyd- 
ynge, shall from tyme to tyme make 8eparac^on and devorses of the 
saide mariages and contracted. 

And further it is enacted by the auctoritie abovesaide, that if any 
man w^^ch is or hathe bene Preest as is aforesaide, at any tyme from 
and after the saide xij*'* daye of July next comynge, doe carnally kepe or 
use any woman, to whom he is or hathe bene maried, or with whome he 
hathe contracted matrimony, or openly be conversaunt [or] kepe com- 
panye and famyliaritie withe any suche woman, to the evell example of 
other persons, everie suche carnall use, copulacion, open conversacion, 
kepinge of company and famyliarity, be, and shalbe demed and adjudged, 
felony, aawell against the man as the woman ; and that everie such 
person soe offendinge shalbe enquired of, tried, punyshed, suffer, and 
forfeyt, all and everie thinge and thinges as other felons made and de- 
clared by this Acte, and as in case of felonye, as is aforesaide." 

The death-punishment for Felony was found too severe ; and there- 
fore by the 32 Henry VIII, chapter 10, the penalty was altered to : 
"First offence, Forfeiture of all Benefices but one, &c. Second offence, 
Forfeiture of all Benefices land, goods & chattels. Third offence, Im- 
prisonment for Life. The Penalty on Single Women oftending was ; 
First offence, Forfeiture of Goods. Second offence, Forfeiture of Half 



NOTES ON BOORDE's INTRODUCTION. 333 

the Profits of her Lands. Third oifence, Forfeiture of all Goods, chattels, 
& Profits of land, and Imprisonment for Life. The Penalty on Wives 
offending was Imprisonment for Life. 

p. 131. Products of Ireland. — ' The Libel of English Policy,' A.D. 
1436, speaks of these, and the countiy itself. The products are 

Hydes, and fish, samon, hake, herynge, 

Irish wollen, lynyn cloth, faldynge^ 

And marternus gode, bene here marchaundyse ; 

Hertys hydes, and other of venerye, 

Skynnes of otere, squerel and Irysh [h]are, 

Of shepe, lambe, and fox is here chaffare, 

ffelles of kydde and conyes grete plente. (ii. 186.) 

Then, as to the country, which is a buttress and a post under England, 
the writer says, 

Why speke I thus so muche of Yrelonde ? 
ffor als muche as I can understonde 
It is fertyle for thynge that there do growe 
And multiply en, — loke who-so lust to knowe ;— - 
So large, so gode, and so coraodyouse, 
That to declare is straunge and merveylouse. 
ffor of sylvere and golde there is the oore 
Amonge the wylde Yrishe, though they be pore ; 
ffor they ar rude, and can thereone no skylle ; 
So that if we had there pese and gode wylle 
To myne and fyne, and metalle for to pure, 
In wylde Yrishe myght we fynde the cure ; 
As in London seyth a juellere, 
Whych brought from thens gold oore to us here, 
Whereof was fyned metalle gode and clene. 
As [to] the touche, no bettere coude be sene. 

T. Wright's Political Songs, Rolls Series, ii. 186-7. 

And welle I wote that frome hens to Rome, 

And, as men sey, in alle Cristendome, 

Ys no grouude ne lond to Yreland lyche, 

So large, so gode, so pleiiteouse, so riche. 

That to this worde dominus dothe longe. {ih. ii. 188.) 

p. 131, line 8. And good square dyce. — There is among them (the 
Wild Irish) a brotherhood of Karrowes, that profer to play at chartes all 
tTiQ yere long, and make it their onely occupation. They play awaj*- 
mantle and all to the bare skin, and then trusse themselues in strawe 
or in leaues ; they wayte for passengers in the high way, invite them 

' He rood vp on a Rouncy, as he kouthe, 
In a gowne oi faldynye to the knee. 
Chaucer of his Shipman, Cant. Tales, group A. § 1, 1. 391,. 



334 NOTES ON boorde's introduction. 

to game upon the grene, &. aske them no more but companions to 
holde them spofte. For default of other stuffe, they paune theyr glibs, 
the nailes of their fingers and toes, their dimiffaries, which they leese or 
redeeme at the curtesie of the wynner. — The Description of Ireland, by 
llichard Stanyhurst (chap. 8), in Holinshed, ed. 1577. 

p. 131, 1. 8-7. Aqua Vitcd, and the Diet of the Wild Irish. — " Water 
cresses (which they terme shamrocks), rowtes, and other herbes, they 
foede upon ; otemeale and butter they cramme together ; they drinke 
whey, mylke, and biefe brothe. Fleshe they devour without bread, and 
that halfe raw : the rest boyleth in their stomackes with Aqua vitae, which 
they swill in after such a surfet by quartes & pottels : they let their 
cowes bloud, which, growen to a gelly, they bake, and ouerspred with 
butter, and so eate in lumpes. No meat they fancy so much as porke, 
and the fatter the better. One of lohn Oneales household demaunded of 
his fellow whether biefe were better then porke : * that,' quoth the other^ 
'is as intricate a question, as to aske whether thou art better then 
Oneale.'" — Stanyhurst^s Description of Irelande, chap. 8, Holinshed, ed. 
1577. 

p. 131. Natural disposition of the " wyld Irishe." — "The people are 
thus enclined : religious, frawke, amorous, irefull, sufferable of infinite 
paynes, very glorious, many sorcerers, excellent horsemen, delighted with 
wars, great almsgiuers, passing in hospitality. The lewder sort, both 
clearkes and lay men, are sensuall, & ower loose in liuyng. The same, 
beyng vertuously bred up or reformed, are such myrors of holynes and 
austeritie, that other nations retaine but a shadow of deuotion in com- 
parison of them. As for abstinence and fasting, it is to them a familiar 
kynd of chastisement." — Stanyhurst's Description of Irelande, chap. 8, 
Holinshed, ed. 1577. 

p. 132. The Wild Irish lack manners. — " The Irishe man standeth so 
much upon hys gentilitie, that he termeth any one of the English sept, 
and planted in Ireland, Bohdeagh Galteagh, that is, 'English churle': 
but if he be an Englishman borne, then he nameth hym, Bohdeagh 
Saxonnegh, that is, 'a Saxon churle': so that both are churles, and he 
the onely gentleman ; and therupon, if the basest pesant of them name 
hymselfe with hys superior, he will be sure to place hiniselfe first, as ' I 
and Oneyle, I and you, I and he, I & my maister,' wheras the curtesie of 
the Englishe language is cleane contrary." — Stanyhursfs Descnption of 
Irelande, chap. 8, Holinshed, ed. 1577. 

p. 132. The English Pale. — " Before I attempt the unfoldyng of the 
maners of the meere Irish, (wild Irish) I thinke it expedient, to fore- 
warne thee, reader, not to impute any barbarous custome that shall be 
here layde downe, to the citizens, townesmen, and the inhabitants of tlie 
english pale, in that they differ little or nothyng from the ancient 
customes and dispositions of their progenitors, the English and Walsh- 
men, beyng therfore as mortally behated of thQ Irish, as those that are 
borne in England." — Stanyhurst'' 8 Descnption of Irelande, chap. 8, Holin- 



NOTES ON BOORDE's INTRODUCTION. 335 

p. 133. Ireland; No Adders, c6c., there, 

" 'Tis said no Serpent, Adder, Snake, or Toade, 
Can live in Ireland, or hath there aboade." 

1642. John Taylor, Mad Fashions, p. 4. 

p. 133. Men arid women lie together in straw. — In olde tyme they 
(the Wild Irish) much abused the honourable state of marriage, either 
in contractes unlawfull, meetyng the degrees of prohibition, or in di- 
uorcementes at pleasure, or in retaynyng concubines or harlots for 
wyues : yea, euen at this day where the clergy is fainte, they can be 
content to marry for a yeare and a day of probation, and at the yeres 
ende, or any tyme after, to returne hir home with hir marriage goodes, 
or as much in valure, upon light quarels, if the gentlewomans friendes 
be unable to reuenge the injur3\ In lyke maner may she forsake hir 
husband. — The Description of Ireland, by Richard Stanyhurst (chap. 8), 
in Holinshed, ed. 1577. 

p. 133. Superstitions of the Irish. — Stanyhurst says, "In some 
corner of the land they used a damnable superstition, leauyng the 
right armes of their infantes unchristened (as they terme it) to the 
intent it might giue a more ungracious & deadly blowe. 
Others write that gentlemens children were baptized in mylke, 2°Calit*ant' 
and the infantes of poore folke in water, who had the better, 
or rather the on)}', choyce. Diuers other vayne and execrable supersti- 
tions they obserue, that for a complete recitall would require a seueral 
volume. Wherto they are the more stifly wedded, because such single 
preachers as they haue, reproue not in theyr sermons the pieuishnesse 
and fondnesse of these friuolous dreamers. But these and the like 
enormities haue taken so deepe roote in that people, as commonly a 
preacher is sooner by their naughty lyues corrupted, then their nauglity 

lyues by his preaching amended Againe, the very English of 

birth, conuersant with the sauage sort of that people, become degener- 
ate ; &, as though they had tasted of Circes poysoned cup, are quite 
altered. Such a force hath education to make or n)arre." — The De- 
scription of Ireland^ by Richard Stanyhurst (chap. 8), in Holinshed, ed. 
1577. 

p. 135. Scotland. — The Libel of 1436 says the exports of Scotland 
are skins, hides, and wool, which pass through England to Flanders, — 
the wool being sold in the towns of Poperynge and Belle. The imports 
are mercery, haberdashery, cartwheels and barrows. — T. Wright's Polit, 
Songs, ii. 168. 

p. 136. " Scotlande is a hai-yn and a waste countrey.^' — Certes there is 
no region in the. whole world so barrew & unfruteful, through distaunce 
from the Sunne. — Description of Scotland, chap. 13, Holinshed, ed. 1677. 

p. 137. The Scotch ' he hardy mm.'' — Thereunto we finde them to be 
couragious and hardy, offering themselues often unto the uttermost 
perils with great assurance, so that a man may pronounce nothing to be 
ower harde or past their power to perfoxme. — Desciiption of Scotland, 
chap. 1, Holinshed, ed. 1577. 



336 NOTES ON BOORt>E*S INTRODUCTION. 

p. 141. Iceland and its Stockfish, — -The Libel of 1436 says, 

Of Yseland to wryte, is lytille nede, 
Save of stokfische ; yit for sothe, in dede, 
Out of Bristow, and costis many one, 
Men have practised by nedle and by stone 
Thider-wardes wj^thine a lytel whylle, 
Wythine xij. yere, and wythoute perille, 
Gone and comen — as men were wonte of olde — 
Of Scarborowgh unto the costes colde ; 
And now so fele shippes thys yere there were. 
That moche losse for unfraught they bare ; 
Yselond myght not make hem to be fraught 
Unto the hawys ; this moche harme they caught. 

T. Wright's Political Songs, ii. 191. 

p. 142. Iceland curs, cmd Icelanders eating tallow-candles. — " Besides 
these also we haue sholts or curs dailie brought out of Iseland, and much 
made of among vs, bicause of their sawcinesse and quarrelling. More- 
ouer they bite verie sore, and hue candles exceedinglie, as doo the men and 
women of their countrie : but I may saie no more of them, bicause they 
are not bred with vs. Yet this will I make report of by the waie, for 
pastimes sake, that when a great man of those parts came of late into 
one of our ships which went thither for fish, to see the forme and fashion 
of the same, his wife apparrelled in fine sables, abiding on the decke 
whilest hir husband was vnder the hatches with the mariners, espied a 
pound or two of candles hanging at the mast, and being loth to stand 
there idle alone, she fell to, and eat them vp euerie one, supposing hir selfe 
to haue beene at a iollie banket, and shewing verie plesant gesture when 
hir husband came vp againe vnto hir." — HanisorCs Descr., Bk. iii. chap. 
7, p. 231, col. 2, ed. 1586-7. 

" My lorde is not at lesure : 

The pawre man at the dur 

Standes lyke an yslande cur, 

And Darre not ones sture." 
Vox PopuU Vox Dd, A.D. 1547-8, 1. 473-5, p. 137 of my Ballads from 
Manuscripts, vol. i. Ballad Society, 1868, p. 137, where this note from 
Nares is given, " Iceland Dogs : shaggy, sharp-eared, white dogs, much 
imported formerly as favourites for ladies etc. ' Pish for thee, Iceland 
dog, thou prick-ear'd cur of Iceland!' Henry V, ii. 1." 

p. 142. T%e newefounde land named Calico. — ? Calicut, a kingdom of 
India on the coast of Malabar, about 63 miles long, and nearly as many 
broad. Its capital is also named Calicut, and was the first place where 
the Portuguese admiral Vasco de Gama landed on May 22, 1498, and 
whence he returned to Portugal, laden with the first spoils of tho 
eastern world. This was the beginning of European trade with India. 
Our word calico is taken from Calicut. — Oxford Encyclopcsdia, 1828. 
p. 145. Paschal. — Can this be the Pascal or Pa chal, Pierre, de- 



NOTES ON BOORDE's INTRODUCTIOir. 337 

scribed in the Bibliographie Universelle, 1823, vol. xxiii. p. 44, col. 2, 
as a litterateur without talent, but full of vanity and impudence, who 
was born in 1522 at Sauveterre in the Bazadois, of a noble family, and 
died at Toulouse on Feb. 16, 1565, at the age of 43 ? He got praises in 
plenty, and a pension, for his proposals to continue Paulus Jovius's Eulo- 
giuras of Learned Men, and to write a History of France ; but he left only 
6 leaves of the latter work finisht when he died, though he had before 
distributed notes with ' P. Paschali liber quartus rerum a Francis gestar- 
um ' on them. 

Pope Pascal II died on January 11, 1118; Pope Pascal III was for 
a time made Anti-Pope in the days of Alexander III, who was elected on 
Sept. 7, 1159, and died Aug. 30, 1181. 

p. 147. The Flemings^ Fish and Beer. — "the Flemminges . . . with 
their green e fishe, barreled Cod and Heringes, caryeth out of Englande 
for the same yearely, both golde, and siluer, and other comodities ; and 
at the leaste tenne thousande tunne of dubble dubble Beare, and hath 
also all kinde of Frenche commodities, continually both in tyme of warres 
and peace, by their trade onely of fishyng." — 1580, Robert Hitchcok's 
Pollitique Platt^ sign. f. ii. (The book shows how great a help the 
development of the Herring Fishery would be to England.) For the 
" Butter," see the note on p. 156. 

p. 147, &c. Flemings, their Beer-drinking, Butter, and Products. — The 
Libel of 1436 says of the Prussians, High-Dutchmen, and Easterlings, 

Oute of fflaundres 

. . . they bringe in the substaunce of the beere 
That they drynken fele to goode chepe, not dere. 
Ye have herde that twoo fflemynges togedere 
Wol undertake, or they goo ony whethere, 
Or they rise onys, to drinke a barrelle fulle 
Of goode berkyne.^ So sore they hale and pulle, 
Undre the horde they pissen, as they sitte : 
This Cometh of covenant of a worthy witte. 
Wythoute Calise in ther buttere the[y] cakked ; 
Whan they flede home, and when they leysere lakked 
To holde here sege, they wente lyke as a doo : 
Wei was that fflemmynge that myght trusse and goo . . . 
After bere and bacon, odre gode commodites usene. 
Now bere and bacon bene fro Pruse ibrought 
Into fflaundres, as loved and fere isoughte ; 
Osmonde,^ coppre, bow-stafifes, stile,^ and wex, 
Peltre-ware, and grey, pych, terre, horde, and flex. 
And Coleyne threde, fustiane, and canvase, 
Corde, bokeram : of olde tyme thus it wase. 
But the fflemmyngis, amonge these thinges dere, 
In comen lowen* beste, bacon and bere : 

* barley brew * a kind of iron. — Halliwell, ^ steel * love 
BOORDB. 22 



338 NOTES ON boorde's introduction. 

Thus arn they hogges ; and drynkyn wele ataunt ; 
ffare wel, Flemynge ! hay, harys, hay, avaunt ! 
Also Pruse men make here aventure 
Of plate of sylvere, of wegges^ gode and sure 
In grete plente, whiche they bringe and bye 
Oute of londes of Bealme and Hungrye ; 
Whiche is encrese ful grete unto thys londe. 
And thei bene laden, I understonde, 
Wyth wollen clothe, alle manere of coloures, 
By dyers craftes ful dyverse that ben oures. 
And they aventure ful gretly unto the Baye,^ 
fifor salte, that is nedefulle wythoute naye. 

T, Wright's Political Songs, ii. 169-171. 
Again, at p. 161 the Spanish imports from Flanders are said to be 
ffyne clothe of Ipre, that named is better than oure-is, 
Cloothe of Curtryke, fyne cloothe of alle coloures, 
Moche ffustyane, and also lynen clothe. 
But, ye fflernmyngis, yf ye be not wrothe. 
The grete substaunce of youre cloothe, at the fulle, 
Ye wot ye make hit of youre Englissh wolle. 
p. 149. Dutchmen ^quaf tyl they ben dronJc' 

" 'Tis said the Dutchmen taught vs drinke and swill ; 
I'm sure we goe beyond them in that skill ; 
I wish (as we exceed them in what's bad,) 
That we some portion of their goodnesse had." 

1632. Taylor on Thame Isis, p. 27. 
p. 150, 1. 5. Antwerp and Barow. — If this warre [with the Emperor 
in 1527] was displeasaunt to many in Englande (as you have hard), 
surely it was as much or more displeasant to the tounes and people of 
Flaunders, Brabant, Hollande, and Zelande, and in especiall to the tounes 
Andvjarpe and Barrow, where the Martes wer kept, and where the re- 
sorte of Englishmen was ; for thei saied that their Martes were vndoen 
if the Englishemen came not there ; and if there were no Marte, their 
Shippes, Hoyes, and Waggons might rest, and all artificers, Hostes, and 
Brokers might slepe, and so the people should fal into miserie and 
pouertie. — HalVs Chronicle, p. 746, ed. 1809. 

p. 150. Brabant, the Mart of all nations. — The Libel of 1436 says, 
And wee to martis of Braban charged bene 
Wyth Englyssh clothe, fulle gode and feyre to seyne. 
Wee bene ageyne charged wyth mercerye, 
Haburdasshere ware, and wyth grocerye. 
To whyche martis — that Englisshe men call " feyres " — 
Iche nacion ofte maketh here repayeres, 

' wedges 
' Into the Rochelle, to fetche the fumose wine, 
Nere into Britonnse bay for salt so fyne. (ib. p. 1G2.) 



NOTES ON BOORDE'S INTRODUCTION. 339 

Englysshe and Frensh, Lumbardes, Januayes, 
CJathalones, theder they take here wayes, 
Scottes, Spanyardes, Iresshirien there abydes, 
Wythe grete plente bringinge of salte hydes. 

T. Wright's Political Songs, ii. 179. 
The English were by far the largest buyers at the Marts, of goods 
brought thither by laud as well as sea ; and among the articles are, 
Yit marchaundy of Braban and Selande, 
The madre and woode that dyers take on hande 
To dyne wyth ; garleke, and onyons, 
And salt fysshe als, for husbond and comons. 
But they of Holonde, at Caleyse byene oure felles 
And oure woUes, that Englyshe men hem selles. (ib. p. 180.) 
p. 151. Antwerp Church and its Spire. — " The great glory of Antwerp 
is its cathedral, the finest building in the Low Countries ; it is said to be 
600 feet long, 240 wide, and has a spire of stone . . 366 feet (high) ; con- 
sequently it is lower than the spire of Salisbury cathedral, if the 
[generally acknowledged] height of this spire can be depended on." 
Fenny Cyclopcedia. 

p. 151. Hanawar or JIanago, or Hainault, is called Hennigavo in the 
map of Europe in XII Landtaflen, printed at Zurich by Christoffel 
Froschower, M.D.LXII., and is placed South (instead of East) of Artois, 
and north of Paris. The map is turned and lettered with its North, in- 
stead of its South point, towards you. 'Lunden' is wholly on the south 
of the Thames. 

p. 156. Butter and Dutchmen. — A tale in The Sack-Full of Newes, 
ed. 1673, sign. B., ilhistrates this : " There was a widow in London that 
had a Dutchman to her servant, before whom she set a rotten Clieese 
& butter for his dinner: and he eate of the butter because he liked it, 
and his Mistresse bad him eat of the cheese. ' No, Mistresso,' quod he, 
* the butter is good enough.' She, perceiving he would eat none of 
the bad cheese, said, 'Thou knave, thou ait not to dwell with honest 
folkes ! ' 'By my troth, Mistresse,' said he, ' had I taken heed ere I 
came hither, I had never come here.' ' Well, knave,' quod she, ' thou 
shalt go from on whore to another.' 'Then will I go,' qwod he, ' from 
you to your sister ;' and so departed." 

See also in " The Figure of Nine, Containing these Nine Observa- 
tions, Wits, Fits, and Fancies, Jests, Jibes, and Quiblets, with Mirth, 
Pastime, and Pleasure. 

The Figure of Nine to you I here present. 
Hoping thereby to give you all content," 
over a circular device, with the legend Cor unum via una. " Printed for 
J. Deacon, and C. Dennisson, at their Shops at the Angel in Guiltspur- 
street, and at the Stationers Arms within Aldgate." A in eight. 

" Nine sorts of men love nine sorts of dishes. — A Dutchman loves 
butter, an Englishman Beefe, a Scot loves an Oat-cake, the Welshman 

;.' 2 * 



340 NOTES ON boorde's introduction. 

loves Couse-bobby [toasted cheese], an Irishman Onions, a Frenchman 
loves Mutton, the Spaniard tobacco, the Seaman loves Fish, and a 
Taylor loves cabbage." sign. A. 3, back. 

p. 161. holmes (fustian), a.d. 1474. "Item, x. elnes of blak holmesa 
[printed holmefs'] fustian to the trumpatis doublats, iij. s. the eln." — 
Dauney's Extracts from Accounts in his Ancient Scotish Melodies^ Edinb. 
1838 (Bannatyne & Maitland Clubs). 

p. 163. The old warriors and present poverty of Denmark. — The 
Lihel^ A.D. 1436, says, 

In Denmarke ware fulle noble conquerours 

In tyme passed, fulle worthy werriours, 

Whiche, when they had here marchaundes destroyde, 

To poverte they felle, — thus were they noyede ; — 

And so they stonde at myscheffe at this daye ; 

This lerned I late, welle wryten, this no naye. 

T. Wright's Polit. Songs, ii. 177. 

p. 169. Bugles. — See TopseH's Histoid of Four-footed Beasts : "Of 
the Vulgar Bugil. A Bugil is called in Latine, Buhalus, and Buffalus ; 
in French, Beufle ; in Spanish Bufano ; in German, Buff el, . . This 
vulgar Bugil is of a kinde of wilde Oxen, greater and taller then the 
ordinary Oxen, and their limbs better compact together. . . They are 
very fierce, being tamed ; but that is corrected by putting an Iron ring 
through his Nostrils, whereinto also is put a cord, by which he is led and 
ruled, as a Horse by a bridle ; (for which cause, in Germany they call a 
simple man over-ruled by the advise of another to his own hurt, ' a Bugle, 
led with a ring in his nose.' His feet are cloven, and with the formost 
he will dig the earth, and with the hindmost fight like a Horse, setting 
on his blows with great force, and redoubling them again if his object 
remove not. His voyce is like the voyce of an Oxe ; when he is chased 
he runneth forth right, seldom winding or turning, and when he is 
angred, he runneth into the water, wherein he covereth himself all over, 
except his mouth, to cool the heat of his blood." p. 45, ed. Rowland, 
1658. 

p. 171. A gret citie called Malla-vine. — And Men gon thorghe the 
Lond of this Lord [the Kyng of Hungarye], thorghe a Cytee that is 
clept Cypron, and be the evglle Town, that sytt toward the ende of 
Hungarye. — Mandeville's Voiage and Travaile, p. 7, ed. 1839. 

p. 176. Naples. — Thomas speaks thus of the Neapolitans, Hist. Italye^ 
If. 114, " the Neapolitanes are scarcelye trusted on their wordes. Not that 
I thynke they deserue lesse credyte than other men, but because the 
wonted general ill opinion of their vnstedfastnesse is not taken oute of 
men's hertes. Yet is theNeapolitane, for his good enterteinment, reckened 
to be the veraie courtesie of the worlde, thoughe most men repute him 
to be a great flatterer, and ful of crafte. 

" What wol you more? They are rych, for almost euery gentylman 
is lorde and kynge within hyni selfe j they haue veray fayre women, 



NOTES ON BOORDE's INTRODUCTION. 341 

and the worlde at wyll ; in so miiche as Naples contendeth wyth Venice, 
whether should be preferred for sumptuouse dames. Finallye, the court 
about the Vicere was wowt to be verj' princelye, and greater than that of 
Myllayne for trayne of gentilmen ; but now it is somewhat diminished." 

p. 178. Italy : * the people he homly and rude,' — Thomas (leaf 3, 
back, leaf 4) praises the Italian gentlemen very highly : " so honourable, 
so courteise, so prudente, and so graue withall, that it shoulde seeme 
eche one of thaim to haue had a princelye bringynge vp. To his superior, 
obediente ; to his equal), humble ; and to his inferiour, gentle and 
courteyse ; amyable to a straunger, and desyrous with curtesie to winne 
his loue. 

" I graunte, that in the expense or loue of his money to a straunger, 
he is ware, and woull be at no more cost than he is sure eyther to saue 
by, or to haue thanke for : wherein I rather can commende him than 
otherwyse. But this is out of doubte, a straunger can not be better en- 
terteigned, nor moore honourablie entreated, then amongest the Italians." 
Thomas also praises highly the Italian universities " Padoa, Bononia, 
Pauia, Ferrara, Pisa, and others"; none of which Andrew Boorde says 
he saw. But Thomas says the condition of the poor is very bad ; they 
are hardly able to earn bread. 

p. 178. St Peter's fallen to the ground. — Though Rome was sackt 
in 1527 by the Emperor's army under the command of the Duke of 
Bourbon (see the account in HalVs Chronicle, p. 726-7, ed. 1809), 
yet it was Julius II who had the old basilica of St Peter's pulled 
down, in order to provide a site for his mausoleum, which Michael 
Angelo had designed. On April 18, 1506, Julius II laid the foundation- 
stone of the present church. Bramante made designs for it, and four 
great piers and their arches were completed before he died in 1514. The 
work stood still for nearly 30 years ; Michael Angelo altered the design ; 
and his Cathedral was nearly finisht in 1601, when Paul V and the 
Cardinals commissioned Carlo Maderno to lengthen the nave, &c. Urban 
VIII dedicated the church on the 18th of November 1626, a hundred and 
twenty years after the building began. Spalding's Italy and the Italian 
Islands, iii. 154 : see a plan and account of the old Basilica, ib. ii. 46-50. 

p. 178. Rome. — See W. Thomas's chapter " Of the present astate of 
Rome," leaf 37, &c., of his Hist, of Italye, ed. 1561. Of the new Ca- 
thedral of St Peter's, he says : — " But aboue all, the newe buildyng, if it 
were finished, wolde be the goodliest thyng of this worlde, not onelye 
for the antike pillers that haue ben taken out of the antiquitees, and be- 
stowed there, but also for the greatnesse and excellent good proporcion 
that it hathe. Neuerthelesse it hath been so many yeres adoing, and is 
yet so vnperfect, that most men stand in dout whether euer it shalbe 
finished or no." — 1549, W. Thomas's Hist, of Italye, leaf 40, back, ed. 
1561. 

p. 181. Venice. — Thomas, in his History e of Italy e, 1549, p. 74, ed. 
1561, says of Venice, " I thynke noplace of all Europe, hable at this daye 
to compare with that citee for noumber of sumptuouse houses, speciallye for 



3l2 NOTES ON BOORDE's INTRODUCTION. 

theyr frontes. For he that would rowe througli the Canale grande, and 
marke wel the frontes of tlie houses on bothe sydes, shall see theim more 
lyke the doynges of prynces then priuate men. And I haue been with 
good reason persuaded, that in Venice be aboue .200. palaices able to 
lodge any king." 

p. 182. The Merchandise of Venice was, according to the Libel of 
1436, grocery, wines, monkeys, knicknacks, and drugs : 
The grete galees of Venees and fflorence 
Be wel ladene wyth thynges of complacence, — 
AUe spicerye, and of grocers ware, 
"Wyth swete wynes, alle manere of chaflfare, 
Apes, and japes, and marmusettes taylede, 
Nifles, trifles, that litelle have availede, 
And thynges wyth whiche they fetely blere oure eye, 
Wyth thynges not enduryng that we bye . . 
And . . for infirmitees .... skamonye, 
Turbit, euforbe, correcte, diagredie, 
Rubarde, sene ; and yet they bene to nedefulle. 

T. Wright's Political Songs, ii. 173. 
p. 183, No Lords in Venice. — -'''■ Democratia, a free state or common 
wealth, hauing ho Prince or superior but themselues (as Venice is) ex- 
cept those officers that thetnselues appoint." Florio. 

p. 184, note. Italian Wives, and their Husbands'' Jealousy. — Thys 
vyce is of property to the Ytaliens, to shytte vp theyr wyues as tlieyr 
treason r. And, on my fayth (to my iudgemente) to lytle purpose ; for 
the mooste part of women be of thys sorte, that moost they deeyre that 
[which] moost too them is denyed ; and whan thou woldest, they wyl 
nat ; and whan thou woldest nat, they wolde ; and yf they haue the 
brydle at libertye, [the] lesse they offende ; so that it is as easy to kepe 
a woman against her wyll, as a flocke of flies in the hete of the sonne, 
tixcepte she be of her selfe chaste. In vayne doth the husband set 
kepers ouer her ; for who shal kepe those kepers ? She is crafty ; and 
at them lightely she beginneth ; and whan she taketh a fantasy, she is 
vnreasonable, and lyke an vnbrydeled mule. — The goodly History of the 
moste noble and beauty ful Ladye Lucres of Scene in Tuskan^ & of her louer 
Eurialus, verye pleasaunt and delectable vnto the reder. ^ Anno Domini 
M.D.LX. [col.] Imprinted at London, by John Kynge. (sign. D.ii.) This 
is the 2nd edition, and Mr Henry Huth has lent me the copy from which 
I extract. The book is in Captain Cox's list. Its author, ^n. S. Picco- 
loniini, returns to the husband-&-wife question on leaves F iv, v, vi : 
" And on the morowe, eyther for that it were necessary to take hede, or for 
someyl suspecte, Menelaus [the husband] walled vppe the wyndowe [by 
which Eurialus had got in to Lucres]. I thynke as our Cytezens [of 
Sienna] be suspectuous and full of coniectures; so dyd hee feare the cotti- 
modyte of the place, & woulde eschewe the occasion ; for though he 
knewe noughte, yet wyste hee well that she was much desyred, and 
daylye prouoked by great requestes, & [he] iudged a womans thought 



NOTES ON BOORDE's INTRODUCTION. 343 

vnstable, whiche hath as many myndes as trees hath leues, & tJiai theyr 
kyride alway is desyrous of newe thynges, aud seldom loue they theyr 
husbands whom they haue obteyned. Therefore dyd he folowe the com- 
mon opynyon of maried men, too auoyde myshap, thoughe it come wy th 
good lucke." 

The food and ways of Italian servants about 1440 a.d. are shown b}'^ 
a passage in this Lucres & Eurialus, written by Pope Pius II in his young 
days, when he was ^neas Sylvius Piccolomini : " looke that oure supper 
be redy ! We must be meri while our mayster^ is furth ; our maistres^ 
is better felowe ; shee is merye & liberal ; he is angry, full of noyse, 
couetous, and harde. We are neuer wel when he is at home. Se, I pray 
the, what lanke belyes we haue ! He is hungry hym selfe, to sterue vs 
for hunger ; hee wyll not suffer one moyste peece of browne breade to 
be loste ; but the fragme7ites of one daye he kepeth fyue dayes after, & 
the gobbets of salte fysh & salt eles of one supper, he kepeth vnto another, 
and marketh the cut chese, least anye of it shulde be stolen. . . . How 
muche are we better -with our maistres, that feedeth vs not onlye with 
veale & kidde, but with hennes and byrdes, & plewtye of wyne V Go, 
Dromo, and make the kytchen smoke ! " " Mary ! " quod Dromo, " that 
shall be my charge ; & soner shall I laye the tables thanne rub the 
horse ! I brought my mayster into the countree to-daye, that the 
Deuyll brake hys necke ! and neuer spake hee woorde vnto me, but 
badde me, whan I brought home my horses, to tell my maystres that hee 
woulde not come home too nyghte. But by God," quod he, " I prayse 
the, Zosias, that at the last hast founde faute at my maysters condycions. 
I had forsaken my mayster, yf my maystres had not geuen me mi 
morowe meles as she hath. Lette vs not sleape to-niglit, Zosia ; but 
lette vs eate & dryncke tyll it bee daye. My mayster shall not winne so 
muche this moneth, as we shal wast at one supper." 

Gladlye dyd Eurialus [Lucres's lover, hiding in the hay till he could 
get to her] here this, and marked the maners of seruants, & thought he 
wasserued a lyke. ed. 1560, sign. F .iii., F .iiii. The unique copy of 
the first edition in the British Museum is more correctly printed than 
the second, but has lost its last leaf, with the last verse of the Envoy. 
This has now been supplied by nie from Mr Huth's copy of Kynge's 
edition. The story of the novel is told in the Forewords to my edition 
of Captain Cox, or Laneham's Letter (Ballad Society, 1871). 

p. 185. The Venetians' timber, <&c., in readiness for war. — " the Arsenate 
in myne eye excedeth all the rest : For there they haue well neere two 
hundred galeys in such an order, that vpon a very smal warnyng they 
may be furnyshed out vnto the sea. Besydes that, for euery daye in the 
yeare (whan they would goe to the coste) they should be able to make 
a newe galey ; hauinge such a staple of timber (whyche in the water 
wythin Th' arsenate hathe lyen a seasoninge, some .20, yeare, some .40. 
some an .100. and some I wot not how longe) that it is a wonder to see." 
• —Thomas's Hist, of Italy e, leaf 74, bk. Read the whole chapter. 
' orig. maysters ' or'ig. maisters. 



3^4 NOTES ON BOORDJB's INTRODUCTION. 

p. 187. Lombard's craftiness. — "The kyrige this tyme [Henry VIII 
in 1511-12] was nioclie entysed to playe at tenues and at dice ; which 
appetite, certain craftie persons about him perceauynge, brought iu 
Frencliemen and Lombardes to make wagers with hym ; & so he lost 
much njoney : but when he perceyued their craft, he exchuyd their 
compaignie, and let them go." — HalVs Chronicle^ p. 520, ed. 1809. 

p. 188. lene or Genoa^ and the Genoese. — See Thomas's interesting de- 
scription of Genoa, on leaves 160 back, to 163, of his Historye of Italye. 
He was immensely struck by the beauty of their women, and the freedom 
they had. 

" Of theyr trade and customes. — All the Genowaies in maner are mer- 
chant men, and very great trauailers of strange countreis. For I haue 
been reasonably persuaded that there be .5. or .6. thousand of them con- 
tinually abroade, either merchauntes or factours : so that they haue few 
places of the worlde vnsought, where anye gaine is to be had. For the 
merchaundise that they bring home hath spedy dispatche, by reason 
theyr citee is as a keye vnto all the trade of Lumbardy, and to a great 
part of Italic. 

They at home make such a noumber of silkes and veluettes as are 
hable to serue many countreys : whyche is the chiefe merchaundise that 
they sende forthe. In deede they are commonly noted to be great 
vsurers. 

^ One thing I am sure of, that if Guide were nowe aliue, there be in 
Genoa that could teache him a dousen poinctes De Arte Amandi. For 
if Semiramis were euer celebrated amongest the Assirians, Venus 
amongest the Greckes, Circes among the Italians, sure there be dames in 
Genoa that deserue to be celebrated & chronycled ft)r their excellente 
practise in loue. And trulye the Genowayes them selfes deserue that 
their wyfes should be praised ; because I saw in no place where women 
haue so muche lybertee. For it is lawfull there openly to taike of loue, with 
what wife so euer she bee. Insomuch that I haue scene yonge men of 
reputacyon, standyng in the strete, talke of loue with yong mistresses 
beyng in theyr wyndowes aboue ; and openlye reherse verses that they 
had made, one to the other. And in the churches, specially at euensong, 
they make none other prayers. So that he that is not a loner there, is 
meete for none honest companye. Many men esteme this as a reproche 
to the Genowaies ; but they vse it as a policie ; thinkyng that their 
wifcs, throughe this libertee of open speache, are ridde of the rage that 
niuketh other women to trauaile so much in secret. 

^ In dede, the women there are exceding faire, and best appariled, 
to my fantasie, of all other. For thoughe their vppermost garments be 
but plaine clothe, by reason of a law, yet vnderneth they weare the 
finest silkes that may be had, and are so finely hosed and shoed, as I 
neuor sawe the like, open faced, and for the moste parte bare headed, 
with the heare so finely trussed and curled, that it passeth rehearsall. 
So that, in myne opinion, the supreame court of loue is no where to be 
sought, out of Genoa" (leaves 161 bk, and 162). 



NOTES ON BOORDE's INTRODUCTION. 34:5 

p. 188. The Genoese, their trading and products. — The Libel of 143G says, 
The Janueys comyne in sondre wyses 
Into this londe, wyth dy verse marchaundyses, 
In grete karrekkis arrayde, wythouten lake, 
Wyth clothes of golde, silke, and pepir blake 
They bringe wyth hem, and of wood grete plente, 
Wolle, oyle, wood aschen, by wesshelle [=vessels] in the see 
Coton, roche-alum, and gode golde of Jene. 
And they be charged wyth wolle ageyne, I wene, 
And wollen clothe of owres, of colours alle. 

T. Wright's Political Songs, ii. 172. 
p. 188. The trade of Italy with England, of which Hall speaks, under 
1531 A.D., " Merchaunt straungers, and in especiall, Italians, Spanyardes, 
& Portyngales, daily brought Oade, Oyle, Sylke, Clothes of Golde, Veluet, 
& other Merchaundyse into this Realme, and therefore receiued ready 
money" {Halts Chronicle, t^. 781, ed. 1809), was doubtless carried on 
by the Genoese, Lombards, Venetians, and Neapolitans, whose mer- 
chandisings are noticed by Boorde. 

p. 190. French fashions. — " With them [the French Ambassadors in 
1518] came a great nuwbre of rascal, & pedlers, & luellers, and brought 
ouer hattes and cappes, and diuerse merchaundise, vucustomed, all 
vnder the coloure of the trussery of the Ambassadours. . . . The youwg 
galantes of Frauwce had coates garded with one colour, cut in .x. or 
.xii. partes, very richely to beholde, . . The last day of September, the 
French Ambassadors toke their barge, & came to Grenewiche. The 
Admyrall [Lord Boneuet] was in a goune of cloth of siluer, raysed, 
furred with ryche Sables, & al his company almost were in a new 
fassiow garment called a Shemew, which was in effect a goune, cut in the 
middle." — HalFs Chronicle, p. 593-4, ed. 1809. The old chronicler didn't 
think much of the last of French soldiers : 

"surely the nature of the Frenchmen is, not to labor long in fight- 
yng, and muche more braggeth then fighteth." — Hairs Chronicle, p. 
124, at foot, ed. 1809. 

p. 196, 1. 8-15. Portuguese products and merchandise. — ^The Lihcl^ 
A.D. 1436, says, 

The marchaundy also of Portyngale 

To dyverse londes tome into sale . . . 

Here londe hathe oyle, wyne osey, wex, and grayne, 

ffygues, reysyns, hony, and cordeweyne. 

Dates and salt, hydes, and suche marchaundy. 

T. Wright's Polit. Songs, ii. 162-3. 
p. 196,1.10. Portugal poor. — a.d. 1524. "the Emperor answered: 
'The very pouertie of your countrey of Portyngale is suche, that of 
your selfes you be not able to Hue ; wherfore of necessitie you were 
driuen to seke liuyng ; for, landes of princes you were not able to pur- 
chase, and lande of lordes you were not able to conquere. Wherfore 



346 NOTES ON boorde's introduction. 

on the sea you were compelled to seke that which was not found.'" — 
HaWs Chronicle, p. 677, ed. 1809. 

p. 197. The fashion of the Spainlerdes. — " after whome came in 
.vi. ladyes appareled in garnientes of Crymosyn Satyn, embroudered 
and trauessed with cloth of gold, cut in Pomegranettes and yokes, 
strynged after the facion of Spaygne.'^ — Halts Chronicle^ p. 516, ed. 
1809. 

p. 198. The Products of Spain are stated in the Libel of 1436 to be 

. . . fygues, raysyns, wyne bastarde, and dates ; 
And lycorys, Syvyle oyle, and grayne, 
Whyte Castelle sope, and wax, is not in vayne ; 
Iren, woUe, wadmole ; gotefel, kydefel, also, — 
ffor poynt-makers fulle nedefuUe be the two ; — 
Saffron, quiksilver (wlieche arne Spaynes marchandy) 
Is into fflaundres shypped fulle craftyle. 
Unto Bruges, as to here staple fayre, 
The haven of Sluse here havene for here repayre, 
Wheche is cleped Swyn ; thaire shyppes gydynge 
Where many wessell and fayre arne abydynge. 

T. Wright's Political Songs, ii. 160. 

p. 202. The poverty of Navarre {& Spain). — " The English souldiers, 
what for sickenes, and what for miserie of the countrey, euer desired to 
returne into England . . . saiyng, that thei would not abide and die of 
the flixe in suche a wretched country." — HalVs Chronicle, p. 532, ed. 1809. 
Navarre was won by the Spaniards under the Duke of Alva, in the 4th 
year of Henry the 8th, A.D. (22 April, 1512 to 21 April, 1513). See 
HalUs Chronicle, p. 530, ed. 1809. 

p. 203. Hanging long on the Gallows. — This must have been done 
also in some cases in England : " the harlot, Wolfes wyfe ... at the 
last, she and her husband, as they deserued, were apprehended, ar- 
raigned, & hanged at the foresayd turnyng tree [a place on the Thames], 
where she hanged still, and was not cut doune, vntil suche tyme as it was 
knowen that beastly and filthy wretches had moste shamefully abused 
Ifer, beyng dead." — HalCs Chronicle, p. 815, ed. 1809. 

p. 205-6. The Pilgrims to St James of Compostella. — Contrast the 
reality with the Court notion of " pilgrims from St James " in February, 
1510-11: "Then came nexte the Marques Dorset and syr Thomas 
BuUeyn, like two jnlgrims from sainct lames, in taberdes of blacke 
Veluet, with palmers hattes on their helmettes, wyth long Jacobs staues 
in their handes, their horse trappers of blacke Veluet, their taberdes, 
hattes, & trappers, set with scaloppe schelles of fyne golde, and strippes 
of blacke Veluet, euery strip set with a scalop shell ; their seruau72tes 
all in blacke Satyn, with scalop shelles of gold in their breastcs." — 
HaWs Chronicle, p. 518, ed. 1809. 

p. 207. Britanny''s products ; and its hatred of England. The Libel, 
A.D. 1436, says, 



NOTES ON BOORDE's INTRODUCTION. 347 

Commodite therof tliere is and was, 

Salt and wynes, creste clothe, and canvasse .... 

And of this Bretayn, who-so trevvth[e] levys, 

Are the grettest rovers and the grettest thevys 

That have bene in the see many oone yere : 

That oure marchauntes have bowglit full dere ; 

ffor the}'^ have take notable gode of oures 

On thys seyde see, these false coloured pelours, 

Called of Seynt Malouse, and elles where, 

Wheche to there duke none obeysaunce woll bere. 

Wyth suche colours we have bene hindred sore, 

And fayned pease is called no werre herefore. 

Thus they have bene in dy verse costes nianye 

Of oure England, mo than reherse can I ; 

In Northfolke coostes, and othere places aboute, 

And robbed, and brente, and slayne, by many a routte; 

And they have also ransonned toune by toune, 

That into the regnes of host ^ have ronne here soune. 

T, Wnyht's Polit. Songs, ii. 164. 

p. 207, line 1. Bayonne once English. — It was lost in the 29th year 
of Henry VI (1 Sept. 1450 to 31 Aug. 1451). Hall says in his Chronicle, 
p. 224, ed. 1809, "When the cities and tounes of Gascoyne wer set in 
good ordre, the Erie of Duinoys and Foys, with greate preparacion of 
vitaill, municion and men, came before the citie of Bayon, where, with 
mynes and battery thei so dismaied the fearful inhabitantes, that neither 
the capitain nor the souldiors could kepe them from yeldyng : so by force 
they deliuered the toune ; and their capitain, as a prisoner, oflFred a great 
some of money for the safegard of their lifes and goodes." 

p. 209. Boulogne. — " Althoughe this peace [of 1546 a.d.] pleased both 
the Englj'sh and the French nacions, yet surely both mistrusted the con- 
tinuaunce of the same, considering the old Prouerbe, ' that the iye seeth, 
the harte rueth ; ' for the Fre?ich men styll longed for BuUeyn, and the 
Englyshmen minded not to geue it ouer." — Hall's Chronicle, p. 867, ed. 
1809. 

p. 218. Jezvry or JucUsa. — See, under " Asie," the chapter " Of Jewry, 
and of the life, maners, and Lawes of the Jewes in the Fardle of Facions, 
conteining the aunciente maners, customes, and Lawes of the peoples 
enhabiting the two partes of the earth called Aflfrike and Asie. Printed 
at London, by Ihon Kingstone and Henry Sutton. 1555, sign. Ii. back." 
* Palestina, whiohe also is named Judea, beinge a seueralle province of 
Siria, lieth betwixte Arabia Petrea and the countrie Ccelosiria. So bor- 
dering vpon the Egiptian sea on the west, and vpon the floude Jordan on 
the Easte, that the one with his wanes wassheth his clieues, and the 
other sometime with his streame ouerfloweth his banckes. 

(sign. I vii. back.) ' The lande of Siria (whereof we haue named 

' of the best. MS. Cotton. Vitel. E. x. 



348 NOTES ON boorde's dyetary. 

Jewrie a parte) is at this daie enhabited of the Grekes called Griphones, 
of the Jacobites, Nestorians, Saracenes, and of two christian nacions 
the Sirians and Marouines. . . . The Sarracenes, whiche dwelle aboute 
Jeruaalewi (a people valeaunt in warre) delighte niuche in housbandrie 
andtilthe.' 

p. 219, 60, 144, Venice, <fcc., and Englishmen abroad. — In the Gentle- 
man's Magazine for October, 1812, reprinted in Fosbroke's British Mo- 
nachisni, ch. vii, p. 337, ed. 1843, are some extracts from a MS Diary of a 
Pilgrimage to Jerusalem made bj' a Sir Richard Torkington in 1517. He 
started on March 20, 1517, from Rye in Sussex, and got back to Dover on 
April 17, 1518 : " We war owt of England in ower sayd pylgrymage the 
space of an hollyer, v. wekys, and iij. dayes." " We com [29 April, 1517] 
to the goodly and ffamose Cite of Venys. Ther I was well at ese, ffor 
ther was no thyng that I desired to have, but I had it shortly. At 
Venyse, at the fyrst howse that I cam to except oon, the good man of 
the howse seyd he knew me, by my face, that I was an englyshman. 
And he spake to me good englyssh. thanne I was jo[yo]us and glade, 
ffor I saw never englyssh man ffrom the tyme I departed owt of Parysto 
the tyme I cam to Venys. which ys vij, or viij.C. myles." 

p. 220. Joppa. — "At Jaffe begynnyth the holy londe ; and to every 
pylgryme, at the ffyrst foote that he sett on the londe, ther ys grauntyd 
plenary remission De pena et a culpa. In JafF, Seynt Petir reysid from 
Deth, Tabitam. the sarvaunt of the Appostolis. And fast by ys the 
place where Seynt Petir usyd to ffysh. And our Savior Crist callyd hym, 
and seyd sequere me." — Sir Richard Torkington*s Diary, 1517 ; in Fos- 
broke's British Monachism, p. 338, col. 1, ed. 1843. 



III. NOTES ON BOORDE'S DYETARY. 

p. 225. Sir R. Drewry. — In Hall's account of the Insurrection in 
Suffolk, A.D. 1525, he says " the people railed openly on the Duke of 
Suffolke, and sir Robert Drurie, and threatened them with death." — 
Chronicle, p. 699, ed. 1809. 

p. 232. Compare " The boke for to lerne a man to be wyse in buyld- 
ing of his house for the helth of [his] body, and to holde quyetnes for 
the helth of his soule and body &c." [Coloph.] Imprynted by me 
Robert Wyer, dwellynge at the sygne of St. lohn Euangelyst, &c. 8vo, 
16 leaves. Brit. Museum. (Hazlitt's Handbook, p. 366, col. 2.) 

p. 236. Let notherflaxe nor hempe be watered. — " Here and there was 
an artificial flat-bottomed pool of water, formed by danmiing up one of 
the many rivulets which ran from their sources in the distant hills to 
empty themselves into the adjacent Rhine. At the bottom of each pool 
were bundles of flax undergoing the first process preparatory to their 
ultimate conversion into linen fabrics. The odour of the decomposed or 
decomposing flax was the reverse of agreeable. Indeed, the prevalence 
of bad smells was the chief drawback to the enjoyment of the prospect." 



NOTES ON boorde's dyetary, 349 

Daily News, Sept. 13, 1870 ; letter from Achern, Sept. 6, describing the 
country from Achern to Auenheim, a small village, close to the right 
bank of the Rhine, near Strasburg, which was then besieged by a German 
army. . 

p. 239. Dovekouse. — ^The Norfolk and Suffolk rebels under Kett in 
1549 say in their list of Grievances: "We p[r]ay that noman vnder 
the degre of a knyght or esquyer, kepe a dowe house, except it hath byn 
of an ould auwchyent costome." .Was this because the doves eat the 
poorer men's grain, as the rich men's pheasants and partridges — and 
worse, hares and rabbits, — now do ? See my Ballads from Manuscripts, 
i. 149. 

p. 241. See the ' Proverbys of Howsolde-kepyng ' in my ed. of 
Political, Religious, and Love Poems, for the Society, 1866, p. 29. 

p. 243. Instructing the Ignorant. — Teaching them a Robin-Hood 
ballad or the Primer, perhaps, after Robert Crowley's exhortation to un- 
learned curates in his Voyce of the last Trumpet, 1550. (E. E. T. Soc. 
1871.) 

p. 244. Epilencia, &c. were generally called Epilepsia, Analepsia, 
and Catalejpsia. See Boorde's Breuiary, ch. 122, Fol. xlvi. 

p. 250. Boarded Chambers. — Wooden floors were not common in 
Boorde's days. One of his remedies for a stitch in the side is " take vp 
the earth within a dore, that is well troden, and pare it vp with a spade, 
after [= a piece like] a cake; and cast Vineger on it, and tost it against 
thefyer ; and in a lynnen clothe laye it bote to the syde." — Breuiary, Pt. 
II, The Extrauagantes, Fol. xi, back. See too the well-known quotation 
from Erasmus on the filthy clay floors of England, in the Bahees Book, 
Forewords, p. Ixvi. 

p. 252. Water. — Eau & pain, c'est la viande du chien : Prov. Bread 
and water is diet for dogs. Cotgrave. 

p. 253. Standing Water. — L^eau qui dort est pire que celle qui court : 
Pro. So is a sleepie humor worse then a giddie. // n'y a pire eau que 
la quoye : Prov. The stillest waters (and humors) are euer the worst. 
Cotgrave. 

p. 254. Wyne . . must be . . fayre . . and redolent, &c. — The com- 
piler of what Mr Dyce, in his Skelton's Works, vol. i. p. xxx, calls ' that 
tissue of extravagant figments which was put together for the amuse- 
ment of the vulgar, and entitled the Merie Tales of Skelton' (T. Colwell), 
probably had Boorde's opinion on wine before him when he wrote " all 
wines must be strong, and fayre, and well coloured ; it must have a 
redolent sauoure ; it must be colde, and simnkclynge in the peece or in 
the glassed — Tale xv. Skelton's Works, vol. i. p. Ixxiii. 

p. 260. London bakers' trickery. — a.d. 1522. In this yere the bakers 
of London came and told the Mayro that come would be dere ; wherupon 
he and the aldermen made prouision for xv.C. quarters ; & when it 
was come, they [the bakers] would bye none, and made the common 
people beleue that it was musty, because they would vtter their owne, 
80 that the lord Cardynal was faine to proue it, and found the bakers 



350 NOTES ON boorde's dyetary. 

false, and commaunded them to bye it. — HalVa Chronicle^ p. 650, ed. 
1809: 

p. 273. The Jews love not pork. — " Swines flesche thei eate none, for 
that thei holde opinion that this kynde of beaste, of it selfe beinge dis- 
posed to be skoruie, might be occasion againe to enfecte them of newe." 
— Tlie Fardle of Facions, 1555. T. iv, not signed. 

p. 273. Adder's flesh eaten, and called ''^fysshe of the mountayn^ 

Now followetli the preparing of Serpents : Take a mountain Serpent, 
that liath a black back, and a white belly, and cut off his tail, even hard 
to the place where he sendeth forth his excrements, and take away his 
head with the breadth of four fingers ; then take the residue and squeese 
out the bloud into some vessel, keeping it in a glass carefully ; then 
fley him as you do an Eele, beginning from the upper and grosser part, 
and hang the skin upon a stick, and dry it ; then divide it in the middle, 
and reserve all diligently. You must wash the flesh and put it in a 
pot, boyling it in two parts of Wine ; and, being well and throughly 
l)oyled, you must season the broth with good Spices, and Aromatical 
and Cordial powders ; and so eat it. 

But if you have a minde to rost it, it must be so rosted, as it may 
not be burnt, and yet that it may be brought into powder ; and the 
powder thereof nmst be eaten together with other meat, because of the 
loathing, and dreadful name, and conceit of a Serpent: for being thus 
burned, it preserveth a man from all fear of any future Lepry, and expcl- 
leth that which is present. It keepeth youth, causing a good colour 
above all other Medicines in the world ; it cleareth the eye-sight, gardeth 
surely from gray hairs, and keepeth from the Falling-sickness. It 
])urgeth the head from all infirmity ; and being eaten (as before is said), 
it expelleth scabbiness, and the like infirmities, with a great number of 
other diseases. But yet, such a kinde of Serpent as before we have 
described, and not any other, being also eaten, freeth one from deafness. 
— TopseVs History of Four-footed Beasts and Serpents, ed. J. Rowland, 
M.D., 1658, p. 616. 

Mandeville says that in the land of Mancy, that is, in Ynde the 
more, and which is also called ' Albanye, because that the folk ben 
whyte,' " there is gret plentee of Neddres, of w.hom men maken grete 
Festes, and eten hem at grete sollempnytees. And he that niakethe 
there a Feste, — be it nevere so costifous, — and he have no Neddres, he 
hathe no thanke for his travaylle." — Voiage and Travaile, p. 208, ed. 
1839. 

p. 275. Great Men hunting. — See, in 1575, G. Gascoigne. Noble Art 
of Venerie. Works, vol. ii. p. 305, ed. 1870. 

"The Venson not forgot, moste meete for Princes dyshe : 
All these v/ith more could I rehearse, as much as wit could wyshe. 
But let these few suffice, it is a Noble sport 
I'o recreate the mindes of Men in good and godly sort. 
A sport for Noble peeres, a sport for gentle bloods, 
The paitie I Icauc for seruants such as beate the bushic woods, 



NOTES ON boorde's dyetary. 351 

To make their masters sport. Theyi let the Lords reioyce^ 
Let gentlemen beholde the glee, and take thereof the choyce. 
For my part (being one) I must needes say my minde, 
That Hunting was ordeyned first for Men of Noble Kinde. 
And vnto them, therefore, I recommend the same, 
As exercise that best becommes their worthy noble name." 
p. 279. Garlic is good for ' longe whyte wormes in the mawe, 
stomake, and guttes,' says Boorde : " If any man wyll take a Plowe- 
mannes medicine, and the beste medicine for these wormes, and al other 
wormes in mannes body, let hym eate Gerlyke'' Breuiary, fol. Ixxiii, 
oh. 212. 

p. 279. Garlic. — Tharmie this [=thus, in 1512 a.d.] lyngeryng [in 
Navarre], euer desirous to be at the busines that thei came for, their 
victaile was muche part Garlike; and the Englishemen did eate of the 
Garlike with all meates, and dranke bote wynes in the bote wether, and 
did eate all the bote frutes that thei could gette, whiche caused their 
bloudde so to boyle in their belies, that there fell sicke three thousande 
of the flixe ; and thereof died .xviii. hundred men. — Halts Chronicle^ 
p. 629, ed. 1809. 

p. 289. Sweating Sickness. — After this great triumphe [Henry VIII's 
jousts in June, 1517] the king appointed his gestes for his pastyme this 
Sommer ; but sodeinly there came a plague of sickenes, called the Swet- 
yng sickenes, that turned all his purpose. This malady was so cruell that 
it killed some within three houres, some within twoo houres, some, mery 
at diner and dedde at supper. Many died in the kynges Courte, the 
Lorde Clinton, the Lorde Grey of Wilton, and many knightes, Gentle- 
men and officiers. For this plague, Mighelmas terme was adiourned ; 
and because that this malady continued from July to the middes of 
December, the kyng kept hymself euer with a small compaignie, and 
kept no solempne Christmas, willyng to haue no resort, for feare of in- 
feccion ; but muche lamented the nomber of his people, for in some one 
toune halfe the people died, and in some other toune the thirde parte, 
the Sweate was so feruent and infeccious. — Halts Chronicle, p. 592, ed. 
1809. See the history of this plague in Chambers's Book of Days, under 
April 16 ; also in my Ballads from Manuscripts, Part II, 1871. 



2 3 



352 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



122/9 means page 122, line 9 ; 133 means page 133. 



Abarde, 120, ?in Cornwall. 

a base, 238, lower down, beyond. 

ABC, 20, alphabet. 

abiected, 258, 285, thrown away. 

ablatyd, 284, 285, thrown away. 

Abraham, 233. 

abstercyue, 263, abstersive, 285. 

abstinence the best medicine, 251. 

abstraction, 101, what you draw 

out? 
Acayra, 172, Achaia. 

acca, ava, agon; children's cries, 

91. 
acetose, confection of, 102. 
Acobrynge, 197, Alcoutrin'? 

Aeon, 219, Aix-la-Chapelle, Aa- 
chen. 

acuate, 244, sharpen. 

Adam : who shaved him ? 314. 

adders, none in Ireland, 133 ; 
eaten in Lonihardy, 187 ; eaten in 
Rome, and called * fish of the 
mountain,* 273, 350. 

Adrian, Pope, 24, 78. 

adulterating bakers, 260-1. 

adultery of wives, Boorde's re- 
medy for, 68. 



affodyl, 102, daffodilly 1 

afyngered, 122/9, a hungered, 

hungry, 
agarycke, 288 ; pilles of, 99. 
agedly, 300. 
Agnus castus, 100. 

ague, 21, 325 ; how to treat, 291 ; 
butter is bad for, 266. 

Agur, the son of Jakeh, 67. 

air, the need of good, 235, 238. 

al, 122/1, ale. 

alaye, 254, temper. 

alchermes, 103. 

alchytes, 299. 

ale, 256 ; awfully bad in Corn- 
wall, 122, 123; and in Scotland, 
136 ; John Taylor on, 326. 

ale-brewers and ale-wives, bad, 
to be punisht, 260. 

ale-brews, 264; ale-brue, 97. 

ale pockes in the face, 95. 

ale, posset, 256. 

alexanders, 278, the herb Great 
Parsley. 

Alicant wine, 75, 255, 327. 

aliens, Boorde dislikes them, 60. 

alkemy, 161, 163, tin. 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



353 



alkengi, the confection of, 79. 
all out, drink, 151/6, 324. 
all-to-nowght, 62, good-for-no- 
thing, 
allygate, 245, allege. 
Almanac and Prognostication^ 

supposed to be A. Boorde's, 26-7. 
Almayne, Low, 155-8; High, 

159-162 ; maidens of, don't drink 

wine, 254. 
Almen, 53, Germany, 
almond-butter, 267. 
almond-milk, 263. 
almonds, 285. 
aloes, 290. 

Alygaunt, 255, 75, Alicant wine, 
amber de grece, 93. 
Amsterdam, 149. 
amytted, 25 admitted, 
an, 246, if. 

anacardine, confection of, 95. 
analencia, 244, a kind of epilepsy] 

See Boorde's Breuyary, fol. xlvi. 
Ancress at St Albans is infested 

by a spirit, 78. 
Andalase, 196, Andalusia. 
Angeou (Anjou), white wine of, 

75. 
anise-seed, 284. 
Antwerp described, 151 ; its 

church and spire, 339. 
Anwarpe, 219, Antwerp, 338. 
apples, 284. 

appoplesia, 244, apoplexy, 
appostata, 62, apostate, 
approbat, 273, approve, 
approbat, adj., 282, approved, 
aqua vitae, 258, 351 ; Irish, 

131/8 ; 334. 
Aquitaine, 191 ; described, 193, 

200. 
Aral^y, 20, Arabic. 

BOORDE. 



archane, 21, secret, hidden. 

Argentyne, 156. 

Aristotle, 91. 

armipotentt, 53, powerful in arms. 

Arragon described, 195, 53. 

Arran, Earl of, named Hamilton, 
59. 

Arras cloth made in Brabant, 
151/2 ; in Liege, 155. 

artichokes, 280. 

artoures, 101 ; artures, 91/7, ar- 
teries. 

Artuse, 176, river Arethusa, in 
Sicily. 

Arundel, 120. 

Arundel, Sir John, 55. 

aryfye, 247, burn and dry up. 

ascarides, 81, 279, little long 
worms in the auus. 

Ascot, 110. 

Asia, Boorde never in it, 145. 

aspers, 216, Turkish silver coins. 

asthma, Boorde's cure for, 99. 

asthmatic men, a diet for, 297. 

Astronamye, the Pryncyphs of, 

by Andrew Boorde, 16, 22-23. 
astronomers or astrologers, the 

gammon of, 325. 
astronomy, importance of the 

study, 25. 
avarice, 86. 

Aueroyes quoted, 272, 274. 
Augsburg, 161. 
aungels, 121, gold coins worth 

from 6*. M. to 10*. 
auripigment, 102. 
Avycen quoted, 91, 258,274, 282. 
auydous, 252, avidous, greedy. 

backehowse, 239, bakehouse. 

bacon, good for carters, bad for 
I the stone, 273. 
23 



354 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



"bagantyns, 189, Italian brass 
coins ; bagatino^ a little coine in 
Italic. Florio. 

baked pears, 291. 

baken, 284, baked. 

bakers, rascally, 260, 349. 

Bale, Bp, on A. Boorde, 33. 

ballot in Venice, 184-5. 

banocke, 283, a kind of walnut. 

Barbarossa, 55, 213. 

Barbary sleeves, 106. 

Barber, Barnarde, 305, 307. 

Barberousse, 213, 55, Heyradin 

Barbarossa. 
Barcelona, 55. 
Bargen in Hainault, 151, Bergen. 

barges, the fair little ones in 
Venice, 183 ; * Gondola, a little 
boat or whirry vsed no where but 
about and in Venice.' 1611, Florio. 

barley, 259. 

barley malt is the best for ale, 
256. 

Barnes in the Defence of the 
Berde, 305—316 ; date of, 19-20. 

Barow, 150, 338. 

Barsalone, 195, Barcelona. 

Barnsley in Gloucestershire ; Sab- 
batarian superstition in, 332. 

Barslond, 160, the Tyrol. 

Bartholomew of Montagnave, 291. 

Base-Almayne, 148, the !N'ether- 
lands ; described, 155-7. 

Bastard wine, 75, 255. 

Bath, waters at, 120. 

Batmanson, Prior, 47, 48, 57, 58. 

Batow, 150/5. 

Bayonne, 206-7, 347. 

bean-butter, 268. 

bean-potage, 263. 

beans, 284 ; and peas, 259 ; and 
stockfish, Danish lood, 163/5. 



Beards, Boorde's lost treatise on, 
307, 309, 26 ; Barnes's answer to 
it, 305—316. 

beards, Harrison on, 16, note. 

bears, white ones in Norway, 
141/18. 

beasts, reasonable ; men and wo- 
men are, 91, 93. 

bedauer, 122/16, 21, ? father or 
partner. 

bedtime, what to do at, 246. 

beef good for Englishmen, 271. 

beer, 256. 

beets, white, 280. 

bekyng, 185, 207, pointing, pok- 
ing. 
Bell, Humfrey, 74. 

Belvedere, a fort in Windsor 

Forest, 110. 
benche-whystler, 245-6. 
bengauyn, 290, ?gum Benjamin. 

Berdes (beards), Boorde's Trea- 
tyse vpon, 26, 308. 

Bergevenny, Lord, frees his vil- 
lein Andrew Borde, 41-2. 

Berwick, 120, 136. 

beryd flesshe, 277, meat-pie. 

beshromp, 207/8, hate ? 

Bindley, Mr, 227, note. 

Bion (Bayonne) described, 207-8. 

birds, small, 270. 

Biscay described, 199, 200; 53. 

Bishop must be 30 years old, 44. 

Bishops should examine and 
license Mid wives, 84. 

Bishops-Waltham in Hampshire, 
52, 53, 60 ; eight miles from Win- 
chester, 145. 

blackbird, 271. 

blanched almonds, 282. 

blaynes, 284, blains, sores : cp. 

c\\)\blains. 
bleareyed mare, 273. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



355 



blockhouses in England, 119, 

329. 
blood not good to eat, 276. 
boar, the brawn of, 274. 
boar's grease, 97; 102, 
Board Hill in Sussex, 38-9. 
boarded chamber, 250, 349. 
boasters, the Scotch are great 

ones, 137. 
Eoece, Hector, on Scotchmen's 

degenerate ways, 259-60, note, 
boggery (buggery) in Eome, 77. 
Bohemia and the Bohemians, 

166-7. 
boiled meat, 289 ; is digestible, 

277. 
boiling meat in a skin, 132. 
Boleyn, Anne, her badge on the 

dining-room ceiling of Great Fos- 
ters, 7. 
Boleyn, Bolyn, 209, Boulogne. 

bollynge, 293, drinking with a 
bowl. 

Bolton, Prior of St Bartholomews, 
Smithfield, makes a fool of him- 
self, 325. 

bongler, 21, bungler. 

Bonn, red Rhenish wine grown 
about, 75. 

Boord's Hill, 23. 

BooRDB, Andrew ; his Works 
(list, p. 9), 10—26, 64 ; his Life 
(table of facts of, 10), 86—105 ; 
his Letters, 1, 45 ; II, 53 ; 111, 
55; IV, 57; V, 58; YI, 59; his 
Will, 73 ; his opinions and prac- 
tice, from his Breuyary, 74 — 104 ; 
his Introduction, 111—222, 317 ; his 
purpose in it, 144-6; his Byetary, 223 
— 304, 319 ; his motives in writing, 
20-1 ; places visited by him, 63 ; 
supposed portraits of him, 74 ; he 
hates water, but likes ale and wine, 
75 ; dislikes whirlwinds, 75 ; trusts 
in God's will, which is his, 75-6 ; 
fears that devils may enter into 
him, 76 ; is shocked at the vices of 



Rome, 77-8 ; has cachexia^ 79 ; has 
the stone, 80; gets a nit or fly 
down his throat, 81 ; his urine, 81; 
has seen worms come out of men, 
81 ; complains of Englishmen's 
neglect of Fasting, 82, Swearing 
and Heresies, 82-3 ; Laziness of 
young people, 83, want of training 
for Midwives, 84, Cobblers being 
Doctors, 84-5, the Mutabihty of 
men's minds, 85, the Lust and 
Avarice of men, 85-6; alludes to 
the bad food of the poor, 86-7, 
and early marriages, 87; thinks 
Lying the worst disease of the 
Tongue, 88 ; praises Mirth, 88-9 ; 
treats of a man's Spirits, 88-9, of 
the Heart, 89, of rain and Ad- 
versity, 89, Intemperance, Drunk- 
enness, 90, Man and Woman 
(which be reasonable Beastes), 91, 
Marriage, 91, the words of late- 
sj)eaking Children, 91, the King's 
Evil, 91-3, men's Five Wits, 93, 
Wounds, 94, Obliviousness, 94, 
Dreams, and man's Face, 95 ; his 
Medical Treatment of Itch, 9(), 
Tertian Fever, 96, Scurf, 96, curded 
Milk in Women's Breasts, 96, 
pregnant Women's unnatural Ap- 
petite, 98, Ulcer in the Nose, 98, 
Asthma, 99, Palsy, 99, Excoria- 
tions, 99, Fatness, 100, Priapisnius 
or involuntary Standing of a Man's 
Yard, 100, Web in the Eye, 100, 
rupture of the Gut-Caul, a Sauce- 
flewme Face, 101-2 ; his opinion 
on the Soul of Man, 102, on Free- 
will, 103 ; his Exhortation to his 
Readers, 103; his Preamble or 
advice to Sick and Wounded men, 
104 ; his character, 105 ; was es- 
teemed by his contemporaries and 
successors, 105-6 ; sham portraits 
of him, 108, 143, 305; he loves 
venison, 274; doesn't like pork, 
272 ; his powder for the Pestilence, 
290. 

Boorde, Sir Stephen, 39; Ste- 
phen, 43. 

boots rubd with grease, 99. 
borage, 253, 278, 280, 289. 



■'. • 



S5e 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



Borde, Andrew (son of JohnBorde), 

Lord Bergavenny's villein, 41-3. 
Borde, Dr Richard, 43, 65. 
Border, the Scotch, 136. 
hornet, 276, hurnt. 

Bostowe, 120, ? Bristol. § .154. 
In eadem valle est vicus celeberri- 
mus, Bristou nomine, in quo est 
portus navium ab Hibernia et Nor- 
regia et ceteris transmarinis terris 
venientium receptaculum. a. d. 
1125-40. William of Malmeshury 
's Gesta Fontijicum Anglorum, bk iv, 
p. 292, ed. Hamilton, 1870. See 
also " The Childe of Bristowe," a 
poem by Lydgate, in the Camden 
Miscellany, vol. iv, and Hazlitt's 
Early Pop. Poetry, i. 110. 

Boulogne, Henry VIII's conquest 
of, 18, 209, 347. 

Boune, 219, Bonn. 

hovy, 167, a heast in Bohemia. 

Bowker, Agnes, 78. 

howling-alley to he near every 
mansion, 239. 

Bowyer, Magdalen; Dr J. Storie's 
wench, 69. 

hoys marrying, 87. 

Brahant and the Brahanders, 150, 

338. 
Bradshaw, H., 11, note 2; 324. 
"brains had to eat, 276. 
hran of hones, 94. 
hrande, 258, bran, 
brawn, 274. 

hread, a pen'orth of, lasted Boorde 

a week, 51. 
hread strengthens the heart, 89. 

hread, the kinds and properties 
of, 258-262. 

Breuyary of Health by Andrew 
Boorde, 20-22 ; the name explain- 
ed, 21 ; extracts from, 74 —104 ; 
references to, 291, 299, &c., &c. 

Brewer, Prof. J. J. S., 43. 



hrewhouse, place for the, 239. 

hrewsters, had ; the Scotch pun- 
ishment for, 261, 
Bridlington, 120. 
Bright-Hemston, 120, Brighton. 

Brindisi, the cathedral of ISTaples, 

177. 
Britany, 207; its products, and 

its hatred of England, 346. 
hronte, 296, hurnt. 
broths, 264. 
hrount, 245, long spell. 

brown paper ; wipe your pimply 

face with, 102. 
bruled, 277, hroiled. 
Brune, Nicholas, 74. 
Brussels, 151. 
bruttell, 266, hrittle. 
bryched, 94, last line, 1 come to 

puberty, 
bryched, 95, breeched, 
buck and doe, 274, fallow deer, 
bugle, 167, 340, a kind of ox. 
bugloss, 278, 280, 253. 
building, the things needed for, 

237. 
bulwarks put up hy Henry VIII, 

119, 329. 
Bune, 156, 219, Bonn, 
hur roots, 102. 

Burdiouse, 206, 207, Bordeaux. 
Burdyose, 53, Bordeaux. 
Burges, 147, 219, Bruges. 
Burgos in Spain, 199. 
Burgundy, 191. 
burial-customs, ahsurd, in Cas- 

tille, &c., 200, and in Wales, 128. 
burnet, 289, burnt. 
Burse, or Bourse, of Antwerp, 151. 

Butte, Dr, phisicion to Henry 
VIII, 49. 226. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



357 



butter, 265. 

Butter, eaten in Flaunders, 147/ 
4 ; barrelled, salt, and bad, in Hol- 
land, 149/5, 14 ; salt, in the 
Netherlands, 156/11 ; 339. 

butterish, or unctuous, 265. 

* Buttermouth Fleming,' 147/3. 
buttery, the ghost of the, 75. 
buttery, &c., to be kept clean, 

237 ; place for it, 238. 
butts, a pair to be near every 
mansion, 239. 

* By a bancke as I lay,* a ballad, 

71, note. 

Byborge, 163, Wiborg in Den- 
mark. 

byles, 284, boils. 

byokes, 179, baiocchi; It. BaiScco, 
a mite or such like coine. Florio. 
Bajocco, a Roman copper coin 
worth about a halfpenny. Baretti. 

Byon, 53, 206, 207, Bayonne. 

byttoure, 270, bittern. 

cachexia, 79, 327. 
Caernarvon, 120, 330. 
Cagliari in Sardinia, 55. 

cakes, 9 for a penny in Aquitaine, 

194. 
Calabria, 175-6. 

Calais, 120 ; described, 147 ; 209. 
calculus, 80, the stone. 
Caldy, 216, Chaldee. 
Calvary, Mount of, 220. 
Calyco, 142/7, Calicut?, 336. 
caliditie, 100, 102, heat, 
calles, 91, cauls. 

Cambridge, 120 ; Boorde's letter 
from, to Cromwell, 62 ; Boorde's 
books in the University Library, 
11, 12, 16. 

Camden Society's Council of 
1870, admire Mr J. P. Collier's 
editing, 71, note. 



camel, Mahomet's, 215-16. 
camomyll, 99, camomile, 
camphor, oil of, 100. 
Can, 208, Caen. 
Candia, 172, 182, 219. 

candle-ends eaten in Iceland, 141/ 

4; 142,336. 
candles, 264. 

canelles, 236, 295, channels, 
drains. 

cankers in the face, 95. 

Canterbury, 147. 

Cantica Canticorum, quoted, 238. 

capers, 285. 

capon the best fowl, 270. 

Caprycke, 255, wine from Capri. 

carcinoma, 72, prison-sickness. 

Cardinals, Spanish, 204 ; Italian 

ones' pages, 17. 
cardyng, 293, playing cards. 
Care we, Sir Wymonde, 64-5. 
Carlisle, 120. 
carrots, 279. 
carters, bacon good for, 273. 

Carthusian Order; the strictness 
of it, 46 ; A. Boorde couldn't abide 
its 'rugorosite,' 47. 

caryn, 236, carrion. 

Castel Angelo in Rome, 77. 

Castile, 53, 195, 198; described, 
200-1. 

castors, 141, beavers, in Norway. 

castory, 298. 

castynge of a pys-potte, 311, look- 
ing at the urine in one. 

cat, game of, mentioned, 332. 

catalencia, 244, 349, catalepsy. 

Catalonia, 56 ; described, 194-5. 

caudle or cullis for a dying man, 

302. 
caudles, 264. 



358 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



cauterise, 101. 

caves, Icelanders lie in, 142. 

cawse boby, 126, 330, 340, 

roasted cheese, 
cedar-trees, 218. 
Celestynes in Rome, 77. 
cellar, place for the, 238. 
centory, 288, centaury. 

ceruyces, 283, services, a big kind 

of pear, 
cbaifyng, 290, warming, 
cham, 122/1, am. 
chamber of estate, 238. 
chapels at Rome defiled, 77. 
charcoal, 291. 
Charneco wine, 255, note. 
Charterhouse, the Head, 55, the 

Grande Chartreux. 
Charterhouse in London, Boorde 

in it, 42, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 52 ; in 

Rome, n. 
chartes (cards), the Irish play at, 

333. 
Chaucer's Reeves Tale, 33 ; his 

Somonour's sawcefteem face, 101-2. 
che, 122/1, I. 
cheese-maggots eaten in Germany, 

160. 
cheese, the five kinds, and the 

quaUties of, 266-7. 
cherries, 283. 
Chester, my Lord of, 57, 1 the 

Prior, 
chesteynes, 285, chestnuts. 
Chichester, 120. 
chicken, 270. 
chicory, 280. 

chierurgy, 20, 21, surgery, 
chilblains, 86. 
chimneys, don't piss in them, 237. 

chip the top-crust oif your bread, 
26L 



choleric men, 245 ; a diet for, 

288. 
Christ and his Apostles wore 

beards, 314/131. 
Christ bids men watch, 245. 

Christ, the pillar that he was 

bound to, 76. 
Christie-Miller, Mr S., 19, 106-7, 

227. 
churchmen's courtesans in Italy, 

184. 
chybboUes, 294. 
chyl, 122/14, will. 
Ciclades, 172, the Cyclades. 
cider made of pears or apples, 256. 
cinnamon, 287, 292. 
cipres, 218, cypress. 
Ciracus, 176, Syracuse, 
claret wine, 255. 
Clemers gylders, 140, 153. 
Cleveland, 142-3. 
Clipron, a noble city in Hungary, 

171. 
clock : the Italians count to 24 

o'clock, 178-9. 
clockyng in ones bely, 86. 
cloves, 286. 

clowtyd (clotted) cream, 267. 
coactyd, 53, compelled, 
cobblers, &c., turn doctors, 85. 
cochee, pills of, 99. 
Cocke Lorelles bote, a fool of, 

306 ; take an oar in, 313/101. 
cockrellys, 270, young cocks 

stewed, 296. 
cockrel's stones good to eat, 277. 
cock's flesh, 270. 
cognacion, 233, kindred. 
Cokermouth, 120. 
Cokersend, 123. 
cokes come, 185, cock's comb. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



359 



colesses, 264, cullisses, broths. 

colic, broths bad for, 264; beer 
bad for, 256 ; mead bad for, 257. 

Collie weston, 106 1 

Collier, J. P., quoted, 30 ; his 
daring invention, 71 ; his coolness, 
72, note ; his inaccuracy, 326 ; has 
mist two Boorde entries in the 
Stationers' Register A, 14. 

colloppes and egges bad for the 
stone, 273. 

Collyn Clowte^s treatyse answer- 
ynge the boke of Berdes, 305 — 
316. 

colmouse (the bird), 270. 

Colyn, (Cologne, 219), the noble 
city, 75, 156 ; the thread of, 
337. 

comb your head often, 300. 

comfettes, 284, comfits. 

common, 301, chatter. 

compacke, 91, compact, con- 
stituted, 
company, honest, 89. See mirth. 

Coinplaynt of Scotland, 1548-9 ; 
its opinion of Englishmen, 59, 
note 3. 

Compostella, Boorde' s pilgrimage 

to, 51, 199, 204, 346. 
conies, 275, grown-up rabbits. 

connexed, 102, 103, bound to- 
gether. 
Constantinople described, 172. 
constupat, 292, constipated. 

consumption; woman's and goat's 
milk are good for, 267 ; a diet for, 
296. 

Cony[ng]sby,Wm, gives A. Boorde 
2 tenements in Lynn, 73. 

cook, a good one is half a physi- 
cian, 277. 

Cooper, W. Durrant, his ** un- 
published correspondence " of 
Boorde, 45. 



Copland, old Robert, 15, 16. (See 
my Forewords to GylofBreyntford^s 
Testament, &c., 1871.) 

Coplande, Wm; his editions of 
Boorde's Introduction, 14 — 19 ; he 
printed first at the Rose-Garland, 
second at the Three Cranes, third 
at Lothbury, 18. 

corans, 282, dried currants ; 

raisins of Corinth. 
Cordaline Friars at Jerusalem, 

220. 
cordyallys, 296, cordials. 
Corfu, 182. 

corn shouldn't be exported from 

England, 118. 
Cornelis of Chelmeresford, 17, 

note. 
Cornish men described, 122-4; 

language, samples of, 123-4. 
Cornwall, 120, 330. 
coroborate, 285, strengthen. 
Corpus Christi day, 219. 
Corser, Mr, 11, 27. 
costine, oil of, 95. 
cotydyal, 226, col. 2; 241, daily. 

Coualence, 219, Coblentz {Con- 
fluentid). 

couetyse, 86, covetousness. 

coun, 122/17, grant. 

Course, 75, 255, Corsican. 

courtesans in Venice, 183. Cor- 
tegidna, a curtezane, a strumpet, 
quasi Cortese dno, a curteous tale ! 
Florio. 

cow-flesh, 271. 

Cox, Captain, 32. 

coyte, 258, water and yeast. 

crab-lice, 87. 

crache, 97, scratch. 

crackling not to be eaten, 274. 

cracknelles, 80, 261. 

crake, 137, brag : the Scotch do it. 



360 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



cramp-rings, the hallowing of, 92. 

crane, 270. 

cream, 267. 

croaking in one's belly, 86. 

crocherds, 157, Dutch coins worth 
about ^</, ? kreutzers, 161. 

Cromwell, Thomas, loses Boorde's 
Handbook of Europe, 24, 145 ; 
Boorde's 5 letters to him, 53, 55, 
58, 59, 62 ; his kindness to Boorde, 
52; is made a brother of the 
Charterhouse, 57. 

Cross, Holy, said to be at Con- 
stantinople, 173 ; cross to be held 
before a dying man, 302. 

crowns and half-crowns, 121 ; 
Scotch crown of 4*. 8c?. is called a 
Pound, 137 ; Dutch crown 4*. Sd., 
157 ; French, 191. 

crusts are unwholesome, 261. 

Cuckfield (Cookfield), Sussex, 39. 

Cuckold, a town in Yorkshire, 61. 

cucurbiti, 81, worms. 

cucurbitini, 279, square worms. 

cunables, 208, cradle. 

cupboard, lean against it when 
you sleep in the day, 246. 

cupshote, 309 ; cupshoten, 156/2, 
drunk. 

curding of milk in women's 
breasts, 97. 

cur-dogs in Lombard y, 187. 

cursados, 197, crusados, PortU' 
guese gold coins worth 5,y. a piece. 
Sp. Cruzddo, m. a peece of money 
so called, in Portingall, of the 
value of a French crowne. Minsheu, 

cycory, 253, chicory. 

Cyuel, 



196, Seville. 



dagswaynes, 139, rough coverlets 
(see Harrison's Bescr. of England^. 
dairy, 239. 
Dalmacye, 172, Dalmatia. 



damsons, eat 6 or 7 before dinner, 

285. 
dandruffe, 95, dandriff. 

Dansk why ten, 163, Danish tin 

and brass coins. 
Dartmouth, 120. 
dates, 285. 

daundelyon, 253, dandelion, 
deathbed service, 302. 
debt, the evils of, 242. 

decepered, 103, deciphered?, se- 
parated, 
degges, 81, worms in a man's feet, 
demoniack, 298. 

denares, 179, Italian pence: 
Bendfi, pence, money, coine. 
Florio. 

Denmark and the Danes, 162-3, 
339. 

Devil, swearers are possest of 

him, 83. 
devilish disposition of Scotchmen, 

61, 

devils in a German lady, 76. 

Devil's nails unpared, 117/30 (a 
phrase). 

Deynshire, 129, Devonshire. 

Diascorides, 283. 

diaserys, 100. 

Dibdin oxi Boorde's Introduction^ 
36. 

dice, Irish, 131/8; the strong 

and weak man at, 245. 
diet, a general one, for all people, 

300. 
dinner, sit only an hour at, 252 ; 

bad English customs at, 252. 
dishes, eat only of two or three, 

248, 252. 
'dispensyd with the relygyon,' 

44-5, 57, 58. 
disquietness, 89. 
Ditchling in Sussex, 41-2. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND "WORDS. 



361 



Dobie's Hist, of St Giles' and St 
George's, Bloomsbury, quoted, 65, 
note. 

doble, double, 191, a French coin 
worth 2 brass pence. 

doctor and cook must work to- 
gether. 277-8. 

Doge or Duke of Venice, 183-5. 

dogs, wounds from, 94. 

Dolphemy, 191, Dauphiny. 

done theyr kynde, 277, copulated. 

dormitary, 95 ? 

dorow, 122/19, through. 

dove's-dung in a plaister, 97. 

dovehouse, 239, 349. 

Dover, 120, 147, 219. 

dragagant, 97, gum Tragacanth. 

dragges, 87/8, drugs. 

drawghtes, 236, drains] 

dreams, Eoorde on, 95. 

Drewiy, Sir Eobert, 225, 348. 

drink : when the drink is in, the 
wit is out, 94. 

drinks, don't mix your, 248. 

dronkenshyppe, 284, drunkenness, 

285. 
dropsy, a diet for the, 299. 

drunkards, great, are Flemings, 
147, 337 ; Hollanders, 149 ; Low- 
Germans, 156. 

drunkards quarrel, 94. 

drunkenness, 90. 

dry your house before you live in 

it, 239. 
dryn, 122/4, therein. 
Dublin, 132. 

ducat, 171, 199, a coin coined by 
any Duke : 'Ducati, duckets, 
crownes.' Florio. 

duckemet, 253, duckmeat, small 

green water- weed, 
duck-flesh, 270. 



ducks and mallards not liked in 

Bohemia, 167. 
ducks' eggs, 265. 

Duke of Venice, 183-5 : 'Doge 
a Duke of Venice or Genoua.' 
Florio. 

dulcet pears, 256, sweet pears. 

dunghills not to be near a house, 

236, 239. 
dup, 122/7, do up, fasten up. 
During, 155, 219, Duren. 

Durrant Coop6r, W., quoted, 47, 

54, 59, 73. 
dust bad for asthma, 297. 
Dutchman : beer 's a natural drink 

for one, 256. 
Dutchmen eat butter all day, 265 ; 

how they drink, 149, 338. 
dyasulfur, 99. 
dycke, 122/3, thick. 

D[yer], E., his list of story-books, 

&c., 30. 
dyery, 239, dairy. 

Dyeiary of Health, editions of, 
11—14; print of, 223—304; de- 
scribed by Boorde, 227, col. 2, 299: 
sketch of it, 319—323, with Mr 
Ju. Leigh's opinion on it, p. 320. 

dylygentler, 243^ diligentlier. 

dym myls dale, 260 ? 

dyn, 122/3, thin. 

dyng, 122/7, thing. 

dyscommodyous, 234, inconveni- 
ent, evil, 
dystayned, 312, stained, 
dysturbacyon, 310, disturbance, 
dysyng, 293, playing with dice. 

earthen floors, 349. 
east wind is good, 238. 
easy boots for gowt, 293. 
edge-tools, lunatics not to have, 



362 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



Edinburgh, 136. 

educacion, 271, bringing-up, feed- 
ing from one's youth, 259 ; what 
you've been brought up to. 

Edynborow, 61, Edinburgh. 

egestion, 248, out-puttings, ex- 
crement. 

eggs, the kinds and qualities of, 
264. 

Egypt and the Egyptians, 217. 

Eladas, 172, part of Greece, or 
Turkey in Europe. 

elbow-room wanted for a man in 
the country, 233. 

elder, 288. 

Ellis, F. S., 12. 

Ellis, Sir Hy. , first printed Boorde's 
letters, 45 ; quoted, 56. 

Emperor Charles Y, of Austria, 
53, 55, 56, 130/4, 151/6, 154/13, 
195. 

endewtkynge, 153, a brass coin 
in Brabant. A deut {Hard, farthing) 
is a small Dutch copper coin ; 
8 of them to a stiver, and 400 to a 
Dollar banco (4^. ^d.). Weilmeyr'st 
AUgemeines Numismatisches Lexicon. 
Salzburg, 1817, i. 113. 

endive, 280. 

England, no region like it, 118, 
144 ; languages in, 120 ; wonders 
in, 120; money of, 121; oueht 
never to be conquered, 164 ; odible 
swearing in, 243, 324 ; Seven Evils 
in, of which Boorde complains, 
82-6 ; keeps her swine filthy, 273. 

England, beer becoming much 
used in, 256. 

England, pestilence in, 262 ; 
potage much used in, 262 ; more 
sorts of wine in, tlian anywhere 
else, 75 ; better supplied with fish 
than any other country, 268 ; deer 
loved more in, than anywhere else, 
274. 

English beer liked by Dutchmen, 
148/4 ; by Brabunders, 150/4, 10. 



English language,Boorde's opinion 
of, 122. 

Englishman's talk with the Latin 
man, 210. 

Englishmen, Boorde's character of 
them, 116-8 ; few of them live 
abroad, 60, 144 ; water is bad for 
them, 252 ; ale natural to them, 
256; beef good for them, 271; 
they keep their beards clean, 309 ; 
few dwell abroad, 60; venison is 
good for, 274. 

Englishwomen, 119. 

enulacampana, 99, 278, elecam- 
pane, scabwort, or horseheal. 

ephialtes, the nightmare, 78. 

epilencia, 244, 349, epilepsy. 

epilentycke, 294, epileptic. 

Epirs, 172, Epirus. 

epulacyon, 250, feasting, stuffing. 

eructuacyons, 247, 265, belching. 

Esdras, 78. 

eupatory, 289. 

Evil Mayday, 60, note 1. 

evil spirits, Boorde on, 75-6. 

Evyndale, Lord, namyd Stuerd, 
59. 

euyt, 133, eft, none in Ireland. 

ewes' milk, 267. 

eximyous, 21, excellent. 

Exmouth, 120. 

exonerate, 248, 293, unload, ease 
of excrements. 

Extravagantes, The, by Boorde, 
21. 

extynct, 280, extinguish. 

eye, the : ills that follow if it is 
not satisfied, 235. 

eyes, plunge 'em in cold water 
every morning, 300. 

face of man, Boorde on it, 95. 
faldyng, 333, coarse stuif. 



[NDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



363 



falling sickness, 88, 127, 244, 

epilepsy, &c. ; a diet for it, 294-5. 
fardynges, 121, farthings, 
fasting, neglect of, in England, 

82. 
fat not so good as lean, 276. 
fatness or fogeyness, Boorde's cure 

for, 100. 
feather-beds in Julich, 155/2 ; lie 

on one, 247. 
fear breeds the palsy, 297. 
feet, keep 'em dry, and wash 'em 

sometimes, 300. 
fennel, 99, 278. 
fennel-seed, 278, 281, 284. 

feryall dayes, 243, festivals, holi- 
days, 
fever, butter bad for, 266. 
fever, how to treat, 291. 
fever, causon and tertian, 97. 
fever lurden, 83, laziness. 

fifteen substances that Man is 

made of, 91, 
figs, 282, 212. 
filberts, 283. 

fire, have one in your bedroom, 
246. 

fish, 268-9 ; the Scotch boil it 
best, 136. 

fish in Cornwall, 122/13, 123; 
in Friesland, 139 ; in Norway, 141 ; 
in Iceland, 142; the cooking of, 
277 ; heads and fatness of, bad, 
276 ; bad for epilepsy, 294. 

fish and flesh not to be eaten to- 
gether, 269. 
fish of the mountain, 273, adders, 
fishpool in a garden, 239. 
five wits, 93. 

Flanders and the Flemings, 147-8. 
flauour, 248, air. 
flax, the steeping of, 236, 348. 



fleed, 274, flayed, skinned. 

Fleet prison, Boorde in, 70, 73. 

Fleet prisoners, Boorde's bequest 
to, 73. 

fleg, 122/8, jolly? 

Fleming, Abraham, 308, note. 

Flemings, the, 148. 

Flemish broodmares sold to Eng- 
land, 147/7 ; Flemish fish and beer, 
336-7. 

flemytycke, 245, phlegmatic. 

flesh-shambles of Antwerp, 151. 

fleubothomye, 287, blood-letting. 

fleumaticke men, a diet for, 288. 

flies, stinging, in Sicily, 176. 

flockes, 247, bits of coarse wool. 

Florence, 187 

Floshing, Flushing, 149. 

fools part drunkards, 94. 

for, 290/7, for fear of, to prevent. 

forepart better to eat than the 

hindpart of animals, 276. 
foul-evil, the, 136/14. 

fountain in every town abroad, 

254. 
fox, the more he's curst the better 

he fares, 166/4. 
fox, boil one, for a bath for a 

palsied man, 99. 
fox, the stink of one is good for 

the palsy, 99, 298. 
fracted, 93, 94 at foot, broken. 
France, 53. 

France and the French, 190. 
frankincense, 290. 
frantic, 298. 
frayle, 212, basket, 
free-will, Boorde on, 103. 

Frenchmen have no fancy for 
Englishmen, 191 ; eat butter after 
meat, 265 ; their fashions, 345 ; 
last of their soldiers, 345. 



364 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



freshwater fish, 268-9. 
fried meat, 277. 
Friesland, 139. 

frogs, guts and all, eaten in Lom- 

bardy, 187. 
fruits, ch. xxi., p. 282-6. 
fumitory, 288 ; syrup of, 95. 

fustian, Genoese, 189 ; Ulm, 161 ; 
white, used for covering quilts, 
247 

fynger, 122/15, hunger. 

fyrmente made of wheat and 
milk, 263. 

fysnomy, 76, physiognomy, like- 
ness, picture of a face. 

fystle, 92, 93, 95, boiU 

fystuled, 94 1 festered. 

Galateo, Delia Casa's, done into 
Englisli in 1576 a.d. ; quoted, 324. 

Galen, quoted, 235, 251, 272; 
cut of, 232. 

Galen's Terapentike, 85. 

gales, 185, galleys. 

galles, 94, galls. 

gallows, corpses hanging long on 
the, 203, 346. 

galy, halfpenny, 187. * Galley- 
Men, certain Genoese Merchants, 
formerly so call'd, because they 
usually arriv'd in Galleys, landed 
tlieir Goods at a Place in Thames- 
street, nam'd Galley -key, and traded 
with their own small Silver Coin 
call'd Galley-haJf-pence.* Kersey's 
Phillips : p. 105 of my Ballads 
from MSS, vol. i. 

galyngale, 89, a spice. 

games of trap, cat, &c., 332. 

garden of sweet herbs, 239. 

gargarices, 79, 98. 

garlic, 279, 351. 

Garnynham, 225, Sir John Jerne- 
gau or Jerningham. 



Gascony, 53 ; described, 207 ; 

wine, 255. 
Gawnt, 147, Ghent, 
geese-eggs, 265. 
geese pluckt yearly in Julich, 

154-5. 
Gelder, 153/2, the chief town of 

Guelder] and. 
Gelderlond and the Gelders, 

152-3. 
gelders arerys, 153/7, gilders worth 

23 stivers, or 3*. each, 
gemmis, electuary of, 103. 

Genoa and the Genoese, 188-9 ; 
their beautiful women, and what 
freedom they have, 344 ; their 
trade and products, 344-5. 

George, Dane (or Dominus), 48. 

German lady possest with devils, 

76. 
Germany, the splendid uprising of, 

against Louis Napoleon, 110, 328. 
Gersey, 120, Guernsey. 

Geslyng, 219, Geisslingen in 

Wurtemburg. 
Gestynge in Germany, 161. 
gete, 80, jet. 
giants' heads that wag their jaws, 

on organs, 207. 
Gibbs, H. Hucks, 12, 109. 

gilders, 153, &c., gold coins first 
made in Gelder, of various names 
and values. 

ginger, 286. 

Glasco, 59, Glasgow. 

Glasgow, 136. 

goatskin gloves to be worn in 

summer, 249. 
goatskins used for wine-bottles, 

199. 
goats' milk, 296. 
gold found in Hungary, 171. 
gomble, 266, jumble. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



365 



goose-flesh, 270. 

goose-pudding, 199. 

gos, gosse, 122/7, 14, &c., gossip, 
mate, 

goshawks, 149. 

Gotam, Merrie Tales of tJie Mad- 
men of, 27 — 30. 

Gotham, or Nottingham, 325. 

Gowghe, John, his date, 12. 

gowt, how to treat, 293. 

grains, hrewers', after brewing, 

311. 
Grandpoole, in the suburbs of 

Oxford, 69. 
Granople, 191, Grenoble, 
grapes, 283, 212. 

Grauelyng in Flanders, 147, 219, 

Gravelines. 
graynes, 286, cardamons. 

Great Fosters, a Tudor mansion 

near Egham, 7. 
great men like killing deer, 275, 

350. 
Greece, 172-3, Turkey in Europe. 

Greek, modern, a specimen of, 

173-4; wine, 255. 
groats and half-groats, 121. 
gromel seeds, 80, 327. 
grouelynge, 247, face downwards, 
ground, don't lie on the, 298. 
gruel made with oatmeal, 263. 
Grunnyghen, 140, Groningen. 
giyfe, 247, 1 misprint for 'oryfice.' 
Gulyk, 154/1, 9, Julich, or Juliers. 
gum Arabic, 97. 
gurgulacyons, 267, grumblings (in 

the belly), 
gurgytacyon, 250, 251, swilling, 
gut-caul broken, 101. 

gylders, 140, 153, gilders, gold 
coins. 



Gynes in Flanders, 147, Guisnes. 

Gyppyng in Germany, 161, 219, 
? Eppingen in Baden. 

halarde, 161, a German coin, ? ^d. 

or 56?. 
Halkett, James, Colonel and 

Baron, 5. 
hall of a house, place for the, 238. 
halowynge, 295, halooing. 
Hammes in Flanders, 147. 

Hanago, or Hanawar, 151, Hain- 

ault, 339. 
Handbook J or Itinerary of Europe, 

Boorde's, 24. 
handling or touching women, or 

others' goods, 85-6. 
Handwarp, 151, Antwerp, 
hanged beef, 271. 
Hardy, Sir T. Duffus, 43. 
hare : dogs, not men, should eat 

it, 275. 
harlot, wounds come through one, 

94. 
harped groats in Ireland, 133. 

Harrison on A. Boorde, 106 ; on 
Englishman's fantastic dress, 105-6. 
Harrow on the Hill, 325. 
hart and hind, 274. 

harts eat adders to get young 

again, 273. 
harts-tongue fern, 289. 
harvest, cider drunk at, 257. 
Harwich, 120. 
Hastings, 120. 
hastynes, 297, hastiness, 
hauer cakes, 136, 259, oat cakes. 

hawks ill Norway, 141 ; in Hol- 
land, 149. 
haws, the water of, 80, 253. 

Hay {History of Chichester) on 
Boorde, 40-1, note. 



366 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



Hayden, a town in Scotland, 

136. 
Hayward's Heath Station, 38. 
hazle-nuts, 283. 

Hazlitt, W. C, 11,12,117,307; 

on A. Boorde, 31. 
headache, a diet for it, 295. 
lieart, Boorde on the, 89. 
Hebrecyon, 287, Hebrew writer. 

Hebrew, modern and ancient, 

talks in, 221. 
Hellespont, names of the, 172. 
Hellogabalus, 308, Heliogabalus. 
liemp, the steeping of, 236, 348. 
hempseed caudles, 264. 
hen, 270. 
Henry VI crowned in Paris, 

208. 
Henry YIII fortifies England, 

119 ; won Boulogne, 209. 
Henry VIII, the universities for 

him, 55. 
herbs, ch. xx, 280-2. 
herensew, 270, heronshaw, heron, 
heresies in England, 83. 
High and Low Germans, the 

difference between, 100. 
HindiuordSj 3 17. 
Hippocrates, 250. 
hobby, 131/6, Irish pony. 
Holland, 148-9. 
holmes, 161, 340, fustian made 

at Ulm. 
Holmsdale, Sussex, 38, 39. 
holy days to be kept, 243. 
Holy-Well, near Flint, 331. 
honey eaten in Poland, 168-9. 
honey -sops, 264. 
Hooper, W. H., 19, 107, 109. 
hops, 256, wild, 288. 
Horde, Dr, 53, 54. 



horehound, 100. 

home squlyone, 153 ; a gold coin 
worth 12 stivers, or 19 ^d. 

horripilacio, 75. 

horse-bread, 259. 

Horsfield's Hist, of Lewes quoted, 
27. 

house of easement, 236, privy (to 
be far from the house). 

house or mansion : how to choose 
its site, 233-7 ; how to build and 
arrange it, 237-9 ; how to provision 
and manage it, 240-4. 

houses, miserable, in the Scotch 
borders, 136. 

Howghton, Prior, 47, 52, 54, 58, 
60. 

Hudson, Edward, Boorde's be- 
quest to, 73, 74. 

Hull, 120. 

humecte, 244, moisten. 

Hungary, 170-1. 

hurtes, 267, 283 ; whortleberries. 

Huth, Mr Henry, 342. 

hydrophobia, Boorde on, 74. 

Hygh Almen, swine kept clean in, 

272. 
Hynton, Prior, 47, 53. 
Hyue, 207, a large heath in Bay- 



laffe, 219, 348, Joppa. 
lanuayes, 188, lanues, 213, Ge- 
noese. 
Iber, 195, the river Ebro. 

Iceland and the Icelanders as 
brute as a beast, 141 ; stockfish of, 
336; candle-eating in, 336; curs 
of, 336. 

idleness, the deadly dormouse, 
83, note ; Henry VIII on, 234 ; 
Boorde on, 83-4. 

idropise, 299, idropyses, 251, 
dropsy. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



367 



iebet, 203, gibbet, 
lene, 188, Genoa. 

ignorant, the j instruct them, 243, 

349. 
ilia, the gut ; iliaCf the disease of 

it, 292. 
iliac, mead bad for the, 257. 
imbecyllyte, 245, want of strength. 
impetigo, 82, 327. 
implementes, 240, furniture and 

provisions, 
incipient, 205, unwise. 
Incubus, 78. 

incypyently, 60, unwisely, 
incypyentt, 56. 

indyfiferently, 300, moderately 

warm, 
infection, 290. 

inferced, 251, '?stuft, — hom farce, 
and not * enforce.' 

inflatyue, 293, puffing, blowing- 
up. 

inscipient, 25, unwise, foolish. 

intemperance, 90. 

interludes, players in, wear long 
garbs, 207. 

Jntrodudion of Knowledge, 111, 
112. Wm Copland's first or Rose- 
Garland edition, 14-18; his second 
or Lothbury edition, in 1562 or -3, 
and its changes from the first, 18- 
19 ; its pictures or woodcuts, 15, 
107-8 ; print of it, 111—222 ; ac- 
count of it, 317-19. 

iochymdalders, 1 40, Frisian silver 
coins. ' Iochymdalders are also Bo- 
hemian coins of about the value of 
4*. 4a?., the earliest dollars coined, 
struck bv the Counts of Schlick 
in the beginning of the 16th 
century. loachim Thai is the name 
of the valley where the silver was 
found.* 

ipocras, 258. 
iposarca, 299. 



Ireland and the Irish, 131-6, 335; 

products of Ireland, 333. 
Irish, the wild, 334-5. 
isope, 99, hyssop. 

Italian servants, their food and 

ways ab. 1440 A-D., 343. 
Italian wives, and their husbands' 

jealousy, 342. 
Italians' opinion of England, 119. 
Italy, 53. 

Italy and the Italians, 178-9, 340, 

342-5. 
itch, Boorde's treatment of, 96. 
lues, 218, Jews, 
lury, 218, Jewry, Judaea. 

jack, 160/8, loose slopi 

jacket, how to line one in winter, 

249. 
Jeremiah on the North, 238. 
Jerningham, Sir John, 225. 
Jersey, 120. 

Jerusalem, and the pilgrimage 
thither, 218—220. 

Jesus Christ's coat at Constanti- 
nople, 173. 

Jews, 218 ; don't like pork, 273, 
350. 

John, Father, 57. 

Joppa, 219, 348. 

Judaea and the Jews, 218, 347. 

Julia, the courtesans' street in 
Rome, TJy note. 

July, 179, an Italian coin worth 
hd. : ' giulio, a coine made by Julius 
the Pope,' Florio ; ' a jule, a small 
Roman silver coin.' Baretti. 

juniper, 290, oil of, 100. 

justices in Friesland 140. 

kaig, 204, cage, 
kacke, 122/2. 



2 u 



368 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



karoll, 191, a Carolus, worth 10 
brass pence. Carolus : m. A 
peece of white niony, worth xd. 
Tour, or a iust English penny. 
Carolus deBezangon. A siluer eoyne j 
and is worth about ixd. sterl. 
Carolus de Flandres. Another, 
worth about iijs. sterl. Cotgrave, 
1611 A.D, 

Karre, Boorde calls himself a, 59. 
Karrowes, the Irish, 333. 
kateryns, 179, 187, Italian coins 

worth Id. each, 
kayme, 248, comb. 

Kempton, 219, Kempten in 

Bavaria, 
kepers, 301, 302, care-takers, 

nurses, 
keyn, 287, kine, cows, 
kid, 274. 

King's-evil, cured by English 
kings, 91-3, 121. Span. Lampar- 
onesy or Puercas, kernels, a swell- 
ing in the necke or armepits, the 
Kings euill. Minsheu. 

Kingsmill, Sir John, 66. 

kitchen-phisick 's best, 277. 

knauerynge, 84 '? 

kybes, 86, chilblains. 

kynde, 277/4, nature, copulation. 

Lachar, electuary of, 100. 

lamb, 272. 

Lambe, Alice, a wench at Oxford, 
69. 

lampreys and lamprons, 276. 

Lane, Martin, 74. 

Languedoc, 189, 213; described, 

194. 
lantern of Antwerp Church, 151. 
lapdanum, 290, labdanum. 
lapwings, 270. 
larder, place for the, 238. 
lardes, 59, lairds. 



lark, 271. 

lassyuyousnes, 280, lascivious- 

ness. 
Latin man, 209-11. 

Latin miles longer than English, 

179. 
laury, 99, laurel. 

law, Cornishmen go to, for no- 
thing, 122-3. 
lax, 287, diarrhaea. 

laxative, 292, 297, with open 

bowels, 
laziness of young English folk, 

83-4. 

learning, neglected in England, 
118. 

lechery in Kome, 77. 

Lee, Eoland, Bp of Coventry and 

Lichfield, 51. 
leeks, 279. 

leeness, 276, lean-flesh, 
legion is 9999, p. 76. 

Leigh, John ; his opinion of 
Boorde as a sanitarian, and of his 
Di/etari/, 320. 

Leith, Boorde at, 61 ; King 
James and his French bride. 
Queen Magdalen, * landed at the 
peare of Lieth hauen, the 29 of 
Maie, in the yeare 1537-' Holin- 
shed's Hist. Scotland, p. 320, col. 1, 
ed. 1568. 

Leith ale, 136. 

lencoflegmancia, 299. 

Lent, almond butter and violets 

are good in, 268. 
lepored, 251, 293, leprosy. 
Leth, 61, Leith. 
lettuce, 281. 

letyfycate, 89, make joyful, 
leuyn, 258, leaven, 
leuyn bread, 80. 
Lewke, 154, Li^ge. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



369 



Libel of English Policy, a. d. 1436, 
quoted in 'the Notes, 323—346. 

lice, the four kinds of, 87 ; Irish, 
131/9 ; Friesic, 139/8 ; Welsh, 331. 

Li^ge, velvet and arras-cloth 
made there, 155. 

Her, 191, a French coin worth 3 
brass pence. Liard : m. A brazen 
coyne worth three deniers, or the 
fourth part of a sol. Cotgrave. 

lies, the Scotch tell strong ones, 
137. 

light-witted, 240. 

linen socks or hose to be worn 
next the skin, 248. 

liquorice, 100, 287. 

Lisle, Lord, 64-5. 

literge, 94, litharge. 

liver bad to eat, 276. 

liver, is the fire under the pot, 250. 

lizards, none in Ireland, 133. 

loch, 99, lochiscus, lozenge. 

Lombardy and the Lombards, 
176-7, 343. 

Lombardy, garlic used in, 279. 

London, the noblest city in the 
world, 119, 147, 219, 62; Boorde 
in, 64, 307; its prisons, 72; its 
godly order against lazy youth, 84, 
note; its Bridge, none like it in 
the world, 119. 

lords, none in Friesland, 140. 

Louvane, 151, Louvain. 

Low-Dutch speech, 157. 

Low-Germany or the Netherlands, 
155-7. 

Lower, M. A., quoted, 28, 34, 
38-9, 41. 

lubberwort, 84. 

Lucres and Euriahis, the romance 

quoted, 342-3. 
Luke, 154/1, Li^ge. 

lumbrici, 81, 279, worms in the 
belly. 

boorde. 24 



lunatics, how to manage them, 

298. 
lungs bad to eat, 276. 
lust and avarice of men, 85-6. 

Lustborne, 197, Lisbon. *This 
wynter season, on the .xxvi. day of 
lanyuer [1531], in the citie of 
Luxborne in Portyngale, was a won- 
derous Earthquake.' HaWs Chron- 
icle, p. 781. 

Luther, Martin, 165. 

luxuryousnes, 285, lust. 

lying, the worst disease of the 

tongue, 88. 
lykle, 302, little. 
Lynn, Boorde's property in, T6. 
Lynne, 120. 

lynsye-woolsye, 249, stuff for 

petycotes. 
Lyons, 191. 
lyporous, 307, leperous. 
lyste, 298, list, strip. 
Lythko, 136, Lithgow. 
Lytle Brytane, 207, Britany. 

Macadam, Major, 38. 

mace, 286. 

Macer referred to, 282. 

Macomite, 213, Mahomet; his 

tricks exposed, 215-6. 
Macydony, 172, Macedonia. 

madmen, how to diet and manage, 

298-9. 
maggoty cheese liked best in 

Germany, 267. 
Maid of Kent, the, 216. 
maidenhair fern, 288, 289. 
maidens, German, may only 

drink water, 160. 
maierome, 290, marjoram. 
Mali go, 255, Malaga wine. 

Malla vina, 171, Mostelavina in 
Hungary, 340. 



370 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



malmyse, 254, malmsey 

maltworm, 256. 

malyfycyousnes, 79, maleficence, 
influence of evil spirits. 

man and woman be reasonable 
Beastes, 91, 93. 

man made of 15 substances, 91 

manchet bread, 258. 

Mancy, the land of, 350. 

mandilion, 106, a short cloak. 

mandragora, 281. 

mania, 79, madness. 

Manley, Wm, 74. 

manna, 289. 

manners and manhood, English- 
men the best people for, 118. 

manyken, 157, a Dutch far- 
thing. 

Mare, the Night-, 78. 

marivade, 197, 199 ; tsVo^-' 200 
maravedies are worth -^^d. ; * Mara- 
uedis, picciola nonet a in spdgna^ 
foure and thirtie of them make 
sixe-pence sterling.' Florio. Sp. 
Maravediy m. a peece of plate, 
being of the value of the thirtie 
and fourth part of a ryall of plate, 
id est, 34 of them to an English 
six-pence.' Minsheu. 

marketes, 187, small Italian silver 
coins. 'Marchetto, a little coine 
in Italic.' Florio. 

marketplaces, 294. 

Marlyn, 78, Merlin. 

marrow, 276. 

Martin, Dr, his Apologie, 66. 

Martylmas beef, 271, 292, 327. 

Martyn the surgeon, Boorde's 
friend at Moutpelier, 309. 

Mary, Princess (afterwards 
•bloody Queen Mary'); Boorde's 
Dedication of his Introduction of 
Knowledge to her, 122, 14. 

Mastryt, 219, Maestricht. 



Mathew, Richard, Boorde's de- 
visee and residuary legatee, 73. 
Mawghlyn, 151, Mechlin. 

mazer, 132, drinking cup with a 

long stem, 
mead, 257. 

meals, two a day are enough, 261. 
medlars, 283. 
Medon, the isle of, 182. 

melancholy complexion, 132 ; 

men, 245. 
melancholy men, a diet for, 289 \ 

milk is good for 'em, 267. 
melons, 285. 

Memmyng, 161, 219, Memmin- 

gen in Bavaria. 
Mendicant Friars in Rome, 77. 
Mense, 156, 160, 219, Maintz, 

Mayence. 
mercury, 289. 

Merlin built Stonehenge, 121. 
merry heart, keep a, 300. 
merry, who is, now-a-days, 88. 

mesele, 95, measles-spots in the 

face, 
mestlyng bread, made of mixt 

grain, 258-9. 
metheglin, 257. 
Metropolitan of England, 119. 

mice, rats, and snails, in rooms, 

249. 
midwives, evils of untrained ones 

in England, 84. 
Might-of-Constantinople, 172, the 

Hellespont, 
milk, 267 ; water of, 253. 

mind of man, its changeableness, 

85. 
minors made monks and friars, 

43, and note 4. 
mirth, one of the chiefest things 

of Phisic, 88, 89, 228, 214, 249. 
mithridatum, 99. 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



371 



moat to be scowred, 239. 
modernall, 291, modern, 
moles on the face, 95. 
money makes a man's thought 

merry, 88. 
monks, canons, &c., in Rome, 77. 
monks' hatred of friars, 34. 
Montanus, 67, note. 

Montpelier, 50, 63, 307; Boorde's 
Introduction and Byetary dated 
from, 122, 223, 227, 228, 191; 
his praise of it, 194, 226 ; dinner 
and supper at, 277 ; pestilence 
time at, 289. 

moorcock and moorhen, 270. 

Mores, 212, Moors, white and 
black. 

Morisco gowns, 106. 

morkyns, 161, ^misprint for 

' Norkyns,' 157, hapence. 
Morles, 208, Morlaix in Brittany, 
morning, what to do in the, when 

you rise, 248. 
morphewe, 95, morfew. 
mortified, mercury, 102. 
Moryske, 216, Moorish, 
morysshe, 288, moory, swampy, 
moude, 269, mud. 
Moulton's Glasse of Health, 12. 
Mountgrace, the Prior of, 54. 

moustache, called * a berde vpon 

his ouer lyppe,' 313/95. 
mowlded, 258; muldyd, 262, 

moulded. 

mundyfyed, 236, purified, 
munited, 119, fortified. 
Muscadell wine, 255. 
mushrooms in Lombardy, 177. 

musical instruments make mirth, 
88. 

musicians, the Scotch and Eng- 
lish are good, 137. 



musk, a confection of, 99. 

muster, 313/105, kind. 

mutton, 272. 

Mychell, a lunatic, 298. 

myd, 122/18, 123/5, with. 

Mydilborow, 149, Middleburgh 

(in Zealand). 
Mylner of Ahyngton is not by A. 

JBoorde, 32-3. 
myrtles, powder of, 94. 
mytes, 267, cheese-mites. 

mytes, Dutch, 26 to \d., 157; 
Hungarian, 171 ; Turkish, 20 to 
\d., 173 : French, brass farthings, 
191. Mite, f . A Mite, the smallest 
of coynes. Cotgruce. 

nails, tear yourself with a pair if 

you have the itch, 97. 
Naples described, 176-7 ; Naples, 

219 ; the people of, 340. 
Napoleon, Louis, 110. 

Nature, leave slight ailments to, 

96. 
nature, 61, semen. 
Navarre described, 202-6 ; the 

poverty of, 346, 
Navarre, the king of, 56. 

nawtacyon, 265, grease floating 

at the top. 
Negyn manykens, 157, Dutch 

coin worth \d. 
Nemigyn, 153/3, Niemeguen. 
nese, 98, sneeze. 
Neselburgh, a castle in Hungary, 

171. 
nettle, 288.. 
nettles in the cod-peece, a cure 

for venery, 100. 
Neuer, 200, Navarre. 
Newcastle, 120. 
Newe Cartage, 195, Cartagena. 
Newgate, 84. 



zn 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



Newman-brydge in Flanders, 147. 
Newport in Flanders, 147. 
Nichol Forest, 136. 
Nicholas, Dr, 49. 
nightcap to be scarlet, 247. 
nightmare, 78-9, 327. 
nightingales won't sing in St 

Leonard's Forest, Sussex, 121. 
nine sorts of dishes loved by nine 

sorts of men, 339. 
nit, 87, a kind of louse, 
nobles, gold, 121. 
Norfolk, Duke of, 12, 13, 48, 49, 

223, 225. 
norkyn, 157, a Dutch coin worth 

norkyns and halfnorkyns, 153, 
brass hapence and farthings in 
Brabant. 

Normandy described, 208, 53. 

Northern English tongue, 120, 

330. 
Norway described, 141. 
nose, ulcer of the, 98. 
nottyd, 212, polled, dipt, 
noyfull, 270, harmful, 
nurses, 2 or 3 for a sick man, 301. 
nutmegs, 287, 290. 
nuts bad for the palsy, 298. 
nuts, fresh and old, 284. 
nym, 122/12, take, hand, give, 
nys, 122/10, have not. 

obfuske, 244, darken, 
obliviousness, 94. 
obnebulate, 244, 250, cloud over, 
obpressed, 251, prest down, 
occult matters, study of, forbidden 

by statute, 25 
oculus Christi, 100, a herb, 
odyferous, 295, 302, odoriferous. 



old men's lechery, 69, note, 
olives, 285. 
O'Neale, John, 334. 
onions, 279. 

opylacyons, 251, 276, 282, 283. 

L. oppilo, stop up, shut up. 
opylatyd, 297, stuft up. 
oranges, 286. 
orchard, have one, 239. 
organs, the finest pair in the 

world are in St Andrew's church 

in Bordeaux, 207. 

organum, 289. 

Orleans wine, 75. 

Orlyance, 55, 191, 205, Orleans. 

Osay, 255, 75, wine from Alsace. 

otemel, 262, oatmeal. 

oten, 256, oaten. 

otters' skins, 333. 

Otto, Marquis, shape of a beard, 

17, note, 
overplus, 266. 
ouerthwarte, 274, across. 
Oxburdg, 161, Augsburg. 

oxen covered with canvas at 
plough in Italy, 187. 

Oxford, 44, 120; Boorde pro- 
bably brought up at, 40-1, 210. 

oxymel, 258. 

oyster-shells burnt, 97. 

oysters eaten, 255. 

paast, 277, paste, piecrust, 
pain or dolour, 89. 

painted clothes and pictures bad 

for lunatics, 298. 
Pale, the English, in Ireland, 132. 
Palphans, 200, 1 who. 
palpyble, 1 03, palpable, touchable, 
palsy, Boorde's treatment of, 99 ; 

a diet for the, 297. 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



373 



palsy of the tongue bred by old 
nuts, 284. 

Pampilona, 202, Pampeluna. 

Pannell, John, 74. 

pannicle, 101, little pane or cover- 
ing : cp. counterpane. 

pantry, place for the, 238. 

Pardon's Account of St Giles's, 
Bloomsbury, quoted, 65. 

parents' indulgence, evils of, 83, 
note. 

Paris, 191, 208; the University 
of, 55. 

park with deer and conies, 239. 

Parker's Defence of Priests' Mar- 
riages is not Ponet's, 67- 
parks, many, in England, 106. 
parsley, 281 ; great, 278, note 3. 
parsnips, 278. 
parsons, 220, persons, 
partridge is easily digested, 269. 
partridges' eggs, 265. 

Pascall the Playn, 145, 336, 384, 

?who. 
pastryhouse, place for the, 238. 

Patriarchs of England, Jerusalem, 
&c., 119 ; of Constantinople, 172. 

paysyng wayghtes, 248, poising 
weights. 

peaches, 283. 

peachick and peacock, 270. 

pears, 284. 

Pears Go-nakyt, 313/111. 

peas potage, 263. 

peason, 284, peas. 

pediculus, 87, louse. 

pelfry, 142/10. 

Pemsey, 73, 120, Pevensey in 
Sussex. 

pence and halfpence, 121; Scotch, 
are almost \d. and ^d. ; brass, in 
the Netlierlands, worth ^\d. 



pencyfulnes, 300, pensiveness. 
pendiculus, 207/10, lice, 
penurite, 163, poverty, 
peny, 242, income, 
penyroyal, 281. 
pepone, 285, a kind of melon, 
pepper, 3 sorts of, 286. 
percelly, 278, parsley, 
percilles, 80, parsley. 

Peregrination of England, by A. 

Boorde, 23-4. 
perlustraty d, 53, travelled through, 
perplexatives, 300. 
perpondentt, 53, most weighty, 
pertract, 264, treat of. 

pestilence, 262; a diet, &c., for 
the, 289-291. 

Peter pence, 78. 

Petragorysensis, 56, the chief 
school of the University of Tou- 
louse. 

petycote of skarlet, wear one 
over your shirt in winter, 249. 

pheasant is the best wild fowl, 
269 ; pheasant-hen, 270 ; phea- 
sants' eggs, 265. 

phenyngs, 161, German pence. 

philosophers* oil, 99. 

phlegmatic men, 272. 

phylyp, 83, fillip, cut with a club. 

pibles, 253, pebbles. 

Picardy described, 208-9. 

pigeons, 270. 

pigs, 274. 

pilchards bad for gowt, 293. 

pilgrimage to Compostella, 205-6, 

346 ; to Jerusalem, 219. 
pissbowls, 295. 
pissing and piss-pots, 236. 

pitch, tar, and flax, in Poland, 
168. 



374 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



pitch-plaister, 97. 
pith (yolk) of eggs, 80. 

Pius IT, Pope : his Lucres and 

Eurialus, 342. 
placable, 234, pleasing, 
plack, a Scotch, 137, almost \d. 
Pliny referred to, 282. 
plomettes, 248, plummets. 
Plommoth, 120, Plymouth. 

ploughmen eat bean-butter, 268 ; 

bacon good for, 273. 
plovers, 270. 

poacht eggs comfort the heart, 
89, 265. 

poched, 259, poacht. 

pocky faced, 307. 

Poland and the Poles, 168-9. 

polettes, 270, pullets, young 

fowls, 
pollyd, 311, bagged, 
polypody, 288. 

pome Garnade, 94, pomegranate, 
pomegranates, 284. 

pomemaunder, 290-1, pomander, 
scented ball. 

Ponet, John, Bp of Winchester, 
charges Boorde with keeping three 
whores, 65, 66. 

poor in England, Boorde's allu- 
sions to their state, 86-7. 

poores, 248, 251, pores. 

Pope, the, 53 ; is disregarded by 
the Saxons, 165 ; Bohemians, 166 ; 
and Grecians, 173. 

Porclie mouth, 120, Portsmouth. 

pork, 272, 350. 

porpoise is bad food, 268. 

portingalus, 197, Portuguese 
coins worth 10 crowns each. 

ports and havens of England, 120. 

Portugal, 53 ; described, 197 ; 
products of, 345. 



pose, 297, rheum in the head, 
posset ale, 97, 257, 299. 

potage more used in England 

than anywhere else, 262. 
poudganades, 195, pomegranates, 
pound Scotch is 45. 8cZ., 137. 
powdery d, 271, salted. 

Powell's edition of Boorde's 

Byetary^ 13. 
Prague, 167. 

precordyall, 57, most hearty, 
pregnance, 93, pregnancy, 
preservatives, 296. 
Preston, Mrs, 38. 
pretende, 61, intend, 
priapismus, 100. 

priest at the bedside of the sick, 

302. 
priests, how they should avoid 

erections, 100; forbidden to have 

wives or concubines in 1539, p. 

332. 
priests, Icelandic, though beggars, 

keep concubines, 142. 
prisons, sickness of the, 72, 326. 
privy chamber, 238. 

privy to be far from a house, 

263. 
prognostications of great floods in 

1524 A.D., 325. 
Pronostycacyon for the yerp. 

1545, Boorde's, 25. 

prospect of a house, 234. 

Provence, 189, 191, 213. 

proverbs and proverbial phrases, 
94, 240, 260, 273, 314/114. 

provide all necessaries before you 
begin building, 237, 240 

prunes, 285, plums. 

Prussian products, 337. 

pry ncy palles, 233, principal things, 
chief needs. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



375 



ptysane, 258, 299 ; how to make 
one, 99. 

pudibunde places, 253, secret 
parts. 

pulcritudness, 119, beauty. 

pulcruse, 234, beautiful. 

pulyall mountane, 289. 

purslane, 280. 

puruyd, 237, purveyed, provided. 

Putty ors, 191, Poictiers. 

Pyctanensis, 55, Poitou. 

pyctures, 16, 18, woodcuts. 

pyes, 133, magpies, none in Ire- 
land. 

pyking, 217, picking and stealing. 

Qoorse, 75, Corsican. 

quadryuyall, 238, quadrangular. 

quadrypedyd, 272, four-footed. 

quails, 270. 

quarel, 299, diamond -shaped bit 
of glass. 

quartron, 99, quarter. 

quickbeam, 289 

quilt of cotton or wool, covered 
with fustian, used as a counter- 
pane, 247. 

quinces, 284. 

rabbits when young, sucking; 

* conies' when grown up, 275. 
rader, 161/13, with a wheel 

stampt on them : Germ, rad^ wheel; 

rader albus, a wheel -penny silvered 

over, 
radish roots, 279. 
raisins and currants, 282. 
rape, 279, a kind of turnip. 
Basis quoted, 271, 272, 274. 
raspy ce, 75, raspberry wine, 
ratty rooms, 249. 
ravener, 194, a glutton. 



reare, 264, soft (egg), 
red-herrings, 292. 
redolent, 302, sweet-smelling. 
Redshanks in Ireland, 132. 
Reene, 139, the Rhine, 156. 
refrayne of (= from), 295. 

relics at Rome hardly protected 

from the rain, 76-7- 
religious, or persons having taken 

monastic vows, enabled to hold 

land, 326. 
relygyon, 57, 58, religious order, 

or vows of a monk, 
rents and income, divide yours 

into three parts, 241. 
repercussives, 97, ? drivers inwards 

of disease, 
repletion, 250. 
respect, 172, 235, view. 
restoratives, 89, 296. 
resurrection, the general, 103/3. 
reume, things that breed it, 295. 
rewene cheese, 266. 
Rhenish wine, 75, 156, 255. 
Rhodes, 182, 219. 
Rhododendron "Walk in Windsor 

Park, 110. 
rhubarb, 289. 
rhubarb seeds from Barbary sent 

to Thos. Cromwell in 1535 a.d., 56. 
rice pottage, 263. 
Rimbault, Dr E. F., 34. 
ringworm, 81-2. 
Ritson and J. P. Collier, 71. 
roasted eggs, 265. 
Roberdany wine, 255. 
Rochelle, 208. 
Rochester, 147. 
rock alum, 99. 
rocket, 280. 
roe buck and doe, 274. 



376 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



Roman loaves a little bigger than 

a walnut, 258. 
Romans curse the Greeks, 172. 
Romany sk wine, 75, 255. 

Rome, 53, 219, 341 ; vicious state 

of, 77-8, 178. 
Rome, Bp of, his bulls, 58. 
Rome, harlots in, 77, note, 
Rome, lechery and buggery in, 

n. 

Romny wine, 75, 255 (from the 

Romagna, Babees Book, 205). 
roots, ch. xix, 278-90, 
ropy ale, 123, 256, 
rosemary, 281, 290, 
roses, 281. 

roudges, 139/5, rugs, 142/5. 
Runny mede, or Runemede, 110, 
rural man's banquet, 267. 

rusty armour, sick folk are like 

it, 104. 
ryals, 121, royals, coins worth b\d. 

in Spain, 199, Sp. real, a riall or 

six pence. Minsheu. 

ry ders, 1 40, Frisian coins. * Ryders 
are gold Coins of Guelder, &c., of 
different sizes and values stampt 
v/ith a rider, an armed man on 
horseback.* 

Rye, J. Brenchley, 12, 

ryghtes, 301, rites. 

Ryne, 272, river Rhine; swine 

swim in it. 
rynes, 94, rinds, skins. 
Rysbanke in Flaunders, 147, 
rysshes, 290, sweet-smelling rush. 

Sabbatarian superstition, 332. 

sables, 249. 

saffron, 286 ; it spoils bread, 261. 

saffroned bread, 80; in Rome, 
&c., 258. 



saffron shirt, 131. 

sage (the herb), 281. 

Saint Ambrose, 243. 

St Andrew's in Scotland, 136. 

St Augustine, 105 ; quoted, 302. 

St Bartholomew, 205. 

St Bede on the dropsy, 299. 

St Blase, 182. 

St David's in Wales, 120. 

St Domingo in Navarre, 202. 

St George, 205. 

St George's Arm, 172, the Helles- 
pont. 

St Giles's Hospital, London ; Dr 
Borde tenant of one of its houses, 
64-5. 

St James the More and Less,. 205. 

St James's in Compostella, story 

of, 203-4 ; Boorde's pilgrimage to, 

205-6. 

St John Erisemon's bones at 

Constantinople, 172-3. 
St John's Town in Scotland, 136. 
St John's wort, 79, 327. 
St Kateryn, 182. 

St Leonard's forest in Sussex, 

121. 
StLoye, 182. 

St Luke's bones in Constantin- 
ople, 172, 

St Malo, 347. 

St Mark's, Venice, 185-6. 

St Patrick's Purgatory in Ire- 
land, 183. 

St Peter and Paul, shrines of, in 

Rome, n. 
St Peter's Chapel, Rome, 76. 

St Peter's Church at Rome in 

ruins, 77, 178, 341. 
St Philip, 205. 

St Severin's church in Toulouse, 
205. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



377 



St Simon, 205. 

St Sophia's the finest cathedral 

in the world, 172. 
St Thomas, a town in Hainault, 

151. 
St Thomas of Alquyne, 78. 
St Winifrid's Well, 127, 331. 

Salerne, the University of, is near 

Constantinople, 173. 
salet, 240, piece of armour ? 
Salisbury Plain, 120. 
salmon, 102. 

salt beef for ablear-eyed mare, 273. 
salt fish, 269. 

salt wells in England, 120, 330 ; 

in Saxony, 165. 
Sampson wore a beard, 314/140. 
Sandwich, 120, 147, 219. 

sanguine men, 245; a diet for, 

287. 
sanitary matters ; value of Boorde's 

opinion on, 320. 
Saracens don't like pork, 273. 

sarafes, 171, gold coins worth 5s. 

each, 173, 216. 
sarcenet, 96. 

sardines, 202/3 ; Sp. sardinay a 
little pilcliard or sardine. Minsheu. 
Sarragossa, 195. 
saucefleme, 95. 
Savoy, 191. 
Sawsfleme, 251. 
sawsflewme face, 101, 307. 
saxifrage, 80. 
Saxony and the Saxons, 164-5. 

Scamemanger, 171, Steinamanger 

in Hungary. 
Scarborough, 336. 

scarlet cloth, wipe your scabby 

face with one, 95. 
Schildburg, the Geiman Gotham, 

29. 



Scio, 185. 

ScogirCs JestSy 31-2. 

Scot, trust you no, 59, 326. 

Scotch, disliked by the Dutch, 

149. 
Scotchmen, with whom Boorde 

went a pilgrimage to Compostella, 

205-6. 
Scotland and the Scotch, 135-8, 

335 ; degenerate and luxurious 

ways of, 259-60. 

Scotland, Boorde practises medi- 
cine in, 59. 
Scotland, oat cakes of, 259. 
scrofula, 50. 

Sculwelyng, 171, Stuhlweissen- 

berg in Hungary, 
scurf, Boorde's treatment of, 97, 

327. 
scurf and scabs, 95. 
sea-fish better than fresh-water 

ones, 268. 
secke, 255, sack (wine), 
seege, 292, excrement, 
seene, 289, senna, 
segge, 122/6, say. 
Selond, 149, Zealand, west of 

Holland. 
Semar, Sir Henry, 66. 
Seno in iN'ormandy, 208. 
Sepulchre, the Holy, described, 

220. 
Sermons, Boorde's Boke of, 24. 
servants, Italian, the food and 

ways of, ab. 1440 a.d., 343. 
set a good example, 244. 
Seven Kirkes, 219, Siebenkirchen. 
sewe, 262, broth, 
shave lunatics' heads, 298. 
shaved men look like scraped 

swine, 315/154. 
shaving, the foolishness of, 26. 
shefte, 240, shift. 



■378 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



shell-fish bad for gowt, 293 ; bad 
lor epilepsy, 294. 

shemew, a new-fashioned garment 
in 1518, p. 345. 

Sherborne, Bp of Chichester, 44. 

shoes, the smell of, good for 
pregnant women's unnatural appe- 
tite, 98. 

Shotland, 139, Shetland 1 

shoueler, 270, shoveller, a water- 
bird, 
shrimp oullisses or broths, 264. 
shroving time in Rome, 77, note, 
siccative, 94, drying. 

sick and wounded, Boorde's ad- 
vice to, 104. 

sick man, how to arrange for one, 
301. 

sick men and women like a bit 
of rusty harness (armour), 104. 

sider, 200, cyder. 

singing, mirth in, 88. 

sinistral, 53/11. 

sinks, 295. 

sirones, 81, worms in a man's 
hands. 

situation of a house, the fit, 
232-4. 

skin, bad to eat, 276. 

skin, meat boiled in a, 132 ; wine 
kept in a, 199. 

skin of fish is bad, 269. 

skyn, 99, cause skin to heal, 

slaughter-house, place for it, 239. 

slaves, 212. 

sleep, how to, 244-7. 

slepysshe, 301, sleepy. 

sloudgysshe, 301, sluggish. 

sluttyshe, 236, 301, sluttish. 

slyme, 297, slimy. 

smatterers in phisic, 104. 

smoke bad for asthma, 297. 



Smormowth, Hans, Boorde gets 
drunk at his house, 309. 

Smythe's ilist. of the Charter- 
house, 52, 54, 59. 

snaily rooms, 249. 

snakes, none in Ireland, 133. 

snappan, 153, a silver coin worth 
six steuers, or 9^d. 

sneeze, how to make yourself, 98. 

snipe's brain is good, 276. 

snofFe of candellys, 295, candle- 
snuff, 
snow on the German mountains 

in summer, 160-1. 
snuft, 98. 

soda, 244, 1 a disease of the head, 
sodde, 277, boiled, 
soldes, 171, 173, brass coins 

worth Id. each, 216. 
solydat, 268, solydate, 264, solid, 
sompnolence, 279, sleepiness, 
soocke or Soken of Lynn, 73. 
soole, 122/10, soul, flavouring, 

meat. 
Sophy, the, 214. 
sopytyd, 250, stupified ? 
sorrel, 281. 

soul of man, Boorde on the, 102-3. 
soul, how to care for the, 243, 

301-2. 
sour things are bad, 296. 
Southampton, 120. 
southystell, 253, sowthistle. 
sovereigns, gold, 121. 
sow-pigs, 274. 
sowese, sowse, 191, a French sous 

worth twelve brass pence, l^d. 

English, 
sowse, 265, pickle in brine. 
Spain, 53 ; has dirty swine, 272, 

273 ; products of, 346. 
Spain and the Spaniards, 198-9 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



379 



Spanish girls are cropt like friars, 

199. 
Spanish imports, 338. 
sparrows, 270. 
spelunke, 77, cave, shrine, 
spermyse cheese, 266. 
spirits of men, 88. 
spiritual phisician, 104. 
sprawl, 292. 
spyght, 315/169, spite, 
spyghtfull, 310, spiteful. 
Spyres, 161, 219, Spiers. 

squlyone, a home, 153, a gold 

coin worth 19^<^. 
staares, 271, starlings, 
stables, place for the, 239. 
stamele, 249, fine worsted stuff, 
standing-up of a man's hair with 

fright, 75. 
standing water, 253, 349. 
standyng of a man's yerde, 100. 

Stanyhurst's Description of Ire- 
land quoted, 334-5. 
starre, 122/18, quarrel. 

Stationers' Register A, extracts 
from, as to Boorde's Dyetary^ 14 ; 
Introduction^ 19. 

Stations of the Holy Land, 220, 
praying places where you get re- 
mission of sins. 

stavesacre, 87. 

stercorus, 272, dungy. 

sterke, 247, stiff. 

Sterling, 136. 

sternutacion, 79, 98, sneezing. 

stewpottes, 263. 

sticados, 289. 

stick, the, for lazy hacks, 84. 

stinks, things that make, 295. 

stiver, 161, German coin worth 
lid. 



stockfish, 141/5, eaten raw in 

Iceland, 336. 
i stomach, the pot, and the liver 

the fire under it, 250. 

stomach, keep it warm, 300. 

stone, don't sit or stand on, 
249. 

stone in the bladder, 80 ; Martil- 
mas beef is bad for it, 271 ; ele- 
campane good for it, 278. 

Stonehenge, 120-21. 

stones of virgin beasts are nu- 
tritious, 277. 
stool, go to, every morning, 248. 
storax calamyte, 290. 

strangulion, 256, strangulation or 
suffocation ? 

straw and rushes on floors of 
houses, 290. 

strawberries, 267 ; the water of, 
253. 

strawberries and cream may en- 
danger your life, 267. 

Straytes, 213/6, Straits of Gib- 
raltar, or the Mediterranean. 
Stubbs, Prof., 42. 

stufes, 95, 287 ; It. stufa, a stoue, 
a hot-house ; stufdre^ to bath in a 
hot-house or stoue. Florio. 

stuphes, 97 ; dry, 99. 

sturgeon in Brabant, 150/7, 16. 

Stuyvers, ^ make 4CZ., 157, 199. 
Dutch een Stuyver^ a Stiver, a 
Low-countrie peece of coine of the 
value of an English Penny. Hex- 
hanii A.D. 1660. 

stycados, 288. 

subieckit, 59, subjected, subdued. 

subpressed, 250, prest down. 

succade, 278, 286, sucket, sugar- 
stick. 
Succubus, 78. 

sucking animals, all good to eat, 
275. 



380 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



SufFragaii of Chichester, Boorde 

appointed, 44, 59. 
sugar 's nutritive, 296. 
sunshine, don't lie or stand in it, 

249. 
superstitions of the Irish, 335. 
supper, make a light one, 249. 
suppynges, 299, drinks to sip. 
surfeiting, evils of, 250-2. 
Sussex, A. Boorde in, 106; St 

Leonard's Forest in, 121. 
sustencyon, 241, sustentation, 

support, 
sutt, 270, set? 
swart, 81, dark-coloured. 

Swavelond or Swechlond, 160, 
Switzerland. 

swearing in England, 82-3, 118/ 
37; 243,324. 

sweating sickness, 289, a fever- 
plague, 351. 

sweeping a house, 236, 297. 

sweet breath, eat anise-seed for, 
281. 

sweet wines for consumption, 296. 

swing, 273, fling, range, desire. 

swyne, a, 272, pig. 

Sycel, 175-6, SicHy. 

syght, 172, number; a wonderful 
sight of priests. 

symnels, 80, 261, 327. 

syncke or syse, 313, cinq or sise, 

5 or 6 on the dice. 
Synesius on baldness, 308. 
synkes, 236, sinks. 

taale, 122/11, deal? 

taledge, 266, *? firmness or texture. 

tallow candle for a horse's mouth, 

273. 
tallow eaten in Iceland, 141/5. 
tamarinds, 289. 



Tarragon, 195. 
Tatianus, 67, note. 

Taylor, John, the Water-Poet, 

quoted, 326, 330-2, &c. 
temperance, 90. 
Temple-Bar, 307. 
temporaunce, 300, temperature, 
tennis, play at, 248. 
tertian fever, 97, 327. 
Tessalus, 85. 

testons, 191, French coins worth 
2*. 4id. Tesion . . a Testoone, a 
piece of siluer coyne worth xviijrf. 
sterling. Cotgrave. 

testy nes, 297, testiness. 

Thames, 110; rascally bakers 
ought to be duckt in it, 261. 

thirty the highest number in 
Cornish, 123. 

Thomas's History e of Italy 6,1561, 
quoted, 183-5, 340-4. 

Thomas, Walter, of Writtle, 62. 

throte-bol, 80, the weasand. 

thrush, 271. 

thyme, 281. 

Tiber, river, 77, 177-8. 

tin in Cornwall, 123, 122/13. 

titmouse, 270. 

Titus, 219. 

Tolet, 200, Toledo. 

Tolosa, 55, Toulouse. 

tongue, and its diseases, 87. 

tongues bad to eat, 277. 

toome, 122/13, honiel 

Torkington, Sir Eichard, his pil- 
grimage to Jerusalem iu 1517, p. 
348. 

torneys, 216, brass coins. Fr. 
Tournois ; m. A French penie ; the 
tenth part of a penie Sterling; 
which rate it holds in all other 
words (as the Sol or Livre) where- 
unto it is ioyned. Cotgrave. 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



381 



Toulouse, 191, 205; its Univer- 
sity, 194. 

Tower of London, Prior Howgh- 
ton in it, 52. 

trachea, 80, windpipe. 

trade, 243, trodden way, path, 

custom. 
Trafiford, Prior, 45, 59. 
Tre PoU Pen, 122/22, names of 

Cornish men. 

treacle, 188, antidote against poi- 
son, 99. 

Trent, 160, 219, Trente in the 
Tyrol. 

triangle-wise, 249. 

tributor, 181/7, payer of tribute for. 

tripe 's bad to eat, 276. 

truss your points, 248, tie up, or 
button your breeches and coat. 

trussery, 345, luggage. 

trust in God, 75-6. 

trylybubbes, 276, tripe. 

tunicle, 101. 

tunny (fish) in Brabant, 150/16. 

turf and dung for fire in Fries- 
laud, 140. 

Turk, the Great, 171, 214, the 
Sultan. 

Turkey and the Turks, 214-216. 

Turkey, hard eggs are pickled in, 
265. 

Turks don't like pork, 273. 

Turner, Rev. E., quoted, 41. 

turnips, 278. 

turtle-doves, 270. 

tuyssyon, 243, tuition, charge, 
care. 

tyine, 281, thynie. 

tymorysnes, tymorosyte, 275, fear. 

tynt, 255, tent wine. 

Tyre, 255, wine from Syria or 
'Sicily. 



udders, cows', 287. 
ulcer of the nose, 98. 
ulcerated wounds, 94. 
Ulm, fustian made there, 161. 
Umarys, 120,? 

vnberdyd, 309, 315/169, un- 
bearded, 
unchristened, 212, not christened. 

unctuosyte, 266, oiliness, greasi- 

ness. 
vndyscouered, 247, uncovered, 
unexpert midwives, 84. 
unguentum baculinum, 84, 95. 

universities mentioned by Boorde, 

49-50. 
upright, 247, lying face upwards, 
urine, 81, 327 ; is a strumpet, 32, 

34. 

veal, 271. 

velvet made at Li^ge, 155. 

venery, do none after dinner or 
before your first sleep, 246; or 
after meals, 293. 

veneryous acts, don't go to excess 
in, 300. 

Venetian women, 184. 

Venice and the Venetians de- 
scribed, 181-6, 341 ; Venice, 219, 
348 ; the merchandise of, 342; its 
Arsenal, and store of timber, 343. 

venison, 274-5 ; is bad for epilep- 
tic men, 294. 

ventosyte, 248, wind on the 
stomach. 

Vespacian, 219. 

villeins, Coke on, 41, note 2. 

violets, 289 ; oil of, 97. 

viscous fish, 297. 

Visitation of our Lady, July 2, 
55. 

Vitas Patrum, 217, * lives of the 
Fathers.' 



382 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND WORDS. 



vivifycate, 89, give life to. 

vocyferacyon, 295. 

voliiis, 59, wolves. 

Volunteer Review,Easter Monday, 

1871, 38. 
vomit, how to make yourself, 90. 

voven^ 171, towns so called in 

Hungary, 
vyces, 207, devices, ? or like 

Vices in plays. 

wa, an infant's cry, 91. 
wadmole, 346/12, coarse woollen 

cloth. 
' wait on,' 49. 
Wales and the Welsh described, 

125-130; free from Sabbatarianism, 

232. 

walnut, 283. 

walnuts in Germany, 160. 

Warden, 171, Groswardein, or 

Peterwardein in Hungary, 
warden, 284, a big apple for 

roasting, 
wardens, stewed, 291. 
Warton on Boorde's Dyefary,l06. 

wash your hands, face, and teeth, 

every morning, 248, 
wash your hands often, 300. 
wasp in one's nose, 156/8. 
water, Boorde hates, 75 ; 349. 
water alone isn't wholesome, 252 ; 

the kinds of, 253. 
water-drinking and fruit-eating 

kill 9 English and Scotchmen in 

Spain, 206. 
water the first need for a house, 

233-4. 
watered, 236, steept, st^akt. 
Waterford, 132. 
Avatysh, 122/15, what, 
web in the eye, 100. 
weft in ale, 256. 



wells that turn wood into iron, 
141. 

wertes, 95, warts. 

werysse, 278, tasteless 1 

wesande, 80, weasand, windpipe. 

Weschester, 120, Chester? 

wetshod, gowty men not to go, 

293. 
whey, 257, 289. 
whirlwinds, Boorde dislikes, 75. 

white meat, 264 ; is bad for 
epilepsy, 294. 

wiches in Cheshire, 330. 

Wilberforce, Bp Sam., his clergy's 

'hindrance,' 34. 
wild fowl, 269-70. 
wild Irish, 132. 

will, duty of making one, 104 ; 

making of a sick man's, 301. 
Wilson's Arte of Wieio7'ique, 

quotations from, 116, note, 307. 
Winchester, Boorde in, 64, 66 ; 

his property in, 73. 
wind, things that breed, 292. 
Windsor-Park, 110. 
wine, the qualities and sorts of, 

254-5, 349. 
wines don't grow in England, 

119. 
Wise man, the, 251. 
wits of man, the five, 93. 

Witzeburg, 165, Wittenberg. *In 
the 15th and loth centuries, Wit- 
tenberg was the capital of the 
electoral circle of Saxony, and the 
residence of the court.' Penny 
Cyclopaedia. 

wo be the pye ! 273. 

wolf- and bear-skins worn in Ice- 
land, 141/12. 

Wolsey ordered to York, 225, 49. 

woman, Boorde's chapter on, 68. 

woman's waistcoat, 97. 



INDEX OP SUBJECTS AND -WOIIDS. 



383 



women, Boorde accused of con- 
versance with, 62 ; curding of milk 
in tiieir breasts, 97; not to marry 
priests, 332. 

women, pregnant, unnatural ap- 
petite of, 98. 

women, the Dutch, lay their 
iieads in priests' laps, 149. 

women, freedom of the Genoese, 
344 ; disposition of the Italian, 342, 
184. 

women's babbling round a sick 
man, 301, 302. 

wood that turns into stone, 121. 

Wood, Anthony a, on Boorde, 
quoted, 28, 31, 33, 69, 70. 

woodcock, 269 ; its brain is good 
to eat, 276. 

woodcut, the same, used for 
different men, in the Introduction, 
Sfc, 107. 

wood-powder for excoriations, 99, 
328. 

worms, 160/12, 219. 

worms in men, 81. 

Wosenham, Thomas, 74. 

wounds, Boorde on, 94, 327. 



wrens eat spiders and poison, 270. 
Wrettyll, 62, Writtle in Essex? 

Wright, T., on the Gotham Tales, 

29. 
Wyclif, 166/5, 7. 

wyddrawghtes, 295, withdrawersT, 

drains. 
Wyer, Robert, his date, 12 ; his 

undated edition of Boorde's 

Byetary, 12, 13; his device, 304, 

224, 316. 

wyesephenyngs, 161, white pen- 
nies, worth about \\d. 

WynkjTi de Worde ; his cuts in 
Hyckescorner and Robert the Beuyll 
used by W. Copland in Boorde's 
Introduction, 108. 

Yarmouth, 120. 

30, 59, yea. 

yll, 122/9, badly, extremely. 

yongly, 300. 

yonker, 160/3, fine fellow, in 

Germany, 
young folks' laziness, 83. 
yreos, 94, 288. 
Ytale, 53, Italy. 



drawgJites, p. 236, 1. 4 from foot, must mean * privies*. *A draught or 
priuie, latrina': Withals, in Bdbees Book, p. 179, note 2. 

On dag sway nes, p. 139, see Way's note 1 in PromjytoHum, p. 112. He 
quotes from Herman, " my bed is covered with a daggeswaine and a quylte 
{fjausape et centone) : some dagswaynys haue longe thrumys (J'ractillos) and 
iaggz on bothe sydes, some but on one." *So likewise Elyot gives Gaiisape, 
a mautell to caste on a bed, also a carpet to lay on a table ; some cal it a 
dagswayne '. 



384 



ACCOUNT OF ANDREW BOORDE 

IN HIS HISTORY OF THE WORTHIES OF ENGLAND, 1672. 



" Andrew Borde, Doctor of Physick, was (I conceive) bred in 
Oxford, because I find his book called the Breviary of Health ex- 
amined by that University. He was Physician to King Henry the 
eighth, and was esteemed a great Scholar in that age. I am confident 
his book was the first written of that faculty in English^, and dedi- 
cated to the Golledge of Physicians in London. Take a test out of 
the beginning of his Dedicatory Epistle, 

* Egregious Doctors and Masters of the Exi,mious and Arcane 
Science of Physick, of your Urbanity exasperate not your selves against 
me for making this little volume of Physick, Sfc.^ 

" Indeed his book contains plain matter under hard w^ords, and 
was accounted such a Jewel in that age, (things whilst the first are 
esteemed, the best in all kinds,) that it was Printed, Cum privilegio 
nd vmprimendum solum, for William Midleton, Anno 1548. He 
died, as I collect, in the raign of Queen Mary." (Part I, p. 216-216.) 



Paschal the playn, p. 145. Fuller explains who this man was. 
Under Suffolk, in his Worthies of England, Part III, p. 59, Puller 
gives in his list of Prelates : — 

" John Paschal, was bom in this * County (where his , ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 
name still continueth) of G«ntle Parentage, bred a Car- Bnt. centur. 5. * 
thiisian, and B.D. in Cambridge. A great Scholar and """* 
popular Preacher. Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, procured the Pope 
to make him the umbratile Bishop of Scutari, whence he received as 
much profit as one may get heat from a Glow-worm. It was not long 
before, by the favour of King Edioard the Third, he was removed 
from a very shadow to a slender substance, the Bishoprick of 
Landaffe; wherein he died Anno Domini 1361." 

' This is a mistake. 



Supplemmt 



TO 



^n&\[m '^oo\&n ^\i\\\dni[i\mx and 



26 



387 



NOTE ON THE DISCOVERY IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

OF A BOOK WITHOUT AUTHOR'S NAME OR INITIAL, 

BUT UNDOUBTEDLY THE WORK OF 

ANDREW BOORDE. 

By Charles Faulke- Watting. 



This very interesting little volume from the press of Robert 
Wyer was entered in the Catalogue under the general heading 
" Book," there being nothing to show until now by whose hand it 
was \vritten. The writer of this note, while searching for something 
else, was so struck with the title "The Boke for to lerne a Man to 
be wyse in building of his house ", that he sent fdr it, thinking that 
it might supply material for an interesting article commenting on Dr 
Richardson's recent lectures on the same subject, after a lapse of more 
than three centuries. This expectation was amply justified, and the 
subject having been mentioned to Mr Ponsonby Lyons, that gentleman 
suggested the name of Andrew Boorde as a writer on sanitary matters 
in the 16th century, whose works might supply additional material 
for the purpose in view. But when Boorde's works were obtained, 
it was found that the interest was by no means confined to the sub- 
ject matter, but that the first eight of the forty chapters contained in 
his Dietary were as nearly as possible identical with the eight chapters 
of which the volume now to be described consists. 

The book is quite perfect, and in as good condition as when it 
first came from the press. It is a small quarto of sixteen leaves (A. 
B. C. D. in fours). There are twenty-five lines to each page, and 
every chapter has a woodcut initial letter, which is not the case with 
any of the editions previously known, except that belonging to 

9 t- ^ 



388 FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST 8 CHAPTERS OF A. BOORDE's DIETARY. 

Mr Henry H. Gibbs, which has ornamental initials throughout. The 
attention of Mr Furnivall was called to the book, and he at once 
pronounced in favour of its being the work of Boorde. It may be 
that it was his first attempt at authorship, and that after he had ac- 
quired some degree of reputation, and was engaged in writing the 
more comprehensive work wliich he published under the title "A 
compendyous regyment or a Dyetary of helth," he prefixed the little 
treatise now under consideration to the later work instead of repub- 
lishing it in a separate form. No edition of the Dietary is known 
which does not contain these eight chapters, but, as will be seen here- 
after, the title is not so applicable to them as it is to the succeeding 
thirty-two chapters, wliich relate exclusively to questions of regimen 
and diet, and there appeared at first sight to be some reason for sup- 
posing that the break in the continuity of the subject was recog- 
nized by several of the printers, who have concluded the eighth 
chapter with lines gradually decreasing in length. This is the case 
in all the editions, except Powell's and that in the possession of Mr 
Gibbs, in both of wliich Chapter VIII. ends evenly ; the irregularity, 
however, occurs in one or more places in every edition of the Dietary, 
so that in all probability it should be attributed rather to accident 
than to design. 

The Title-page, Table of Contents, and Colophon of the newly- 
discovered work are here given in full, and the notes appended will 
show that they have been carefully collated with those of five 
editions of the Dietary ; attention is also directed to a circumstance of 
3ome interest at the end of the third chapter. The other differences 
between the work described and any one of the editions of the Dietary 
are not greater than those between that one and each of the otheis. 
There is no dedication to the Duke of Norfolk, but that is also the 
Ciise with the undated edition of the Dietary (A.), as well as with Col- 
well's edition of 1562 (B.), both in the British Museum. No allusion 
whatever is made in the dedication printed in the 1542 edition (E.) 
to any portion of the book having been in existence previous to that 
date, and this is, of course, an argument against the supposition that 
the first eight chapters were published in a separate form hefore the 
appearance of the Dietary, and would tend rather to show that they 



FlUST EDITION OF THE FIRST 8 CHAl'TEKS OF A. BOORDE's DIETARY. 389 

were really published as an extract from a book previously known. 
Which of the two hypotheses is the true explanation is the cpiestion 
now submitted for consideration, and the following extracts are given 
to aid in the solution of the difficulty. The title-page is as follows : 

The boke for to 
Lerne a man to be wyse in 
buyldyng of his howse for 
the helth of body & to hol- 
de quyetnes for the helth 

of his soule, and body. 

H The boke for a good 
husbande to lerne. 



U We 




May- 




sters of 




Astro- 




nomye, 
And do- 
ctoures 


Woodcut of an 
Astronomer. 


in Phe- 




sycke c6- 




fyrmeth 




this say- 





enge to 
be good 
& trewe 
both for 
the bo- 
dy, and 
also for 
the sou- 
le. 



A 1 

The woodcut is not the same as that in the copy belonging to 
Mr Henry Hucks Gibbs, from which Mr Furnivall printed his edition 
of the Dietary for the Society, nor is it the same as that printed in 
the undated copy in the British Museum, and in the 1562 edition, 
which has also been recently acquired by the trustees of the National 
Library. The double-dated Edition, and that of 1576, have no 
woodcut on their title-pages. It is noteworthy that the woodcut of 
the 1542 edition represents St John ■without the eagle. Eobert Wyer 
used as his device a cut of the Saint writing the Eevelations, and 
attended in most cases by an eagle. Herbert makes a special note 

25* 



390 FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST 8 CHAPTERS OF A. BOORD^'s DIETARY. 

of the rarity of Wyer's use of the device in which the attcndani 
eagle is omitted. 




Another peculiarity to be observed is, that in the tract now 
described the title-page itself is signed, A. 1. 

The next point for description is the table of contents. This has 
been carefully collated with those of the five editions of the Dietary, 
and all the various readings are supplied in the foot-notes, chapter 
by chapter, the heading being numbered 1, and the eight chapters 
2 to 9. 

1 U The table of this Boke. 

2 The f yrste chapter doth shewe where a / man shulde buylde or set 
his howse,/ or place, for the helthe of his body./ 

^ ^ The seconde chapter doth shewe a man,/ howe he shulde buylde 
his howse, that the / prospect be good for y^ coseruacion of 
helth./ 

' A. t The Table of the Chapters / foloweth ; E. The Table / f The Table 
of the chapters / foloweth ; C. r^ Here foloweth the Table / of the 
Chapiters ; D. f The Table ; E. f Here foloweth the Table / of the Chapytres. 

■^ D. first ; A. B. Chapter (throughout) ; C. Chapyter ; E. Chapytre ; 
B. doeth ; D. shew ; C. E. shuld ; D. should ; in A. B. D. " cytuate " for 
"buylde "; G. E. cytnat ; A. B. C. D. E. "set his mansyon place or howse," 
instead of "howse or place "; except that D. has " mansion," E. "mancyon," 
and B. C. D. have " house " ; C. y*. 

^ B. omits f (throughout) ; D. secod ; C. chapiter* ; E. Chapytre ; C. 
dothe ; D. shew ; D. how ; C. shuld ; D. should ; B. D. build ; B. C. D. house ; 
A. B. C. D. E. here insert " and " ; A. B. prospecte ; C 'pspect ; A. B. D. the ; 
A. B. C. E. conseruacion ; D. conseruation ; A. B. C. D. health. 



FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST 8 CHAPTERS OF A. BOORDe's DIETARY. 391 

* U The thyrde chapter doth shewe a man to / buylde his howse in a 

pure and fresh / ayre for to length his lyfe./ 
5 U The fourth chapt' doth shew vnder what / maner a man shuld buylde 

his howse in ex/chewyng thynges y* shuld shorten his lyfe. 
^11 The .V. chapter doth shewe ho we a man / shulde ordre his 

howse, consernynge the im-/plementes, to cofort the spyrites 

of man./ 
^ H The .VI, chapter doth shewe a man ho we / he shulde ordre his 

howse and howsholde, to / lyue in quyetnes. 
^^ The VII. chapter doth shewe how the hed / of the howse, or 

howseholder shulde exercy/se hymself, for the helth of his soule 

& body 
^H The .VIII. chapter doth shewe how a man / shuld ordre liym 

self in slepynge & watche,/ and in his apparell werynge. 

H Explicit tabula.* 

* C. has 0:^ for f . D. third ; C. Chapyter ; E. Chapitre ; B. doeth ; C. 
dothe ; D. shew ; A. ma ; B. D. build ; A. B, C. D. house ; C. i ; C. inserts 
"a" before "fresshe"; A. B. C. E. fresshe ; A. B. C. D. E. lengthen ; B. D. life. 

* A. IIIJ ; B. E. nil ; A. B. D. Chapter ; C. Chapiter ; E. Chapytre ; 

B. doeth ; C. dothe ; D. shew ; A. B. C. shulde ; D. should ; D. build ; B. 
hys ; B, C. D. house ; here A. B. C. D. E. all insert the words ** or mansyon " 
(D. spells mansion) ; A. B. D. omit " in " ; C. E. eschewynge ; D. eschewing ; 
D. thinges ; A. B. D. E. that ; A. B. C. shulde ; D. should ; A. B. D. " the " 
for " his ". 

« D. fift ; C. Chapiter ; E. Chapytre ; B. doeth ; D. shew ; C. E. shuld ; 
D. shold ; B. C. D. order ; B. hys ; B. C. D, house ; A. B. concernynge ; C. E. 
concernyng ; D. concerning ; A. B. Implementes ; A. B. C. D. E. comforte ; 

A. B. C. E. spyrytes ; D. spirites. 

' C. has y "; for f. D. sixte ; C. Chapiter ; E. Chapytre ; D. shew ; C. a 
ma ; B. shoulde ; D. should ; B. C. D. order ; B. C. D. house ; B. has " hous- 
hold" as a catchword, but at the top of the next page the word is spelt 
" housholde " ; D. quietnesse. 

* A. VIJ ; D. seueth ; C. chapiter ; E. Chapytre ; D. E. shew ; C. E. 
howe ; C. y* ; A. hed of house ; B. hed of the house ; C. hed of a house ; 
D. head of the house ; E. hed of a howse ; A. B. C. D. E. insert " a " after 
" or " ; A. B. D. housholder ; C. householde ; A. B. shuld ; D. should ; 

C. excercyse ; D. exercise ; A. E. C. hym selfe ; B. D. himselfe ; A. B. C. 
health ; C. E. the soule ; A. B. and bodye ; D. E. and body. 

^ A. VIIJ ; D. eyght; C. chapiter ; E. Chapytre ; E. shew; C. howe ; C. 
ma; A. C. E. shulde; B. shoulde; D. should; B. C. D. E. order ; A. hymsclfe; 

B. E. hym selfe ; C. him selfe ; D. himselfe ; D. sleeping ; A. B. C. D, E. and ; 

C. E. watchynge ; B. apparel ; A. B. C. E. wearynge ; D. wearing. 

* Wyer's undated edition, A. Colwel's of 1562, B. Powell's double-dated 
edition, 1547-()7, C. H. Jackson's of 157G, D. (the table not in black letter). 
Mr Furnivall's reprint of the 1542 edition, E. 



392 FIRST EDITION OP THE FIRST 8 CHAPTERS OF A. BOORDE'S DIETARY. 

The words " explicit tabula " at tlie end of the eighth chapter are, 
of course, peculiar to the treatise which is brought to a conclusion at 
that point. In all the enlarged editions published under the title 
" Dietary of Health," the table of contents proceeds, without any 
break whatever, to give the headings of the remaining thirty-two 
chapters. The various readings of the concluding words in the 
different editions will be found at page 231 of Mr Furnivall's 
reprint. 

The next point to be observed is, that in the Dietary there occurs, 
at the end of the third chapter, a reference to the 27th chapter, but 
in the book under examination there is no such reference for obvious 
reasons, but the information referred to appears as a separate paragraph 
on the same page. The extracts are given here, for the sake of com- 
parison, in parallel columns, partly with a view to directing attention 
to the differences between them, and partly because the circumstance 
appears, at first sight, to afford some additional ground for believing 
that the larger work was first published, and the smaller one brought 
out afterwards in a separate form. 



Paragraph at the foot of Chapter 
III. in the hook described. 



*fl For whan the plaages of 
the Pestylence or the swetynge 
syckenes is in a trowne or countre, 
at Mountpylour, and in all other 
hyghe regyons and countres^. that 
I haue ben in, the people doth 
flye from the contagyous and in- 
fectyous ayer, preseruatiues with 
other councell of Physycke, not- 
withstandynge. In lower and 
other baase countres, howses the 
whiche be infectyd in towne or 
cytie, be closed vp, both dores & 
wyndowes, and the inhaby tours 
shal not come abrode, nother to 
churche nor market, for infect- 
ynge other, with that syckenes. 



Opening sentences of Chapter 
XXV 11. (Mr FurnivalVs 
reprint.) 

Whan the Plages of the 
Pestylence, or the swetynge sycke- 
nes is in a towne or colitree, with 
vs at Mountpylour, and all other 
hygh Regyons and countrees y* I 
haue dwelt in, the people doth fie 
from the contagious and infectious 
ayre preseruatyues. with other 
counceyll of Physycke, notwith- 
standyng. In lower and other 
baase countres, howses the which 
be infectyd in towne or cytie, be 
closyd vp both doores & wyn- 
dowes : & the inhabytours shall 
not come a brode, nother to 
churche : nor to market, nor to 
any howse or copany, for infect- 
yng other, the whiche be clene 
without infection. 



FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST 8 CHAPTERS OF A. BOORDE's DIETARY. 393 

It will be seen that in the tract the author does not use the 
words '' with us " when speaking of Montpelier. Can it be that he 
wrote the treatise on house-building elsewhere] and, if so, are we 
to suppose that it was written before or after 1542, the date of 
his dedication of the Dietary to the Duke of Norfolk, which Mr 
Furnivall believes to be the date at which the first edition was pub- 
lished] And, speaking of this dedication, does the text afford 
sufficient ground for believing that it was actually written in Mont- 
pelier ? It is dated from there, but it would be hard to prove that 
it was not written in London. The author in the body of the 
dedicatory letter calls attention to a book " the which I di/d make 
in Mountpyller," and which he says " is a pryntynge besyde Saynt 
Dunston's churche." The dedication, as prefixed to the 1542 edition, 
and the version in Powell's edition of 1547, are printed by Mr 
Furnivall in parallel columns (page 225 et seq.), and we see at once 
that Powell kept both the original place, Montpelier, and the original 
day and month, 5th of May, but altered the year, 1542, to the date 
of his own edition, 1547, to make it look like a new book. 

1542 Edition. PowelVs Edition. 

From Mountpyllier. The .v. From Mountpyller. The fyft 

day of May. The yere of our lorde daye of Maye. The yere of our 
lesu Chryste M.v.C.xlij. Lord lesu Chryste M.ccccc xlvii. 

It is at least possible that the principal object of Boorde, as well 
as Powell, was to show, not that the dedication was ivritten in Mont- 
pelier, but that the author had studied in the medical school of that 
city, which he himself describes as "the hed vniversitie in al Europe 
for the practes of physycke & surgery or chyrming." 

There is nothing more in the book here described that requires 
any special consideration until the eighth and last chapter is brought 
to a conclusion, with a caution against travelling in boisterous 
weather. "U Explicit" is printed at the foot of the chapter, and 
thereafter are inserted the following verses, which do not occur 
anywhere in the various editions of the Dietary. The last verse is 
followed by the word " Finis ", and beneath that is the Colophon as 
printed below 



394 FIRST EDITION OP THE FIRST 8 CHAPTERS OF A. BOORUE's DIETARY. 

U Of folyshe Physycyons. 

Who that useth the arte of medycyne 
Takynge his knowlege in the feelde 
He is a foole full of ruyne 
So to take herbes for his sheelde 
wenynge theyr vertue for to weelde 
whiche is not possyble for to knowe 
All theyr vertiies, both hye and lowe. 

U Of dolorous departynge. 

H ISTeuer man yet was so puyssant 
Of gooddes or of parentage 
But that mortall death dyd hym daunt 
By processe at some strayght passage 
yea, were he neuer of suche an age 
For he spareth neyther yonge nor olde 
Fayre nor fowle, fyerse nor also bolde. 

H Of the true deseripcion. 

U The wyse man Avhiche is prudent 
Doth moche good where euer he go 
Gyuynge examples excellent 
Unto them the whiche are in wo 
Teachynge them in all vertues so 
That they may not in to synne fall 
If that they hertely on God call. 

H Of Phylosophye. 

H At this tyme doctryne is decayed 
And nought set by in no place 
For euery man is Avell appayed 
To get good with great solace 
Not carynge howe nor in what pkico 
Puttynge the fayre and dygnesophye 
Under feete with Phylosopliye. 

H Finis. H 



FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST 8 CHAPTERS OF A. UOORDE'S DIETARY. 395 

Impryntod by me Robert 
"Wyer,^ dwellynge at the signe of :g:, 
John Euangelyst, in s. Martyns 
parysshe in the felde besyde the 
Duke of Suffolkes pla- 
ce, at Charynge 
Crosse. 

tI Cum priueligio, Ad 
impremendum 
sohim. 

It now remains to say a few words about the relative ages of the 
tract described and of the first edition of the Dietary, regarding the 
question from a purely typographical point of view. All the evi- 
dence appears to be in favour of the tract having been printed at an 
earlier period than the "Dietary." It is well known that the 
printers of the day allowed the quality of the paper they used to 
deteriorate as time went on. Now there is a marked difference in 
the texture and finish of the paper on which the tract is jDrinted and 
that of the paper which is used fi)r the Dietary, and the superiority 
belongs entirely to the former. The type used in the tract is, in the 
opinion of experts, of an earlier character than that used in the 
Dietary, many of the letters (1, v, &c.) bearing a closer resemblance to 
the forms used in manuscript, while a careful comparison of those of 
the woodcut initial letters, which are common to both books, seems to 
show that if the same blocks were used in both cases they were less 
worn and in better condition when the tract was printed than when 
they were used for the Dietary ; but, of course, it is quite possible that 

' Wyer's undated edition says nothing about " the Duke of Suffolk's 
place," but reads *' Dwellynge at the / signe of seynt John E/uangelyst, in 
S Mar/tyns Parysshe, besy/de Charynge / Crosse / 

^ Cum priuilegio Ad impremen- 
dum solum. 

For the colophons of the other editions noticed by Mr Furnivall, see page 
30-1: of his reprint. In H. Jackson's edition of 1576 an imprint is given at the 
foot of the title-page, but the colophon merely consists of the word Finis over 
the woodcut reproduced by Mr Furnivall from Mr Gibbs's copy, that is, Wyer's 
ordinary device, St John attended by the eagle : it will thus be seen that Mr 
Gibbs's copy aflords e.xaraples of two out of the three devicea used by that 
printer, one of them being very rare. 



396 FIRST EDITION OF THE FIUST 8 CHAPTERS OF A. BOORDE's DIETARY. 

the initials in the two books were printed from different blocks, cut 
to the same pattern ; and if that were the case the argument, based 
upon the superior clearness of the impressions in the tract, falls to 
the ground. However, taking all the facts of the case together, the 
writer, as far as he can venture to form an opinion on such a subject, 
is inclined to believe that " The boke for to lerne a man to be wyse 
in the buyldyng of his bowse " was printed, if not actually written, 
at an earlier period than the earliest known edition of the " Com- 
pendyous Regyment or Dyetary of Helth," with which it was incor- 
porated ; and the supposition that the Dietary, in its complete form, 
was first published, and then that the first eight chapters were ex- 
tracted and published separately under another title, he believes to 
be untenable and against the weight of the evidence. 




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